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Encyclopedia > H1N1
Flu

H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). H1N1 has mutated into various strains including the Spanish Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), rare and mild human flu strains, endemic pig strains, and various strains found in birds. Image File history File links Physcian_examining_a_child. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu or the grippe, is a contagious disease of the upper airways and the lungs, caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. ... Flu season is mostly a colloquial term used to describe the regular outbreak in flu cases, or even cases of the common cold during the late fall or winter. ... Model of Influenza Virus from NIH The flu vaccine is a vaccine to protect against the highly variable influenza virus. ... This article is about flu treatment in humans for mild human flu, which includes both efforts to reduce symptoms and to battle the flu virus itself. ... This article covers useage of the words Avian flu (also known as bird flu or avian influenza) virus refers to a subset of Orthomyxoviridae . ... The transmission and infection of H5N1 is a concern due to the global spread of H5N1 that constitutes a pandemic threat. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Influenzavirus A is a genus of a family of viruses called Orthomyxoviridae in virus classification. ... Avian influenza (also known as bird flu) is a type of influenza virulent in birds. ... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as La Grippe Espagnole, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919 [1]. It is thought to... This article is about modern humans. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Orders Many - see section below. ...


A variant of H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919 [1]. A different variant exists in pig populations. Controversy arose in October, 2005, after the H1N1 genome was published in the journal, Science. Many fear that this information could be used for bioterrorism. The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as La Grippe Espagnole, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919 [1]. It is thought to... A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ...


"When he compared the 1918 virus with today's human flu viruses, Dr. Taubenberger noticed that it had alterations in just 25 to 30 of the virus's 4,400 amino acids. Those few changes turned a bird virus into a killer that could spread from person to person." [2]


Much less pathogenic H1N1 strains still exist in the wild today, causing roughly half of all flu infections in 2006. [3]


Spanish Flu

Main article: Spanish Flu

The Spanish Flu, also known as La Grippe, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. It is thought to have been one of the most deadly pandemics so far in human history. It was caused by the H1N1 type of influenza virus, which is similar to bird flu of today, mainly H5N1 and H5N2. The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as La Grippe Espagnole, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919 [1]. It is thought to... The Spanish Flu Pandemic, also known as La Grippe Espagnole, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919 [1]. It is thought to... Negatively stained flu virions. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... Avian influenza (also known as bird flu, avian flu, influenzavirus A flu, type A flu, or genus A flu) is a flu (influenza) due to a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect several species of mammals. ... The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) A bacteriophage virus A virus is a submicroscopic parasitic particle that infects cells in biological organisms. ... Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: History For other senses of this word, see history (disambiguation). ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu or the grippe, is a contagious disease of the upper airways and the lungs, caused by an RNA virus of the orthomyxoviridae family. ... H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. ... H5N2 is a strain of avian influenza virus. ...


The reason why Spanish flu caused so many deaths was due to the nature of infection. The virus infected lung cells, leading to over stimulation of the immune system via release of cytokine bursts into the lung tissue. This lead to extensive leukocyte migration towards the lungs, causing destruction of lung tissue and secretion of liquid into the lung making it difficult for the patient to breathe. Due to the nature of the infection it meant people with a normal healthy immune system were more susceptible to the disease such as young adults compared to young children and the ederly.


Sources

  1. NAP Book
  2. New York Times
  3. [1]

Further reading

nontechnical
  • New York Times - Why Revive a Deadly Flu Virus? - By Jamie Shreeve - January 29, 2006 Six page human interest type story on the recreation of the deadly 1918 H1N1 flu virus.
technical

  Results from FactBites:
 
H1N1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (465 words)
H1N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus).
H1N1 has mutated into various strains including the Spanish Flu strain (now extinct in the wild), rare and mild human flu strains, endemic pig strains, and various strains found in birds.
It was caused by the H1N1 type of influenza virus, which is similar to bird flu of today, mainly H5N1 and H5N2.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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