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Encyclopedia > H.P. Lovecraft
Howard Phillips Lovecraft

Born: August 20, 1890
Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
Died: March 15, 1937
Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
Occupation(s): short story writer
Genre(s): Horror, Sci-Fi
Influences: Brothers Grimm, Lord Dunsany, Edgar Allan Poe, Jules Verne
Influenced: Anne Rice, Stephen King

Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. Lovecraft's readership was limited during his life, but his works have become highly important and influential among writers and fans of modern horror fiction. Image File history File links H._P._Lovecraft. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Official website: http://www. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214 sq. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or subject matter (content). ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the reader. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... they are very interesting writers. ... Best known as Lord Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany (July 24, 1878–October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist notable for his work in fantasy and horror. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Jules Verne. ... Anne Rice Anne Rice (born October 4, 1941) is a best-selling American author of horror/fantasy books. ... Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author best known for his enormously popular horror novels. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... Horror fiction is, broadly, fiction in any medium intended to scare, unsettle or horrify the reader. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A genre is a division of a particular form of art according to criteria particular to that form. ... In non-technical terms, no matter what the context (whether scientific, philosophical, legal, etc) a narrative is a story, an interpretation of some aspect of the world that is historically and culturally grounded and shaped by human personality (per Walter Fisher). ...

Contents


Biography

Lovecraft was born on 20 August 1890 at 9:00 am in his family home at 194 (now 454) Angell Street in Providence, Rhode Island. He was the only child of Winfield Scott Lovecraft, a traveling salesman of jewelry and precious metals, and Sarah Susan Phillips Lovecraft, who could trace her ancestry in America back to the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. Unusual for the time, both of his parents were in their thirties when they married and it was the first marriage for both. When Lovecraft was three, his father became acutely psychotic at a hotel in Chicago, Illinois where he was on a business trip and was brought back to Butler Hospital in Providence, where he remained for the rest of his life. His affliction was general paresis and may have been caused by syphilis. He died when Lovecraft was eight years old. August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Official website: http://www. ... The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century, in New England, centered around the present-day cities of Salem and Boston. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Nickname The Windy City Motto Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water  - Urban  - Metro 606. ... General paresis, also known as general paralysis of the insane or paralytic dementia, is a now-rare neuropsychiatric disorder affecting the brain and central nervous system. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ...


Lovecraft was thereafter raised by his mother, two aunts (Lillian Delora Phillips and Annie Emeline Phillips), and his grandfather, Whipple Van Buren Phillips, with whom Lovecraft and his female relatives lived until Phillips' death. Lovecraft was a child prodigy, reciting poetry at age two and writing complete poems by six. His grandfather encouraged his reading, providing him with classics such as The Arabian Nights, Bulfinch's Age of Fable, and children's versions of The Iliad and The Odyssey. His grandfather also stirred young Howard's interest in the weird by telling him original tales of Gothic horror. His mother, on the other hand, worried that these disturbing stories would upset him. A child prodigy, or simply prodigy, is someone who is a master of one or more skill or art at an early age. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Thomas Bulfinch (July 15, 1796 - May 27, 1867) was an American writer, born in Newton, Massachusetts to a highly-educated but not rich Bostonian merchant family. ... The Iliad (Ancient Greek Ιλιάς, Ilias) is, along with the Odyssey, one of the two major Greek epic poems traditionally attributed to Homer, a supposedly blind Ionian poet. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...


Lovecraft was frequently ill as a child, and because of his sickly condition and his undisciplined, argumentative nature, he did not attend school until he was eight, and then was withdrawn after a year. He read voraciously and studied chemistry in the meantime. He produced several hectographed publications with a limited circulation beginning in 1899 with "The Scientific Gazette." Four years later, he returned to public school. The hectograph or gelatin duplicator is a printing process which involves transferring from an original sheet prepared with special inks to a gelatin pad. ...


Whipple Van Buren Phillips died in 1904, after his business suffered severe losses, and the family was subsequently impoverished by mismanagement of his property and money. The family was forced to move down the street to 598 Angell Street, accommodations which were much smaller and less comfortable. Lovecraft was deeply affected by the loss of his home and birthplace and even contemplated suicide for a time. He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1908, and as a result never received his high school diploma. This failure to complete his education was a source of disappointment and shame, in part because he was never able to study at Brown University. Brown University is an Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island in the United States of America. ...


Lovecraft wrote fiction as a youth, but then set it aside for some time in favour of poetry and essays, before returning to fiction in 1917 with more polished stories such as The Tomb and Dagon. The latter was his first professionally published work, appearing in Weird Tales in 1923. Also around this time he began to build up his huge network of correspondents. His lengthy and frequent missives would make him one of the great letter writers of the century. Among his correspondents were the young Forrest J. Ackerman, Robert Bloch (Psycho) and Robert E. Howard (Conan the Barbarian series). Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ... Robert Albert Bloch (April 5, 1917, Chicago, Illinois-September 23, 1994, Los Angeles) was a prolific American writer. ... Psycho is a 1959 suspense novel by Robert Bloch, which describes the events surrounding the encounter of an embezzler and the profoundly disturbed motel proprietor Norman Bates. ... Robert E. Howard Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936) was a writer of fantasy and historical adventure pulp stories published mainly in Weird Tales magazine in the 1930s. ... Conan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian, from the name of his homeland, Cimmeria) is a literary character created by Robert E. Howard in a series of fantasy pulp stories published in Weird Tales in the 1930s. ...


Lovecraft's mother was committed to the Butler Hospital for the Insane, where her husband had died, after suffering from hysteria and depression for a long period of time. Nevertheless, she wrote frequent letters to Lovecraft, and they remained very close until her death on May 21, 1921, the result of complications with her gall bladder surgery. Lovecraft was devastated by the loss. May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Shortly after, he attended an amateur journalist convention where he met Sonia Greene. She was of Ukrainian Jewish ancestry, and, having been born in 1883, seven years older than Lovecraft. They married in 1924, and the couple moved to the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. Lovecraft's aunts may have been unhappy with this arrangement, and, although initially enthralled, Lovecraft himself came to intensely dislike New York life.[1] A few years later he and Greene, who by this time had already been living separately, agreed to an amicable divorce, which was never fully completed, and he returned to Providence to live with his aunts during their remaining years. Due to the unhappiness of their marriage, some biographers have speculated that Lovecraft could have been asexual, though Greene is often quoted as referring to him as "an adequately excellent lover". [1] Jews (Hebrew: יהודים, Yehudim) are followers of Judaism or, more generally, members of the Jewish people (also known as the Jewish nation, or the Children of Israel), an ethno-religious group descended from the ancient Israelites and converts who joined their religion. ... The definitions of the political subdivisions of the state of New York differ from those in certain other countries or even various other U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... Nickname The Big Apple, The Capital of the World [1], Gotham Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area  - City    - Land    - Water  - Urban  - Metro 1,214. ... This article is about human asexuality; asexual reproduction is a separate topic. ...


Lovecraft's stay in New York came to be marred by financial difficulty, while his every effort to find employment resulted in almost inexplicably total failure. Indeed, this daunting reality of failure to secure any work in the midst of a large immigrant population—especially irreconcilable with his opinion of himself as a privileged Anglo-Saxon—has been theorized as galvinizing his racism to the point of fear, resulting eventually in repeated literary themes of complete alienation within massive, "cyclopean" architectural environs and teeming hordes of nebulous entities.[2]


Back in Providence, Lovecraft lived in a "spacious brown Victorian wooden house" at 10 Barnes Street until 1933. (This is the address given as the home of Dr. Willett in The Case of Charles Dexter Ward.) The period after his return to Providence—the last decade of his life—was Lovecraft's most prolific. During this time period he produced almost all of his best known short stories for the leading pulp publications of the day (primarily Weird Tales) as well as longer efforts like The Case of Charles Dexter Ward and At the Mountains of Madness. He frequently revised work for other authors and did a large amount of ghost-writing, including some of his best works, The Mound, Winged Death, and The Diary of Alonzo Typer. Categories: Stub | Cthulhu Mythos ... Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as the pulps ) were inexpensive fiction magazines. ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ... Categories: Stub | Cthulhu Mythos ... At the Mountains of Madness is a novella by horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... A ghostwriter is an author who writes under someone elses name, with their consent. ...


Despite his best writing efforts, however, he grew ever poorer. He was forced to move to smaller and meaner lodgings with his surviving aunt. He was also deeply affected by Robert E. Howard's suicide. In 1936 he was diagnosed with cancer of the intestine and he also suffered from malnutrition. He lived in constant pain until his death on March 15, 1937 in Providence, Rhode Island. Robert E. Howard Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936) was a writer of fantasy and historical adventure pulp stories published mainly in Weird Tales magazine in the 1930s. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... Malnutrition is a general term for the medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient (undernourished) diet. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Official website: http://www. ...


Lovecraft was listed along with his parents on the Phillips family monument. That was not enough for his fans, so in 1977 a group of individuals raised the money to buy him a headstone of his own, on which they had inscribed Lovecraft's name, the dates of his birth and death and the phrase, "I AM PROVIDENCE," a line from one of his personal letters. Lovecraft's grave in Swan Point Cemetery in Providence is occasionally marked with graffiti quoting his famous phrase from The Call of Cthulhu (originally from The Nameless City): Swan Point Cemetery is a cemetery located in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Established in 1846 on a 60 acre plot of land. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ... The Call of Cthulhu is one of H. P. Lovecrafts best known short stories. ...

"That is not dead which can eternal lie,
And with strange aeons even death may die."

Background of Lovecraft's work

Lovecraft's fiction has been grouped into three categories by some critics. While Lovecraft did not refer to these categories himself, he did once write, "There are my 'Poe' pieces and my 'Dunsany pieces' — but alas — where are my Lovecraft pieces?" [3] Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Lord Dunsany of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. ...

Some critics see little difference between the Dream Cycle and the Mythos, often pointing to the recurring Necronomicon and subsequent "gods". A frequently given explanation is that the Dream Cycle belongs more to the genre of fantasy, while the Mythos is science fiction. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... H.P. Lovecrafts Dream-Cycle, although often overlooked for his Cthulhu Mythos, is a huge entity in a good number of this master of the macabres fictional works. ... Cthulhu mythos (often capitalized: Cthulhu Mythos) is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H.P. Lovecraft and associated writers. ... The Lovecraft Mythos is the term coined by the scholar S. T. Joshi[1] to describe the pseudomythological backdrop, settings, and themes employed by the American weird fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft. ...


Much of Lovecraft's work was directly inspired by his nightmares, and it is perhaps this direct insight into the unconscious and its symbolism that helps to account for their continuing resonance and popularity. All these interests naturally led to his deep affection for the works of Edgar Allan Poe, who heavily influenced his earliest macabre stories and writing style. Lovecraft's discovery of the stories of Lord Dunsany moved his writing in a new direction, resulting in a series of imitative fantasies in a "Dreamlands" setting. It was probably the influence of Arthur Machen, with his carefully constructed tales concerning the survival of ancient evil, and his mystic beliefs in hidden mysteries which lay behind reality, that finally helped inspire Lovecraft to find his own voice from 1923 onwards. This took on a dark tone with the creation of what is today often called the Cthulhu Mythos, a pantheon of alien extra-dimensional deities and horrors which predate mankind, and which are hinted at in aeon-old myths and legends. The strangeness of the mythos' style may have been influenced, and was certainly foreshadowed, by the paintings of Hieronymus Bosch. The term "Cthulhu Mythos" was coined by Lovecraft's correspondent and fellow author, August Derleth, after Lovecraft's death; Lovecraft jocularly referred to his artificial mythology as "Yog-Sothothery"[2]. His stories created one of the most influential plot devices in all of horror: the Necronomicon, the secret grimoire written by the mad Arab Abdul Alhazred. The resonance and strength of the Mythos concept have led some to believe that Lovecraft had based it on actual myth, and faux editions of the Necronomicon have also been published over the years. In common current usage, the term nightmare refers to dreams of particular intensity, with content that the sleeper finds disturbing, related either to physiological causes, such as a high fever, or to psychological ones, such as unusual trauma or stress in the sleepers life. ... The unconscious mind (or subconscious) is the aspect (or puported aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, editor, critic and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Lord Dunsany of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. ... Arthur Machen (March 3, 1863 – December 15th, 1947) was a leading Welsh-born author of the 1890s. ... Cthulhu mythos (often capitalized: Cthulhu Mythos) is the term coined by the writer August Derleth to describe the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H.P. Lovecraft and associated writers. ... Hieronymus Bosch; alleged portrait (around 1560) Hieronymus Bosch, (also Jeroen Bosch or Jerome Bosch) (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Necronomicon is a fictional book created by H.P. Lovecraft and is often featured in Cthulhu Mythos stories inspired by his works. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Abdul Alhazred is a fictional character created by the horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... Look up faux in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


His prose is somewhat antiquarian. Often he employed archaic vocabulary or spelling which had already by his time been replaced by contemporary coinages; examples including electric torch (flashlight), Esquimau, and Comanchian. He was fond of heavy use of unfamiliar adjectives such as "eldritch", "rugose", "noisome", "squamous", and "cyclopean", and of attempts to transcribe dialect speech which have been criticized as inaccurate. His works also featured British English (he was an admitted Anglophile), and he sometimes made use of anachronistic spellings, such as "compleat/complete" and "lanthorn/lantern". An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... British English (BrE) is a term used (especially by Americans) to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the United Kingdom and those used elsewhere. ... An Anglophile is a non-English person who is fond of English culture and England in general. ...


Lovecraft was a prolific letter writer, inscribing multiple pages to his group of correspondents in small longhand. He sometimes dated his letters 200 years before the current date, which would have put the writing back in U.S. colonial times, before the American Revolution that offended his Anglophilia. He explained that he thought that the 18th and 20th centuries were the best; the former being a period of noble grace, and the latter a century of science. In his view, the 19th century, particularly the Victorian era, was a "mistake". The American Revolution was a revolution that ended two centuries of rule in Thirteen Colonies of North America by the British Empire and created the modern United States of America. ... An Anglophile is a non-English person who is fond of English culture and England in general. ... This page is about centuries as units of time. ... The scope of this article is limited to the empirical sciences. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of Great Britain is considered the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Themes

Several themes recur in Lovecraft's stories:


Forbidden knowledge

In The Call of Cthulhu (1926), Lovecraft wrote: "The most merciful thing in the world, I think, is the inability of the human mind to correlate all its contents... some day the piecing together of dissociated knowledge will open up such terrifying vistas of reality, and of our frightful position therein, that we shall either go mad from the revelation or flee from the light into the peace and safety of a new dark age." The Call of Cthulhu is one of H. P. Lovecrafts best known short stories. ...


Many of his stories deal with the idea that the human mind is too fragile to learn the truths of the Mythos without being destroyed. The ability of the Necronomicon to cause insanity in those who read it is particularly well-known to Lovecraft's devotees, but any exposure to such knowledge is likely to cause similar effects; those who actually encounter the creatures of the Mythos are particularly likely to go mad, although some creatures seem to be less harmful than others. The Necronomicon is a fictional book created by H.P. Lovecraft and is often featured in Cthulhu Mythos stories inspired by his works. ...


Those characters who attempt to make use of such knowledge are almost invariably doomed. Sometimes their work attracts the attention of malevolent beings; sometimes, in the spirit of Frankenstein, they are destroyed by monsters of their own creation. Book covers for Frankenstein have taken many forms over the years which emphasize different themes of the novel such as gothic horror, science fiction and romanticism. ...


Inhuman influences on mankind

The creatures of Lovecraft's mythos often have human (or mostly-human) servants; Cthulhu, for instance, is worshipped by cults amongst both the Eskimos of Greenland and voodoo circles of Louisiana, and in many other parts of the world. In religion and sociology, a cult is a cohesive group of people (often a relatively small and recently founded religious movement) devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture or society considers to be far outside the mainstream. ... It has been suggested that Esquimaux race be merged into this article or section. ... A large sequined Voodoo drapo or flag by the artist George Valris The term Voodoo (Vodun in Benin; also Vodou, Voudou, or other phonetically equivalent spellings in Haiti; Vudu in the Dominican Republic) is applied to the branches of a West African ancestor-based spiritist-animist religious tradition. ... Official language(s) English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last census; probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq. ...


These worshippers served a useful narrative purpose for Lovecraft. Many creatures of the Mythos were too powerful to be defeated by human opponents, and so horrific that direct knowledge of them meant insanity for the victim. When dealing with such beings, Lovecraft needed a way to provide exposition and build tension without bringing the story to a premature end. Human followers gave him a way to reveal information about their 'gods' in a diluted form, and also made it possible for his protagonists to win temporary victories. The term dramatic structure refers to the parts into which a short story, a novel, a play, a screenplay, or a narrative poem can be divided. ...


In several stories, such as The Horror at Red Hook and The Shadow Over Innsmouth, the only interaction Lovecraft's protagonists have with his inhuman creatures is via their human cultists; the godlike creatures they worship are never directly experienced. Even in stories such as The Call of Cthulhu and The Whisperer in Darkness where the Great Old Ones appear directly, Lovecraft uses their human followers to introduce them and establish an air of menace. The Shadow Over Innsmouth is a short story by H.P. Lovecraft, written in 1931. ...


Atavistic guilt

Another recurring theme in Lovecraft's stories is the idea that descendants in a bloodline can never escape the stain of crimes committed by their forebears, at least if the crimes are atrocious enough. Descendants may be very far removed, both in place and in time (and, indeed, in culpability), from the act itself, and yet blood will tell (The Rats in the Walls, Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family, The Shadow Over Innsmouth and The Case of Charles Dexter Ward). An example of a crime that Lovecraft apparently considered heinous enough for this consequence is cannibalism (The Picture in the House, and, again The Rats in the Walls). This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family is a short story by H.P. Lovecraft, written in 1920. ... The Shadow Over Innsmouth is a short story by H.P. Lovecraft, written in 1931. ... Categories: Stub | Cthulhu Mythos ...


Inability to escape fate

Often in Lovecraft's works the protagonist is not in control of his own actions, or finds it impossible to change course. Many of his characters would be free from danger if they simply managed to run away, however this possibility either never arises or is somehow curtailed by some outside force, as in The Colour Out of Space. As with the inevitability of one's ancestry, eventually even running away, or death itself, provides no safety (The Thing at the Doorstep, The Case of Charles Dexter Ward, etc.). The Colour Out of Space is a short story by American horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... Categories: Stub | Cthulhu Mythos ...


Civilization under threat

Lovecraft frequently dealt with the idea of civilization struggling against more barbaric, primitive elements. In some stories this struggle is at an individual level; many of his protagonists are cultured, highly-educated men who are gradually corrupted by some evil influence. The word civilization (or civilisation) has a variety of meanings related to human society. ...


In such stories, the 'curse' is often a hereditary one, either because of interbreeding with inhuman creatures (e.g. "Facts Concerning the Late Arthur Jermyn and His Family" (1920), "The Shadow over Innsmouth" (1931)) or through direct magical influence ("The Case of Charles Dexter Ward"). Physical and mental degradation often come together; this theme of 'tainted blood' may represent concerns relating to Lovecraft's own family history, particularly the death of his father due to what Lovecraft must have suspected to be a syphilitic disorder. Categories: Stub | Cthulhu Mythos ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ...


In other tales, an entire society is threatened by barbarism. Sometimes the barbarism comes as an external threat, with a civilized race destroyed in war (e.g. Polaris). Sometimes, an isolated pocket of humanity falls into decadence and atavism of its own accord (e.g. The Lurking Fear). But most often, such stories involve a civilized culture being gradually undermined by a malevolent underclass influenced by inhuman forces. An atavism can mean an organism that is a real or supposed evolutionary throwback; the unexpected appearance of primitive traits; or a reversion to or reappearance of a trait that had been present in a lineage in the past, but which had been absent in intervening generations. ...


Racial attitudes

The distinction between the civilized element and the underclass, or between 'tainted' and 'pure' blood, is often a racial one. The narrators in "The Street", "Herbert West: Reanimator", "He", "The Call of Cthulhu," "The Horror at Red Hook" and many other tales express sentiments which could be considered hostile towards Jews (although several of Lovecraft's closer friends and correspondents were Jewish), Italians, Poles, Mediterraneans and Afro-Asians collectively. Racist views can also be found in his poetry, particularly in On the Creation of Niggers, and New England Fallen (both 1912). He expressed racist and ethnocentric beliefs in his personal correspondence. [4] He married a woman of Ukrainian Jewish ancestry, Sonia Greene, who later said she had to repeatedly remind Lovecraft of her background when he would make anti-Semitic remarks. [5] The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


Lovecraft's blunt expressions of his views on race and class may shock the early 21st century reader, but his attitudes and the frankness with which he expressed them were not at all unusual during his own lifetime. Indeed, these positions were quite mainstream; official eugenics laws and bans of miscegenation were at the time legally binding in many parts of the United States and non-Catholic areas of Europe, while racial segregation was legally enforced throughout much of the United States. A popular movement during the 1920s succeeded in drastically restricting immigration to the United States, culminating in the Immigration Act of 1924, which featured expert testimony to the United States Congress on the threat to American society from the assimilation of more "inferior stock" from eastern and southern Europe. The depth of Lovecraft's feelings on these issues can be difficult to understand by the denizens of anti-traditionalist modernity. "Whenever we found ourselves in the racially mixed crowds which characterize New York," Greene wrote after her divorce from Lovecraft, "Howard would become livid with rage. He seemed almost to lose his mind." [6] Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with interracial marriage. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. ... The Statue of Liberty was a common sight to many immigrants who entered the United States through Ellis Island For additional information, see also the article Illegal immigration to the United States Immigration to the United States of America is the act of immigrating, or moving, to the United States. ... The United States Immigration Act of 1924, also known as the National Origins Quota Act, Johnson-Reed Act, or the Immigration Quota Act of 1924, established a system of national quotas which limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of... Congress in Joint Session. ...


He was an avowed Anglophile, and held archaic English culture to be the comparative pinnacle of civilization, with the descendants of the English in America as something of a second-class offshoot, and everyone else below them (see, for example, his poem An American to Mother England). His love for English history and culture is often-times repeated in his work (such as King Kuranes' nostalgia for England in "The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath"). An Anglophile is a non-English person who is fond of English culture and England in general. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages None official English de facto Capital None official London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked... An important character in Lovecrafts Dream-cycle works. ... The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath is a novella by H. P. Lovecraft. ...


However, he was not always hostile to non-English peoples. Cool Air places class above race: the narrator speaks disparagingly of the poor Hispanics of his neighborhood, but respects the wealthy and aristocratic Spaniard Dr. Muñoz, "a man of birth, cultivation, and discrimination." In At the Mountains of Madness, explorers discover evidence of a completely alien race (the Elder Things that was eventually destroyed by their brutish shoggoth servants. Even after several members of the party are killed by revived Elder Things, Lovecraft's narrator expresses sympathy for them: "They were the men of another age and another order of being... what had they done that we would not have done in their place? God, what intelligence and persistence! What a facing of the incredible... Radiates, vegetables, monstrosities, star spawn — whatever they had been, they were men!" The Hispanic world Hispanic (Spanish: Hispano) is a term denoting a derivation from Spain, her people and culture. ... At the Mountains of Madness is a novella by horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... Elder Things are fictional characters in the Cthulhu mythos of H. P. Lovecraft. ... A shoggoth (or shaggoth) is a fictional monster in the Cthulhu Mythos. ...


Other stories present white characters in an unflattering light. The degenerate descendants of Dutch immigrants in the Catskill Mountains, "who correspond exactly to the decadent element of white trash in the South," (Beyond the Wall of Sleep, 1919) are common targets. In The Temple, Lovecraft's narrator is a highly unsympathetic figure: a World War I U-boat captain whose faith in his "iron German will" and the superiority of the Fatherland lead him to machine-gun survivors in lifeboats and, later, kill his own crew, while blinding him to the curse he has brought upon himself. Catskill Escarpment and Blackhead Range as seen from Overlook Mountain The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills) a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are not, despite their popular name, true geological mountains, but rather a mature dissected plateau... White trash is an American ethnic slur with a social class component. ... Southern United States. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total of dead: 8 million Military dead: 4 million Civilian deaths: 3 million Total dead: 7 million The First... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Absence of female characters

Women in Lovecraft's fiction are rare, and sympathetic women virtually non-existent; the few leading female characters in his stories — like Asenath Waite[7] in "The Thing on the Doorstep" and Lavinia Whateley in "The Dunwich Horror" — are invariably servants of sinister forces. Romance is likewise almost absent from his stories; where he touches on love, it is usually a platonic love between men (e.g. "The Tree"). The Dunwich Horror is a short story by H. P. Lovecraft. ... Plato and his disciples. ...


Lovecraft's influence in popular culture

Main article: Lovecraftian horror

Beyond direct adaptation, Lovecraft and his stories have had a profound impact on popular culture, and has been praised by many modern writers of horror, science fiction, and fantasy. Much of his influence is secondary, as he was a friend, inspiration, and correspondent to many authors who would gain fame through their creations, such as Conan the Barbarian creator Robert E. Howard and Robert Bloch, author of Psycho. Lovecraftian horror is a sub-genre of horror which emphasizes the psychological horror of the unknown (in some cases, unknowable) over gore or other elements of shock which may still be present. ... Conan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian, from the name of his homeland, Cimmeria) is a literary character created by Robert E. Howard in a series of fantasy pulp stories published in Weird Tales in the 1930s. ... Robert E. Howard Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936) was a writer of fantasy and historical adventure pulp stories published mainly in Weird Tales magazine in the 1930s. ... Robert Albert Bloch (April 5, 1917, Chicago, Illinois-September 23, 1994, Los Angeles) was a prolific American writer. ... Psycho is a 1959 suspense novel by Robert Bloch, which describes the events surrounding the encounter of an embezzler and the profoundly disturbed motel proprietor Norman Bates. ...


Many later creators of horror writing, films and art were influenced by Lovecraft, including author and artist Clive Barker, film director John Carpenter, game designer Sandy Petersen, and artist H. R. Giger. Many authors have written stories that are explicitly set in the same "universe" as Lovecraft's original stories. Clive Barker (born October 5, 1952, Liverpool, England) is a British author, director and visual artist. ... John Carpenter John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948 in Carthage, New York) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film music composer. ... Sandy Petersen Carl Sanford Joslyn Petersen (born September 16, 1955) is a game designer. ... Birth machine Hans Ruedi Giger (IPA: ) (born at Chur, Grisons canton, February 5, 1940) is a Swiss painter best known to Americans for his design work on the film Alien. ...


Lovecraft pastiches are common. For more examples of references to and uses of the Mythos in popular culture, see Cthulhu Mythos in popular culture. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Lovecraft's "universe" is so distinctive that he is an eponym for strange creatures and settings. Lovecraftian horror may mean a story that references the Mythos, or that is simply too bizarre to be classified as normal horror. Examples include beings with hideous and completely unnatural features (such as excessive numbers of limbs and external features) or architecture and geography of inhuman or alien design (like the extensive use of non-Euclidean geometry in R'lyeh's architecture). Lovecraftian horror stands in contrast to the predominantly humanoid and anthropomorphic designs in mainstream horror and mythology. An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, which has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery or other item. ... Behavior of lines with a common perpendicular in each of the three types of geometry The term non-Euclidean geometry (also spelled: non-Euclidian geometry) describes both hyperbolic and elliptic geometry, which are contrasted with Euclidean geometry. ... An example of an anthropomorphic animal (by Carrie J. Berman). ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ...


He also held responsibility for the invention of the philosophy "Cosmicism" which was reflected in many works beyond his own, such as Douglas Adams' "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy", John Carpenter's "In the Mouth of Madness", and games like "Eternal Darkness: Sanity's Requiem." Cosmicism was a philosophy that arouse around the 1920s, by the hands of Howard Phillips Lovecraft. ... Douglas Noël Adams (March 11, 1952 – May 11, 2001) was a cult British comic radio dramatist, amateur musician and author, most notably of the Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy series (HHGG or H2G2). ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ... John Carpenter John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948 in Carthage, New York) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film music composer. ... John Carpenters In the Mouth of Madness is a 1995 horror film (originally intended for a 1994 release) directed by John Carpenter and written by Michael de Luca, who was at the time in charge of New Line Cinema. ...


Survey of the work

For most of the 20th Century, the definitive editions (specifically At the Mountains of Madness and Other Novels, Dagon and Other Macabre Tales, The Dunwich Horror and Others, and The Horror in the Museum and Other Revisions) of his prose fiction were published by Arkham House, a publisher originally started with the intent of publishing the work of Lovecraft, but which has since published a considerable amount of other literature as well. With the demise of Arkham House, however, Penguin Classics has at present issued three volumes of Lovecraft's works - The Call of Cthulhu and Other Weird Stories, The Thing on the Doorstep and Other Weird Stories, and most recently The Dreams in the Witch House and Other Weird Stories - which collect the "standard" texts as edited by S. T. Joshi, most of which were heretofore available in the Arkham House editions, with the exception of the restored text of The Shadow Out of Time, currently included in The Dreams in the Witch House, which had been previously released by small-press publisher Hippocampus Press). In 2005 the prestigious Library of America canonized Lovecraft with a volume of his stories edited by Peter Straub, and Random House's Modern Library line just released the "definitive edition" of Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness (also including Supernatural Horror in Literature). Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ... Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ... Sunanda Tryambak Joshi (b. ... The Shadow Out of Time (1936) is a short story by H.P. Lovecraft. ... Peter Francis Straub, born March 2, 1943 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States, is a writer of fiction and poetry, best known as a horror-genre author. ... At the Mountains of Madness is a novella by horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... Supernatural Horror in Literature is a collection of essays written in 1927 and added to between 1933 and 1935 by the famed fantasy and horror author H. P. Lovecraft (1890-1937). ...


Lovecraft's poetry is collected in The Ancient Track: The Complete Poetical Works of H. P. Lovecraft, while much of his juvenilia, various essays on philosophical, political and literary topics, antiquarian travelogues, and other things, can be found in Miscellaneous Writings. Lovecraft's essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature", first published in 1927, is a historical survey of horror literature available with endnotes as The Annotated Supernatural Horror in Literature.


Letters

Despite the fact that Lovecraft is mostly known for his works of weird fiction, the bulk of Lovecraft's writing mainly consists of voluminous letters about a variety of topics, from weird fiction and art criticism to politics and history. S. T. Joshi estimates that Lovecraft wrote about 87,500 letters from 1912 until his death in 1937 — one famous letter from November 9, 1929 to Woodburn Harris being 70 pages in length. Sunanda Tryambak Joshi (b. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Lovecraft was not a very active letter-writer in youth. In 1931 he admitted: "In youth I scarcely did any letter-writing - thanking anybody for a present was so much of an ordeal that I would rather have written a two hundred fifty-line pastoral or a twenty-page treatise on the rings of Saturn." (SL 3.369–70). The initial interest in letters stemmed from his correspondence with his cousin Phillips Gamwell but even more important was his involvement in the amateur journalism movement, which was responsible for the enormous number of letters Lovecraft produced.


Lovecraft clearly states that his contact to numerous different people through letter-writing was one of the main factors in broadening his view of the world: "I found myself opened up to dozens of points of view which would otherwise never have occurred to me. My understanding and sympathies were enlarged, and many of my social, political, and economic views were modified as a consequence of increased knowledge." (SL 4.389).


Today there are four publishing houses that have released letters from Lovecraft — Arkham House with its five-volume edition Selected Letters being the most prominent. Other publishers are Hippocampus Press (Letters to Alfred Galpin et al.), Night Shade Books (Mysteries of Time and Spirit: The Letters of H. P. Lovecraft and Donald Wandrei et al.) and Necronomicon Press (Letters to Samuel Loveman and Vincent Starrett et al).


Intellectual property

There exists much controversy over the copyright status of many of Lovecraft's works, especially his later works. Lovecraft had specified that the young Robert Barlow would serve as executor of his literary estate, but these instructions had never been incorporated into his will. Nevertheless his surviving aunt carried out his wishes and Barlow was given charge of the massive and complex literary estate upon Lovecraft's death. Barlow deposited the bulk of the papers, including the voluminous correspondence, with the John Hay Library. However, as a young writer with no legal training his efforts to organize and maintain Lovecraft's other writing stood little chance of success. August Derleth, an older and more established writer than Barlow, vied for control of the literary estate. One result of these conflicts was the legal confusion over who owned what copyrights. Copyright symbol. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


All works published before 1923 are public domain in the US. However, there is some disagreement over who exactly owns or owned the copyrights and whether the copyrights for the majority of Lovecraft's works published post-1923 — including such prominent pieces as The Call of Cthulhu and At the Mountains of Madness — have now expired. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Call of Cthulhu is one of H. P. Lovecrafts best known short stories. ... At the Mountains of Madness is a novella by horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ...


Questions center over whether copyrights for Lovecraft's works were ever renewed under the terms of the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 for works created prior to January 1, 1978. If Lovecraft's work had been renewed they would be eligible for protection for 95 years after publication, according to the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998. This means the copyrights would not expire on some of Lovecraft's works until 2019 at the earliest, providing that no further laws extend the periods of copyrights within the US. Similarly, the European Union Directive on harmonising the term of copyright protection of 1993 extended the copyrights to 70 years after the author's death. Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal Republic George... The Copyright Act of 1976 is the United States copyright law that was passed in 1976. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended copyright terms in the United States by 20 years. ... The Directive on harmonizing the term of copyright protection was a European Union (EU) copyright directive issued in 1993. ...


In those Berne Convention countries who have implemented only the minimum copyright period, copyright expires 50 years after the author's death. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, sometimes called the Berne Union or Berne Convention, adopted at Berne in 1986, first established the recognition of copyrights between sovereign nations. ...


Lovecraft protégés and part owners of Arkham House, August Derleth and Donald Wandrei, often claimed copyrights over Lovecraft's works. On October 9, 1947, Derleth purchased all rights to Weird Tales. However, since April 1926 at the latest, Lovecraft had reserved all second printing rights to stories published in Weird Tales. Hence, Weird Tales may only have owned the rights to at most six of Lovecraft's tales. Again, even if Derleth did obtain the copyrights to Lovecraft's tales no evidence as yet has been found that the copyrights were renewed.[3] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Donald Wandrei (1908 - 1987) was an American science fiction, fantasy and weird fiction writer, poet and editor. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (283rd in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... This page is about the fantasy and horror fiction pulp magazine and its heirs. ...


Prominent Lovecraft scholar S. T. Joshi concludes in his biography, H.P. Lovecraft: A Life, that Derleth's claims are "almost certainly fictitious" and that most of Lovecraft's works published in the amateur press are most likely now in the public domain. The copyright for Lovecraft's works would have been inherited by the only surviving heir of his 1912 will: Lovecraft's aunt, Annie Gamwell. Gamwell herself perished in 1941 and the copyrights then passed to her remaining descendants, Ethel Phillips Morrish and Edna Lewis. Morrish and Lewis then signed a document, sometimes referred to as the Morrish-Lewis gift, permitting Arkham House to republish Lovecraft's works but retaining the copyrights for themselves. Searches of the Library of Congress have failed to find any evidence that these copyrights were then renewed after the 28-year period and, hence, it is likely that these works are now in the public domain. Sunanda Tryambak Joshi (b. ... Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ... The Great Hall interior. ...


According to an essay by Peter Ruber, the current editor of Arkham House, called "The Un-Demonizing of August Derleth", certain letters obtained in June 1998 detail the Derleth-Wandrei acquisition of Lovecraft's estate. It is unclear whether these letters contradict Joshi's views on Lovecraft's copyrights.[4]


Chaosium, publishers of the Call of Cthulhu role-playing game, have a trademark on several Lovecraftian phrases and creations, including "The Call of Cthulhu", for use in game products. Another RPG publisher, TSR, Inc., original publisher of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, included in one of that game's earlier supplements, Deities & Demigods, a section on the Cthulhu Mythos; TSR, Inc. was later forced to remove this section from subsequent editions because of Chaosium's trademark. Chaosium is one of the longer lived publishers of role_playing games still in existence. ... Call of Cthulhu is a horror fiction role-playing game based on the story of the same name written by H. P. Lovecraft and the so-called Cthulhu Mythos the story inspired. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by a business to uniquely identify itself and its products and services to consumers, and to distinguish the business and its products or services from those of other businesses. ... TSR, Inc. ... The original Dungeons & Dragons set Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) published by Gary Gygax and David Arneson in January 1974. ... The cover of the first printing of the first edition, featured artwork by Erol Otus. ...


Regardless of the legal disagreements surrounding Lovecraft's works, Lovecraft himself was extremely generous with his own works and actively encouraged others to borrow ideas from his stories, particularly with regard to his Cthulhu mythos. By "wide citation" he hoped to give his works an "air of verisimilitude" and actively encouraged other writers to reference his creations, such as the Necronomicon, Cthulhu and Yog-Sothoth. After his death, many writers have contributed stories and enriched the shared mythology of the Cthulhu Mythos, as well as making numerous references to his work (see Cthulhu Mythos in popular culture). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Locations featured in Lovecraft stories

Lovecraft drew extensively from his native New England for settings in his fiction. Numerous real historical locations are mentioned, and several fictional New England locations make frequent appearances.


Historical locations

Copps Hill is the second oldest burial ground of the city of Boston, Massachusetts, founded in 1659 (the oldest is the burial ground at Kings Chapel). ... Nickname: City on a Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Solar System), Athens of America Official website: www. ... View of Boston from the Red Line An MBTA Red Line train leaving Charles/MGH station bound for Alewife. ... Location of Cranston, Rhode Island. ... Seal of Newburyport, MA Newburyport is a small coastal city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Seal of Ipswich, MA Ipswich is a coastal town located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Seal of Salem, MA Salem is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Beehive of Industry, The Renaissance City Official website: http://www. ... Brown University is an Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island in the United States of America. ...

Fictional locations

Miskatonic University is a fictional university located in the equally fictitious Arkham, Massachusetts. ... Arkham is a fictional city in Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq. ... Dunwich, Massachusetts (Pronounced Dunn-ich) is a fictional town that appears in the works of H. P. Lovecraft, most notably in the story The Dunwich Horror. Dunwich is found in the Miskatonic River Valley, which is a common setting for Lovecraftian tales. ... Innsmouth is a fictional town in the writings of H.P. Lovecraft and is also part of the Cthulhu Mythos. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq. ... Kingsport is a fictional town in the writings of H. P. Lovecraft. ...

Bibliography

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:

See: List of Works by H. P. Lovecraft Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... This is a complete, exhaustive list of works by H.P. Lovecraft. ...


Works relating to Lovecraft

Academia

  • McInnis, John L. (1975). H.P. Lovecraft: The maze and the minotaur. (Doctoral dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge).

Books

  • From Fenham Publishers:
    • The Gentleman From Angell Street: Memories of H.P. Lovecraft (ISBN 0970169914)
  • From Hippocampus Press:
    • The Annotated Supernatural Horror in Literature (ISBN 0967321506)
    • H. P. Lovecraft: Letters to Alfred Galpin (ISBN 096732159X)
    • H. P. Lovecraft: Letters To Rheinhart Kleiner (ISBN 0974878952)
    • Lovecraft's Library: A Catalogue (ISBN 0967321573)
    • Primal Sources: Essays on H. P. Lovecraft (ISBN 0972164405)
    • An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia (ISBN 097487891X)

Documentary films

  • The Eldritch Influence:The Life, Vision, and Phenomenon of H.P. Lovecraft (2003), Hermetic Productions Looks at the influence of Lovecraft on art and culture. (IMDb entry)

Radio production

  • The Call of Cthulhu (Broadcast in Tasmania, on Lovecraft's 100th birthday)
  • Jeffrey Combs reads Herbert West—Reanimator (Audio book CD by Beyond Books/Lurker Films)
  • At the Mountains of Madness (Atlanta Radio Theater Company, www.artc.org)
  • The Dunwich Horror (Atlanta Radio Theater Company, www.artc.org)
  • The Rats in the Walls (Atlanta Radio Theater Company, www.artc.org)
  • The Shadow Over Innsmouth (Atlanta Radio Theater Company, www.artc.org)

Adaptations

Television

Rod Serling's 1969-73 series, Night Gallery, adapted at least two Lovecraft stories, "Pickman's Model" and "Cool Air." The episode "Professor Peabody's Last Lecture", concerning the fate of a man who read the Necronomicon, included a student named "Mr. Lovecraft". Rodman Rod Edward Serling (December 25, 1924 – June 28, 1975) was a screenwriter, most famous for his science fiction TV series, The Twilight Zone. ...


Movies

Films based (generally very loosely) on specific Lovecraft works (partial list only; see The Lurker in the Lobby and Lovecraft's IMDB entry for a more complete selection):

  • The Call of Cthulhu (2005), a short, silent, black-and-white film that faithfully adapts the short story. (IMDb entry: Available on DVD)
  • The Dreams in the Witch House (2005) Based on the story of the same name. Premiered on showtimes Masters of Horror Film series.
  • Cool Air (1998), adaptation by Bryan Moore starring Jack Donner (IMDb entry Available on DVD)
  • The Curse (1987), adaptation of "The Colour out of Space" (IMDb entry)
  • Dagon (2001), based less on Lovecraft's story of the same name than on "The Shadow over Innsmouth". (IMDb entry)
  • Die, Monster, Die! (1965), another adaptation of "The Colour out of Space" (IMDb entry)
  • The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath (2003), an animated adaptation (Official Site) (IMDb entry)
  • The Dunwich Horror (1970) (IMDb entry)
  • From Beyond (1986) (IMDb entry)
  • The Haunted Palace (1963), an adaptation of The Case of Charles Dexter Ward (IMDb entry)
  • Necronomicon (1994), three short films based on Lovecraft stories ("The Rats in the Walls", "Cool Air", "The Whisperer in Darkness") (IMDb entry). This film depicts Lovecraft himself stealing the Necronomicon from some sort of religious order.
  • Out of Mind: The Stories of H.P. Lovecraft (1998), a Lovecraft sampler shown on Bravo! (IMDb entry Available on DVD)
  • Re-Animator (1985), adaptation of "Herbert West, Re-Animator" that had two sequels (IMDb entry)
  • The Resurrected (1992), adaptation of The Case of Charles Dexter Ward (IMDb entry)
  • Rough Magik (2000), BBC pilot for a Call of Cthulhu show ala X-Files starring Paul Darrow (Available on DVD)
  • Il mistero di Lovecraft - Road To L. (2005), feature film mockumentary based on a diary which states that Lovecraft was in Italy in 1926 (Official Site) (available on DVD here) (IMDb entry)

Masters of Horror (premiered October 28, 2005) is an American horror television series created by Mick Garris for Showtime. ... The Colour Out of Space is a short story by American horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. ... The Dunwich Horror is a short story by H. P. Lovecraft. ... Bravo! is a Canadian cable specialty television channel owned by CHUM Limited and was launched on January 1, 1995. ... Re-Animator (1985) is the first in a series of films based on the H.P. Lovecraft story Herbert West: Reanimator. ...

Musical

A Lovecraftian musical, A Shoggoth on the Roof, is published by the H.P. Lovecraft Historical Society (Official Site), and has been performed in Sweden (translated as "En shoggoth pa taket") by Teater Tentakel, an amateur group. It is a parody of Fiddler on the Roof. A Shoggoth on the Roof is a parody musical of Fiddler on the Roof based on the works of H.P. Lovecraft. ... Fiddler on the Roof is one of the most famous stage and film musicals. ...


Further reading

In the past few decades, the quantity of books about Lovecraft has increased considerably. Also, Lovecraft's stories themselves have enjoyed a veritable publishing renaissance in recent years. The titles mentioned below are a small sampling.


Lovecraft, a Biography, written by L. Sprague de Camp, published in 1975, and now out of print, was Lovecraft's first full-length biography. Frank Belknap Long's Howard Phillips Lovecraft: Dreamer on the Night Side (Arkham House, 1975) presents a more personal look at Lovecraft's life, combining reminiscence, biography, and literary criticism. Long was a friend and correspondent of Lovecraft, as well as a fellow fantasist who wrote a number of Lovecraft-influenced Cthulhu Mythos stories (including The Hounds of Tindalos). A newer, more extensive biography is H. P. Lovecraft: A Life, written by Lovecraft scholar S. T. Joshi. It was for a long time out of print, but has recently been republished by Necronomicon Press, with a new afterword by the author. Used copies of the first edition are rare. An adequate alternative is Joshi's abridged A Dreamer & A Visionary: H. P. Lovecraft in His Time. Most recently, an English translation of Michel Houellebecq's HP Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life was published by Believer Books in 2005. Well worth reading for the Lovecraft enthusiast, Houellebecq offers an interesting interpretation of the source of Lovecraft's creative genius. L. Sprague de Camp (centre) with Robert A. Heinlein and Isaac Asimov Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907, New York City – November 6, 2000, Plano, Texas) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Frank Belknap Long (April 27, 1901 - January 3, 1994) was a prolific American writer of horror fiction, fantasy, science fiction, poetry, gothic romance, comic books, and non-fiction. ... Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ... Sunanda Tryambak Joshi (b. ... Michel Houellebecq (real name Michel Thomas), born 26 February 1958, on the French island of Réunion is a controversial, award-winning French novelist. ...


Other significant Lovecraft-related works are An H. P. Lovecraft Encyclopedia (informative but expensive) and Lovecraft's Library: A Catalogue (a meticulous listing of many of the books in Lovecraft's now scattered library), both by Joshi, and also Lovecraft at Last, an account by Willis Conover of his teenage correspondence with Lovecraft. For those interested in studying in detail Lovecraft's writings and philosophy, Joshi's A Subtler Magick: The Writings and Philosophy of H. P. Lovecraft is useful both for the analysis it provides and for the thorough bibliography appended to it. Andrew Migliore and John Strysik's Lurker in the Lobby: A Guide to the Cinema of H.P. Lovecraft and Charles P. Mitchell's The Complete H. P. Lovecraft Filmography are both practicable for their discussion of films containing Lovecraftian elements (see Adaptations, below). Willis Conover (1920-May 17, 1996) was a jazz producer and broadcaster on the Voice of America for over forty years. ... Andrew John Migliore (b. ... H. P. Lovecraft Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy and horror fiction, noted for giving horror stories a science fiction framework. ...


Lovecraft's prose fiction has been published numerous times, but, even after the "corrected texts" were released by Arkham House in the 1980s, many non-definitive collections of his stories have appeared, including Ballantine Books editions and, also, three popular Del Rey editions, which nonetheless have interesting introductions. The three collections published by Penguin, The Call of Cthulhu and Other Weird Stories, The Thing on the Doorstep and Other Weird Stories, and Dreams in the Witch House and Other Weird Stories, incorporate the modifications made in the corrected texts as well as the thorough annotation provided by Joshi.


Others may further be interested in Lovecraft's "revisions" or ghost-written works, compiled most authoritative in The Horror in the Museum and Other Revisions, edited again by Joshi.


Many readers, when they first encounter Lovecraft's works, find his writing style difficult to read — owing, no doubt, to his fondness for adjectives, long paragraphs, and archaic diction. This characteristic style differs greatly from the fashion standards in literature of the early 21st century, most notably the emphasis on transparency. Also, Lovecraft's early 20th century perspective yielded references in his works to objects and ideas that may be unfamiliar to modern readers. Some of Lovecraft's writings, however, are annotated with footnotes or endnotes. In addition to the Penguin editions mentioned above and The Annotated Supernatural Horror in Literature, Joshi has produced The Annotated H. P. Lovecraft as well as More Annotated H. P. Lovecraft, both of which are footnoted extensively. For the usage of footnoting on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Cite sources and Wikipedia:Footnotes. ... An EndNote library and an individaul reference. ...


Lastly, The Philosophy of H. P. Lovecraft presents an excellent and extensive study of Lovecraft's use of language to analyze the psychology of Lovecraft's writings.


Notes

  1. ^ This situation is closely resembled in the semi-autobiographical He, as commented on by Michel Houellebecq in H. P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life
  2. ^ H. P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life, Michel Houellebecq
  3. ^ Letter to Elizabeth Toldridge, March 8, 1929, quoted in Lovecraft: A Look Behind the Cthulhu Mythos
  4. ^ See letter to J. Vernon Shea, September 25, 1933, No. 648, Selected Letters IV, Arkham House.
  5. ^ Lovecraft: A Look Behind the Cthulhu Mythos, Lin Carter, p. 45.
  6. ^ Quoted in Lovecraft, Carter, p. 45.
  7. ^ Indeed, Asenath Waite is arguably not female at all

September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... Arkham House is a weird fiction specialty publishing house founded by August Derleth and Donald Wandrei. ...

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