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Encyclopedia > H. L. Hunley (submarine)

Drawing of the H. L. Hunley
Career (C.S.A.)
Name: H. L. Hunley
Builder: Horace L. Hunley
Laid down: early 1863
Launched: July 1863
Acquired: August 1863
In service: February 17, 1864
Out of service: February 17, 1864
Fate: Sunk
Status: Awaiting Conservation
General characteristics
Displacement: 7.5 tons
Length: 39.5 feet (12.04 m)
Beam: 3.83 feet (1.17 m)
Propulsion: hand-cranked propeller
Speed: 4 knots (7.41 km/h) (surface)
Complement: 1 officer, 7 enlisted
Armament: 1 × spar torpedo

H. L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. The Hunley was the first submarine to sink a warship, although the submarine was also lost during the process. The Confederates lost 32 men in Hunley's career. The submarine was renamed after the death of her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, and some time after she had been taken into the Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Image File history File links Conf_Navy_Jack_(light_blue). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Horace Lawson Hunley was a Confederate marine engineer druing the American Civil War. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...


H. L. Hunley, almost 40 feet (12 m) long, was built at Mobile, Alabama, launched in July 1863, and shipped by rail to Charleston, SC on August 12, 1863. On February 17, 1864, Hunley attacked and sank the 1800-ton steam sloop USS Housatonic in Charleston harbor, but soon after, Hunley also apparently sank, drowning all 8 crewmen. Over 136 years later, on August 8, 2000, the wreck was recovered, and on April 17, 2004, the DNA-identified remains of the eight Hunley crewmen were interred in Charleston's Magnolia Cemetery, with full military honors. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charleston, South Carolinas Oldest City Charleston is an American city located in Charleston County, South Carolina. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... USS Housatonic was a screw sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, named for one of the rivers of New England which rises in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and flows southward into Connecticut before emptying into Long Island Sound a little east of Bridgeport, Connecticut. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A caisson bearing a coffin, with military escort. ...

Contents

History

Hunley and two earlier submarines were privately developed and paid for by Horace Lawson Hunley, James McClintock, and Baxter Watson. Horace Lawson Hunley was a Confederate marine engineer druing the American Civil War. ...


Predecessors to Hunley

Hunley, McClintock, and Watson first built a small submarine named Pioneer at New Orleans, Louisiana. Pioneer was tested in February 1862 in the Mississippi River, and was later towed to Lake Pontchartrain for additional trials, but the Union advance towards New Orleans caused the men to abandon development and scuttle Pioneer the following month. Pioneer was the first of three submarines privately developed and paid for by Horace Lawson Hunley, James McClintock and Baxter Watson. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ...


The three inventors moved to Mobile and joined with machinists Thomas Park and Thomas Lyons. They soon began development of a second submarine, American Diver. Their efforts were supported by the Confederate States Army; Lieutenant William Alexander of the 21st Alabama Infantry Regiment was assigned oversight duty for the project. The men experimented with electromagnetic and steam propulsion for the new submarine, before falling back on a simpler hand-cranked propulsion system. American Diver was ready for harbor trials by January 1863, but proved too slow to be practical. One attempted attack on the Union blockade was made in February 1863, but was unsuccessful. The submarine sank in the mouth of Mobile Bay during a storm later the same month and was not recovered. A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... For other persons named William Alexander, see William Alexander (disambiguation). ... 1861 Cartoon map of the blockade // The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of... Mobile Bay - Landsat photo Mobile and Mobile Bay from space, June 1991 During a jubilee along the shores of Mobile Bay, blue crabs & flounder come to shallow water near shore Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. ...


Construction and testing of Hunley

Construction of Hunley began soon after the loss of American Diver. At this stage, Hunley was variously referred to as the "fish boat", the "fish torpedo boat", or the "porpoise". Legend long held Hunley was made from a cast-off steam boiler -- perhaps because a cutaway drawing by William Alexander, who had seen the real boat, showed a short and stubby machine. In fact, Hunley was purpose-designed and built for her role, and the sleek, modern-looking craft shown in R.G. Skerrett's 1902 drawing is an accurate representation. Hunley was designed for a crew of eight: seven to turn the hand-cranked propeller and one to steer and direct the boat. Each end was equipped with ballast tanks that could be flooded by valves or pumped dry by hand pumps. Extra ballast was added through the use of iron weights bolted to the underside of the hull. In the event the submarine needed additional buoyancy to rise in an emergency, the iron weight could be removed by unscrewing the heads of the bolts from inside the vessel. A ballast tank is a compartment within a boat or ship, that holds water. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ...

Cutaway drawing of H. L. Hunley by William Alexander

Hunley was equipped with two watertight hatches, one forward and one aft, atop two conning towers with small portholes. The hatches were very small, measuring 14 by 15¾ inches (356 by 400 mm), making entrance to and egress from the hull very difficult. The ship had a hull height of 4 ft 3 in (1.2 m). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A conning tower was an armoured observation post on a warship from where the vessel was controlled during a battle. ...


Hunley was ready for a demonstration by July 1863. Supervised by Confederate Admiral Franklin Buchanan, Hunley successfully attacked a coal flatboat in Mobile Bay. Following this demonstration, the submarine was shipped to Charleston, South Carolina, by rail, arriving August 12, 1863. For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Franklin Buchanan Franklin Buchanan (September 13, 1800—May 11, 1874) was an officer in the U.S. Navy who became an admiral in the Confederate Navy during the American Civil War. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Confederate military seized the vessel from its private builders and owners shortly after its arrival in Charleston and turned it over to the Confederate Army. Hunley would operate as a Confederate Army vessel from this point forward, although Horace Hunley and his partners remained involved in the submarine's further testing and operation. Some sources[who?] list the vessel as the "CSS H. L. Hunley," though she was never officially given that designation.[citation needed]


Confederate Navy Lieutenant John A. Payne of CSS Chicora volunteered to be Hunley's skipper, and a volunteer crew of seven men from Chicora and CSS Palmetto State was assembled to operate the submarine. On August 29, 1863, Hunley's new crew was preparing to make a test dive to learn the operation of the submarine when Lieutenant Payne accidentally stepped on the lever controlling the sub's diving planes while the crew were rowing and the boat was running. This caused Hunley to dive with hatches still open, flooding her. Payne and two other men escaped; the remaining five crewmen drowned. CSS Chicora, a Confederate ironclad ram, was built under contract at Charleston, South Carolina in 1862, by James M. Eason to John L. Porters plans, using up most of a $300,000 State appropriation for construction of marine batteries; Eason received a bonus for skill and promptitude. ... CSS Palmetto State, an ironclad ram, was built by Cameron and Co. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


On October 15, 1863 Hunley failed to surface during a mock attack, killing its inventor and seven other crewmen. In both cases, the Confederate Navy salvaged the vessel and returned her to service. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Armament

Hunley was originally intended to attack by means of a floating explosive charge with a contact fuse (a torpedo in Civil War terminology) towed behind it at the end of a long rope. Hunley would approach an enemy vessel, dive under it, and surface beyond. As she continued to move away from the target, the torpedo would be pulled against the side of the target and explode. However, this plan was discarded as impractical due to the danger of the tow line fouling Hunley's screw, or of it drifting into Hunley herself. This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


This was replaced with a spar torpedo, a cask containing 90 pounds (41 kg) of gunpowder attached to a 22 foot-long wooden spar, as seen in illustrations of the submarine made at this time. The spar was mounted on Hunley's bow and was designed to be used when the submarine was some six feet or more below the surface. The spar torpedo had a barbed point, and would be stuck in the target vessel's side by the simple means of ramming. The spar torpedo as originally designed used a mechanical trigger attached to the attacking vessel by a cord, so that as the attacker backed away from her victim, the torpedo would explode. However, archaeologists working on Hunley have discovered evidence, including a spool of copper wire and components of a battery, it may have been electrically detonated. Following Horace Hunley's death, General Beauregard issued an order the submarine was no longer to attack her target underwater. In response to this order, an iron pipe was attached to the bow of the submarine and angled downwards so the explosive charge would still be delivered under sufficient depth of water to make it effective. This was the same method developed for the earlier "David" type surface craft so successful against the USS Ironsides. The Confederate Veteran of 1902 printed a reminiscence authored by an engineer stationed at Battery Marshall who, with another engineer, made adjustments to the iron pipe mechanism before Hunley left on her last mission on the night of February 17, 1864. A drawing of the iron pipe spar, confirming its "David" type configuration, was published in several early histories of submarine warfare. A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Attack on the Housatonic

Hunley made her first attack against a live target on the night of February 17, 1864. The vessel was the USS Housatonic. Housatonic, an 1800-ton, steam-powered sloop-of-war with 12 large cannons, stationed at the entrance to Charleston, South Carolina harbor, about 5 miles (8 km) out to sea. In an effort to break the naval blockade of the city, Lieutenant George E. Dixon and a crew of seven volunteers attacked Housatonic, successfully embedding the barbed spar torpedo into her hull. The torpedo was detonated as the submarine backed away, sending Housatonic and five of her crew to the bottom in five minutes, although many survived in two lifeboats or by climbing rigging until rescued. Hunley also sank, apparently just moments after signaling shore of the successful attack, possibly from damage caused by the torpedo blast, though this is not certain. The possibility must be considered the torpedo was not detonated on command, but rather malfunctioned due to damage incurred during the attack. In previous tests and actual attacks, it was intended that the torpedo be detonated approximately 150 to 175 feet from the target, to minimize any damage to the sub. However, witnesses aboard Housatonic uniformly stated it detonated at no more than about one hundred feet, and possibly as close as seventy-five. is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... USS Housatonic was a screw sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, named for one of the rivers of New England which rises in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and flows southward into Connecticut before emptying into Long Island Sound a little east of Bridgeport, Connecticut. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... George E. Dixon (? - February 17, 1864) was a lieutenant in the Confederate Army in the American Civil War. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ...

There is convincing evidence Hunley actually survived as long as an hour after the attack (which took place at approximately 8:45 PM). The commander of Battery Marshall reported the day after the attack that he had received "the usual signals" from the submarine indicating she was returning to her base. The signal was received at approximately 9:00 PM - fifteen minutes after the Housatonic had sunk - and came from a blue carbide gas signal lantern to the base at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island. The signal was also seen by crew members of Housatonic, who were in the ship's rigging awaiting rescue. The reports are quoted in the official enquiries of both Federal and Confederate Governments and in the Official Records of the war. This type of lantern can only be seen at a distance of some one and a half miles, indicating the submarine had come close to shore after the attack on Housatonic. At that point, Dixon took the sub under to try and make it back to Sullivan's Island. However, shock damage from the torpedo and magazine explosion had probably opened the sub's seams, and she was slowly filling with water. Her crew, likely suffering from malnutrition, respiratory problems, cold, and exhaustion, would have failed to realize that the submarine was slowly going under. Submerging again would have put enough water aboard that her crew would likely have driven her directly into the shallow bottom, blocking the ballast intakes and making it impossible to pump her back out. Cold and immersion would have killed the crew relatively quickly. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Fort Moultrie is the name of a series of forts on Sullivans Island, South Carolina, built to protect the city of Charleston, South Carolina. ... Sullivans Island is a town located in Charleston County, South Carolina. ...


Her crew perished, but H.L. Hunley had earned a place in the history of undersea warfare as the first submarine to sink a ship in wartime.


The Wreck

The Hunley discovery was described by Dr. William Dudley, Director of Naval History at the Naval Historical Center as probably the most important (underwater archaeological) find of the (20th) century."[1][2] The tiny sub and its contents have been valued at over $40,000,000, making its discovery and subsequent donation one of the most important and valuable contributions ever to South Carolina. The Naval Historical Center (NHC) is the official history program of the United States Navy. ... Look up sub, sub- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Donation is a gift given, typically to a cause or/and for charitable purposes. ...

H. L. Hunley, suspended from a crane during its recovery from Charleston Harbor, August 8, 2000. (Photograph from the U.S. Naval Historical Center.)
H. L. Hunley, suspended from a crane during its recovery from Charleston Harbor, August 8, 2000. (Photograph from the U.S. Naval Historical Center.)

The Hunley discovery is claimed by two different individuals. Underwater Archaeologist E. Lee Spence, president, Sea Research Society, reportedly discovered Hunley in 1970,[3] and has an impressive collection of evidence[4] to validate the claim, including a Civil Admiralty Case (#80-1303-8 filed on July 8, 1980 in Federal District Court.) Image File history File links CSSHLHunleyrecovery. ... Image File history File links CSSHLHunleyrecovery. ... The Naval Historical Center (NHC) is the official history program of the United States Navy. ... Although internationally known as a pioneer in underwater archaeology and an expert on shipwrecks and sunken treasure, Dr. Spence is also a published author of non-fiction, reference books; a magazine editor (Diving World, Atlantic Coastal Diver, Treasure, Treasure Diver, and Treasure Quest), and publisher of both books and magazines...


On September 13, 1976, the National Park Service submitted Sea Research Society's (Spence's) location for H.L. Hunley for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. Spence's location for Hunley became a matter of public record when H.L. Hunley's placement on that list was officially approved on December 29, 1978.[5][6] Spence's book Treasures of the Confederate Coast, which had a chapter on his discovery of Hunley and included a map complete with an "X" showing the wreck's location, was published in January of 1995.[7] A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ...


Diver Ralph Wilbanks, claims to have discovered the wreck in April of 1995 while leading a NUMA dive team. NUMA (National Underwater & Marine Agency) was originally a fictional government agency in Clive Cussler's series of Dirk Pitt novels. Later Cussler founded and sponsored a maritime history foundation of the same name. Ralph Wilbanks claims to have located the submarine buried under several feet of silt, which had concealed and protected the vessel for over a hundred years. The divers exposed the forward hatch and the ventilator box (the air box for the attachment of a snorkel)to identify her. The submarine was resting on her starboard side at about a 45-degree angle and was covered in a ¼- to ¾-inch encrustation of ferrous oxide bonded with sand and seashell particles. Archaeologists exposed part of the ship's port side and uncovered the bow dive plane. More probing revealed an approximate length of 40 feet, with all of the vessel preserved under the sediment. The National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA) is a private non-profit organization in the United States, based on a fictional organization from the novels of Clive Cussler, who also heads up the actual organization. ... Clive Eric Cussler (born July 15, 1931 in Aurora, Illinois)[1][2] is an American adventure novelist and successful marine archaeologist. ... Iron(II) oxide, also called ferrous oxide, is a black-colored powder with the chemical formula FeO. It consists of the element iron in the oxidation state of 2 bonded to oxygen. ...


On September 14, 1995, at the official request of Senator Glenn F. McConnell, Chairman, South Carolina Hunley Commission, E. Lee Spence, with South Carolina Attorney General Charles M. Condon signing, gifted the Hunley to the State of South Carolina. Shortly thereafter NUMA disclosed their location for the wreck. Spence claims that he discovered the Hunley in 1970 and verified the discovery in 1971 and again in 1979, and that he expected NUMA to verify the discovery, not claim it. This is an ongoing dispute involving allegations of political manipulation, judicial misconduct and other questionable behavior.


Archaeological investigation and excavation culminated with the raising of Hunley on August 8, 2000. A large team of professionals from the Naval Historical Center's Underwater Archaeology Branch, National Park Service, the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, and various other individuals investigated the vessel, measuring and documenting it prior to removal. Once the on-site investigation was complete, harnesses were slipped underneath the sub and attached to a truss designed by Oceaneering, Inc. After the last harness had been secured, the crane from the recovery barge Karlissa B hoisted the submarine from the harbor bottom. Despite having used a sextant and hand-held compass, thirty years earlier, to plot the wreck's location, Dr. Spence's accuracy turned out to be within the length of the recovery barge. On August 8, 2000 at 8:37 a.m. the sub broke the surface for the first time in over 136 years, greeted by a cheering crowd on shore and in surrounding watercraft. Once safely on her transporting barge, Hunley was shipped back to Charleston. The removal operation concluded when the submarine was secured inside the Warren Lasch Conservation Center, at the former Charleston Navy Yard, in a specially designed tank of freshwater to await conservation. is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Naval Historical Center (NHC) is the official history program of the United States Navy. ... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The Institute of Archaeology is an academic department of University College London (UCL), in the United Kingdom. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Warren Lasch Conservation Center is a building located in the former Charleston Navy Yard, in Charleston, South Carolina. ... Charleston Navy Yard was a U.S. Navy ship building and repair facility located along the west bank of the Cooper River, in North Charleston, South Carolina. ...


The Crew

The crew was composed of Lieutenant George E. Dixon (Commander), Frank Collins, Joseph F. Ridgaway, James A. Wicks, Arnold Becker, Corporal J. F. Carlsen, C. Lumpkin, and Miller, whose first name and identity is still uncertain.[8]


Apart from the commander of the submarine, Lieutenant George E. Dixon, the identities of the volunteer crewmembers of the Hunley had long remained a mystery. Douglas Owsley, a physical anthropologist working for the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History examined the remains and determined that four of the men were American born, while the four others were European born, based on the chemical signatures left on the men's teeth and bones by the predominant components of their diet. Four of the men had eaten plenty of maize, an American diet, while the remainder ate mostly wheat and rye, a mainly European one. By examining Civil War records and conducting DNA testing with possible relatives, forensic genealogist Linda Abrams was able to identify the remains of Dixon and the three other Americans: Frank Collins, Joseph Ridgaway, and James A. Wicks. Identifying the European crew members has been more problematic, but was apparently solved in late 2004. The position of the corpses indicated that the men died at their stations and were not trying to escape from the sinking submarine. Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 17 April 2004 the remains of the crew of the H. L. Hunley were interred in Charleston's Magnolia Cemetery with full military honors. A crowd estimated at between 35,000 and 50,000, including 10,000 period military and civilian reenactors, were present for what some called the 'Last Confederate Funeral.' is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Hunley remains at the "Lasch" conservation center for further study and conservation. Continued study has led to unexpected discoveries, including the complexity of the sub's ballast and pumping systems, steering and diving apparatus, and final assembly.


Another surprise occurred in 2002, when a researcher examining the area close to Lieutenant Dixon found a misshapen $20 gold piece, minted in 1860, with the inscription "Shiloh April 6 1862 My life Preserver G. E. D." and a forensic anthropologist found a healed injury to Lt. Dixon's hip bone. The findings matched a legend, passed down in the family, that Dixon's sweetheart, Queenie Bennett, had given him the coin to protect him. Dixon had the coin with him at the Battle of Shiloh, where he was wounded in the thigh on April 16, 1862. The bullet struck the coin in his pocket, saving his leg and possibly his life. He had the gold coin engraved, and carried it as a lucky charm.[9][10] Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, circa 1900-1910. ... The pelvis (pl. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408...


Other

  • The first episode of the 1963 TV series, The Great Adventure (TV series), featured a dramatization loosely based on the events leading up to the Hunley's final day. It starred Jackie Cooper as Lt. "Dickson". [1]
  • The 1999 TV movie "The Hunley" tells the story of the H. L. Hunley. with Armand Assante as Lt. Dixon. [2]

The Great Adventure was a historical anthology series that appeared on CBS for the 1963-1964 television season. ... Jackie Cooper (born September 15, 1922) is an American Academy Award-nominated actor, Emmy Award-winning TV director, and TV producer. ... Armand Anthony Assante, Jr. ...

References

  1. ^ Facts
  2. ^ Trip Atlas, "Events of 1970"
  3. ^ Cover Story: Time Capsule From The Sea - U.S. News & World Report, July 2-9, 2007
  4. ^ Attachments to Spence's sworn Affidavit of Discovery
  5. ^ National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form
  6. ^ Programmatic agreement on management of the wreck of H.L. Hunley
  7. ^ Treasures of the Confederate Coast: The "Real Rhett Butler" & Other Revelations by Dr. E. Lee Spence, Narwhal Press, Charleston/Miami, © 1995, p.54
  8. ^ Friends of the Hunley
  9. ^ Ron Franscell. "Civil War legends surface with sub Fort Collins expert studies exhumed sailors", The Denver Post, November 18, 2002, p. A1. 
  10. ^ LT. DIXON'S GOLD COIN: The Legend Of The Gold Coin Friends of the Hunley Website

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
H. L. Hunley
  1. Searches for Hunley, Cussler, Spence
  2. Sea Research Society links to Hunley
  3. Friends of the Hunley
  4. "H. L. Hunley, Confederate Submarine" at the U.S. Naval Historical Center
  5. Hunley history
  6. Pre-Hunley Confederate Submarines
  7. US Navy
  8. The Hunley (TV movie)
  9. Rootsweb
  10. Hunley - Archaeological Interpretation and 3D Reconstruction
  11. Hunley Related Items
  12. HNSA Web Page: H.L. Hunley

The Naval Historical Center (NHC) is the official history program of the United States Navy. ...

Bibliography

  • The Hunley: Submarines, Sacrifice & Success in the Civil War by Mark Ragan (Narwhal Press, Charleston/Miami, ©1995) [ISBN 1-886391-43-2]
  • Treasures of the Confederate Coast: the "real Rhett Butler" & Other Revelations by Dr. E. Lee Spence, (Narwhal Press, Charleston/Miami, ©1995)[ISBN 1-886391-00-9]
  • Civil War Sub [ISBN 0-448-42597-1]
  • The Voyage of the Hunley [ISBN 1-58080-094-7]
  • Raising the Hunley [ISBN 0-345-44772-7]
  • The CSS H.L. Hunley [ISBN 1-57249-175-2]
  • The CSS Hunley [ISBN 0-87833-219-7]
  • Shipwreck Encyclopedia of the Civil War: South Carolina & Georgia, 1861-1865 by Edward Lee Spence (Sullivan's Island, S.C., Shipwreck Press, ©1991) OCLC: 24420089
  • Shipwrecks of South Carolina and Georgia : (includes Spence's List, 1520-1865) Sullivan's Island, S.C. (Sullivan's Island 29482, Sea Research Society, ©1984) OCLC 10593079
  • Shipwrecks of the Civil War : Charleston, South Carolina, 1861-1865 map by E. Lee Spence (Sullivan's Island, S.C., ©1984) OCLC 11214217
  • Robert F. Burgess (1975). Ships Beneath the Sea: A History of Subs and Submersibles. United States of America: McGraw Hill, 238. 

 
 

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