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Encyclopedia > H.N. Werkman

Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman (April 29, 1882April 10, 1945), commonly called H.N. Werkman, was a Dutch artist, typographer and printer. April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person who engages in an activity deemed to be an art. ... Typographic work Typography (from the Greek words typos = form and graphein = to write) is the art and technique of setting written subject matter in type using a combination of typeface styles, point sizes, line lengths, line leading, character spacing, and word spacing to produce typeset artwork in physical or digital... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ...

Werkman was born in Leens, in the Dutch province of Groningen. In 1908 he started in Groningen his printing and publishing house, that at its heyday employed twenty workers. Financial setbacks forced the closing-down of his business in 1923, after which he started anew with a small workshop in the attic of a warehouse. The flag of Groningen Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... Groningen is a municipality and city in the north of the Netherlands, and capital of Groningen province. ...

Werkman was a member of the artists' group De Ploeg ("The Plough"), for which he printed posters, invitations and catalogues. From 1923 to 1926 he produced his own avant-garde magazine, The Next Call (named in English) for which he is probably best-known internationally. In The Next Call as in other works of the period he experimented with a collage-like usage of types, printing-blocks and other printer's materials, which he stenciled and stamped to achieve unique effects. He used to exchange issues of The Next Call for works of other avant-garde artists and designers throughout Europe. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... a political stencil by Josh McPhee A One-Color Stencil A stencil is a cartoon, number, letter, illustration, typographical symbol, or any other shape or image in cut-out form (it can be cut out of paper, cardboard, metal or other material). ... This article is about vulcanized rubber stamps. ...

Soon after the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940, Werkman, together with his friend August Henkels and others, started the publication of a series of Hassidic stories from the legend of the Baal Shem Tov through their clandestine publishing house De Blauwe Schuit ("The Blue Barge"). The series of forty publications, designed and illustrated by Werkman, was a subtly rebellious commentary on the Nazi occupation, and a call for spiritual resistance. The battle of the Netherlands or Slag om Nederland in Dutch, was part of operation Fall Gelb, the German invasion of the Low Countries and France during World war II.The battle was a short, violent and decisive operation in which Nazi Germany conquered and occupied the Netherlands. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. ...

On March 13, 1945, Werkman was arrested by the German secret police, and on April 10 he and nine other prisoners were executed by a firing squad, only three days before Groningen and the region were liberated by the Allies. His confiscated paintings and prints were destroyed in a fire during the liberation. March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II came together as World War II unfolded and progressed. ...



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