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Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Basic Latin alphabet
  Aa Bb Cc Dd  
Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj
Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp
Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv
  Ww Xx Yy Zz  

H is the eighth letter in the Latin alphabet. In most dialects of the English language, it is pronounced aitch (or eitch) [eɪtʃ], though in Irish and Indian English it is generally pronounced haitch [heɪtʃ]. (See the discussion below on the two pronunciations.) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Latin_alphabet_Hh. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up B, b in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up D, d in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up F, f in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... Look up K, k in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up L, l in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up M, m in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up N, n in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up P, p in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Q, q in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Its name in English is tee . ... Look up U, u in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up X, x in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Indian English refers to the dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ...


See alphabet For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ...


In the International Phonetic Alphabet, this symbol is used to represent two sounds. Its lowercase form, [h], represents the voiceless glottal fricative, and its small capital form, [ʜ], represents the voiceless epiglottal fricative. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The voiceless glottal transition, commonly called a fricative, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which often behaves like a consonant, but sometimes behaves more like a vowel, or is indeterminate in its behavior. ... The voiceless epiglottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Contents

History

Egyptian hieroglyph
fence
Proto-Semitic
ħ
Phoenician
ħ
Etruscan
H
Greek
(H)eta
Image:Proto-semiticH-01.png Image:PhoenicianH-01.png Image:EtruscanH-01.png

The Semitic letter ח (ḥêṯ) probably represented the voiceless pharyngeal fricative (IPA /ħ/). The form of the letter probably stood for a fence. The early Greek H stood for /h/, but later on, this letter, eta (Η, η), became a long vowel, /ɛː/. (In Modern Greek, this phoneme has merged with /i/, similar to the English development where EA /ɛː/ and EE /eː/ came to be both pronounced /i:/.) Image File history File links Proto-semiticH-01. ... Image File history File links PhoenicianH-01. ... Image File history File links EtruscanH-01. ... Image File history File links Eta_uc_lc. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Etruscan and Latin had /h/ as a phoneme, but all Romance languages lost the sound — Romanian later re-borrowed the /h/ phoneme from its neighbouring Slavic languages, Spanish developed a secondary /h/ from F, then lost it again, and Castilian /x/ has developed an [h] allophone in some Spanish-speaking countries. In German, h is typically used as a vowel lengthener, as well as the phoneme /h/. This may be because /h/ was sometimes lost between vowels in German, but it may also have to do with the fact that Romance lost /h/. Hence, H is used in many spelling systems in digraphs and trigraphs, such as ch in Spanish and English /tʃ/, French /ʃ/ from /tʃ/, Italian /k/, German /χ/. Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A trigraph (from the Greek words tria = three and grapho = write) is a group of three letters used to represent a single sound. ...


Usage in English

Pronunciation

In most dialects of English, the name for the letter is pronounced /eɪtʃ/ and spelt aitch[1] (or occasionally eitch). Pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ (and hence spelling haitch) is usually considered to be h-adding and hence nonstandard. However it is standard in Hiberno-English. In Northern Ireland it is a shibboleth as Protestant schools teach aitch and Catholics haitch.[1] The pronunciation affects the choice of indefinite article before initialisms beginning with H: for example "an HTML page" or "a HTML page". The pronunciation /heɪtʃ/ may be a hypercorrection formed by analogy with the names of the other letters of the alphabet, most of which include the sound they represent // h-dropping is the dropping of initial /h/. The taut-taught merger is a process that occurs in modern English that causes to be dropped in words like thought, night, daughter etc. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Authorities disagree about the history of the letter's name. The The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language derives it from French hache from Latin haca or hic, from which it can be argued that the pronunciation /eɪtʃ/ is a result of h-dropping. The Oxford English Dictionary says the original name of the letter was /aha/; this became /aka/ in Latin, passed into English via Old French /atʃ/, and by Middle English was pronounced /aːtʃ/. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... // H-dropping is a colloquial term used to describe the omission of initial in words like house, heat, and hangover in many dialects of English, such as Cockney and Estuary English. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of...


Value

H occurs as a single-letter grapheme (with value /h/ or silent) and in various digraphs, such as ch (/tʃ/, French /ʃ/, Greek and Italian /k/), gh (silent, /g/, or /f/) , ph (Greek words with /f/), rh (Greek words with /r/), sh (/ʃ/), th (either /θ/ like thin or /ð/ like then), wh (either /w/, /ʍ/or /f/: see wine-whine merger). In transcriptions of other writing systems, zh may occur (as in Russian Doctor Zhivago); this is generally pronounced /ʒ/ in English, although this rendition is not necessarily faithful to the sound in the original language (as in the case of pinyin transcriptions). In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the words pronunciation. ... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The hole-whole merger is the replacement of with before the vowels and which occurred in Old English resulting in the following pronunciations: who - whom - whole - whore - hole and whole became homophonous. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... For other uses, see Doctor Zhivago (disambiguation). ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


H is silent in some words of Romance origin: The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...

  • Initially in heir, honest, honour, hour; for American English usually also herb, and sometimes homage.
  • For some speakers, also in an initial unstressed syllable, as "an historic occasion"; to retain the "an" and pronounce the H may be considered affected.
  • After ex when x has value /gz/, as exhaust.
  • For many speakers, after a stressed vowel and before an unstressed, as annihilate, vehicle (but not vehicular).
  • At the end of a word, as cheetah, verandah.

H is often silent in the weak form of some function words beginning with H, including had, has, have, he, her, him, his. For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... In the phonology of stress-timed languages, the weak form of a word is a form that may be used when the word has no stress, and which is phonemically distinct from the strong form used when the word is stressed. ... Function words are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker. ...


Usage in French

In the French language, the name of the letter is pronounced /aʃ/.


The French language classifies words that begin with this letter in two ways that must be learned to use French properly, even though it is a silent letter either way. The h muet, or "mute h", is considered as though the letter were not there at all, so masculine nouns get the article le replaced by the sequence l'. Similarly, words such as un, whose pronunciation would elide onto the following word would do so for a word with h muet. In music, see elision (music). ...


For example Le hébergement becomes L'hébergement.


The other way is called h aspiré, or "aspirated h" (though it is still not aspirated) and is treated as a phantom consonant. Hence masculine nouns get the le, separated from the noun with a bit of a glottal stop. There is no elision with such a word; the preceding word is kept separate by similar means.


Most words that begin with an h muet come from Latin (honneur, homme) or from Greek through Latin (hécatombe), whereas most words beginning with an h aspiré come from Germanic (harpe, hareng) or non-Indo-European languages (harem, hamac, haricot). As is generally the case with French, there are numerous exceptions. In some cases, an h muet was added to disambiguate the [v] and semivowel [ɥ] pronunciations: huit (from uit, ultimately from Latin octo), huître (from uistre, ultimately from Greek through Latin ostrea).


Some of these distinctions have been preserved in English through Anglo-French: an honour vs. a harp.


Dictionaries mark those words that have this second kind of h with a preceding mark, either an asterisk, a dagger, or a little circle lower than a degree-symbol. This article refers to the typographical symbol. ... Everyone please stop nitpicking on the use of daggers in theoldnewthing blog! This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Usage in German

In the German language, the name of the letter is pronounced /haː/.


In the German language, this letter is used in the digraph "ch" and the trigraph "sch" to indicate completely different sounds. Following a vowel, it often silently indicates that the vowel is long: In the word "erhöhen", only the first <h> represents /h/. This is the origin of the spelling (or pronunciation) of the English utterance "Eh?" which is not at all like an English pronunciation of the letter "e". German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


In 1901, there was a spelling reform which eliminated the silent <h> in nearly all instances of <th> in native German words such as thun "to do" or Thür "door". It has been left unchanged in the word Thron "throne", which is spelled still in this way, also after the last german spelling reform. Spelling reform generally attempts to introduce a logical structure connecting the spelling and pronunciation of words. ...


Usage in other languages

Some languages, including, but not limited to, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Hungarian and Finnish use H as a voiced glottal fricative [ɦ]. The breathy-voiced glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


In Ukrainian and Belarusian it's rendered with the letter Г (note its difference from Russian pronunciation and romanisation). Ge or He (Г, г) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, pronounced differently in different languages. ...


In computing

Codes

In Unicode the capital H is codepoint U+0048 and the lowercase h is U+0068. FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... Image File history File links ICS_Hotel. ... Image File history File links Semaphore_Hotel. ... Image File history File links Sign_language_H.svg‎ Sign language – letter H. Based on the Gallaudet font. ... Image File history File links Braille_H8. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet in signals to or from ships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The American Sign Language Alphabet is a manual alphabet that augments the vocabulary of American Sign Language when spelling individual letters of a word is the preferred or only option, such as with proper names or the titles of works. ... Braille code where the word (, French for first) can be read. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ...


The ASCII code for capital H is 72 and for lowercase h is 104; or in binary 01001000 and 01101000, correspondingly. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ...


The EBCDIC code for capital H is 200 and for lowercase h is 136. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM...


The numeric character references in HTML and XML are "&#72;" and "&#104;" for upper and lower case respectively. A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) or Unicode. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


Hexadecimal

Some programming languages use "h" or "H" to mark Hexadecimal numbers. This can either be as a suffix, such as 05h, pronounced "five hex" or FFH "pronounced eff, eff, hex"[citation needed] or as a prefix, such as H'46' in Microchip MPASM assembly. However, there are also other standards that use different letters, such as "0x" in C. A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ...


In all of the above cases, it can also be described with the radix first, for example "hex forty-six", is the same as "forty-six hex".


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ħ (minuscule: ħ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from H with the addition of a bar. ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

References

  1. ^ The Association for Scottish Literary Studies
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letter H with diacritics
ĤĥȞȟḦḧḢḣḨḩḤḥḪḫH̱ẖĦħⱧⱨ
Two-letter combinations
Ha Hb Hc Hd He Hf Hg Hh Hi Hj Hk Hl Hm Hn Ho Hp Hq Hr Hs Ht Hu Hv Hw Hx Hy Hz
HA HB HC HD HE HF HG HH HI HJ HK HL HM HN HO HP HQ HR HS HT HU HV HW HX HY HZ
Letter-digit & Digit-letter combinations
                H0 H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9
                0H 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H 7H 8H 9H
historypalaeographyderivationsdiacriticspunctuationnumeralsUnicodelist of letters

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