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Encyclopedia > Gyumri
Gyumri
Գյումրի

Seal
Location of Gyumri in Armenia
Coordinates: 40°46′60″N 43°49′60″E / 40.78333, 43.83333
Country
Marz
Armenia
Shirak
Established 401 BC
Government
 - Mayor Vartan Ghukasyan
Area
 - City 36 km²  (13.9 sq mi)
Elevation 1,509.3696 m (4,952 ft)
Population (2001)
 - City 150,917
 - Density 4,192.1/km² (10,857.5/sq mi)
Time zone GMT+4 (UTC+4)
 - Summer (DST) GMT+5 (UTC+5)
Website: www.gyumri.am

Gyumri (Armenian: Գյումրի) is the capital and largest city of the Shirak province in northwest Armenia. It is located about 75 miles (120 km) from the capital Yerevan, and, with a population of 150,917 (2001 census), is the second-largest city in Armenia. Image File history File linksMetadata Gyumrigeneralview. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Gyumrilocatormap. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. ... Shirak is one of the provinces of Armenia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Greenwich Mean Time (Media:Example. ... Moscow Summer Time Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Greenwich Mean Time (Media:Example. ... UTC +5 is the timezone for : Pakistan Standard Time in Pakistan. ... Shirak is one of the provinces of Armenia. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


The name of the city has been changed many times in history. It was first known as Kumayri or Gyumri, then Alexandropol (18401924), then Leninakan (19241990), then again as Gyumri. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

History

The first settlement at the location occupied by today's city of Gyumri is believed to have been founded some time in the 5th century BC, perhaps ca. 401 BC, by Greek colonists [1]. An alternative theory suggests that the city was founded by Cimmerians, based on the fact that Cimmerians conquered the region in 720 BC and that the original name of the city was Kumayri [2]. The settlement existed sporadically during the next two millennia until a major Russian fortress was built on the site in 1837. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 406 BC 405 BC 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC - 401 BC - 400 BC 399 BC... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Gyumri started to develop in the 19th century, when, along with its surroundings, it became part of Russia, as a result of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813). Gyumri came under Russian control in 1804 around 25 years earlier than the entirety of Eastern Armenia. During this period it became one of the famous cities of the Trans-Caucasus region. In 1829, on the heels of the Russo-Turkish War there was a major influx of population as about 3000 families from Western Armenian cities of Kars, Erzurum, Dogubeyazit and other places in the Ottoman Empire migrated and settled in Gyumri. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Eastern Armenia was the portion of Ottoman Armenia and Persian Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829 was sparked by the Greeks struggle for independence. ... This article is about the historical subregion in Eurasia. ... Kars (Armenian: Կարս) is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of the Kars Province, formerly at the head of a sanjak in the Turkish vilayet of Erzurum. ... Erzurum (Կարին (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Photo of Ishak Pasha Palace, an 18th century Ottoman palace located near Doğubeyazıt. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...


In 1837 Russian Czar Nicholas I arrived in Gyumri and renamed the town Alexandropol. The name was chosen in honor of Czar Nicholas I's wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia, who had changed her name to Alexandra Fyodorovna after converting to Orthodox Christianity. Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855, known as one of the most reactionary of the Russian monarchs. ... Princess Charlotte of Prussia (Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina, July 13, 1798-November 1, 1860) was, as Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress consort of Russia as the wife Nicholas I of Russia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith...

Church of the Holy Saviour after 1988 Spitak earthquake
Church of the Holy Saviour before 1988 Spitak earthquake

In 1840, the town of Aleksandrapol was quickly growing. It was an important outpost for the Imperial Russian military in the Transcaucasus, where their military barracks were established (Poligons, Severski, Kazachi Post). Image File history File links Surb_Amenaprkitch. ... Image File history File links Surb_Amenaprkitch. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri after the earthquake The Spitak Earthquake also called Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ... Image File history File links Surb_Amenaprkitch_pre88. ... Image File history File links Surb_Amenaprkitch_pre88. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri after the earthquake The Spitak Earthquake also called Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Transcaucasus is a region covering the majority of Caucasus mountain range. ...


Alexandropol was considered to be the third trade and cultural center in the Trans-Caucasus after Tiflis and Baku (Yerevan would not rise to prominence until being proclaimed the capital of the independent Republic of Armenia in 1918 and Armenian SSR in 1920.). At the end of 19th century the population of Alexandropol reached 32,000 residents. From 1858-1876, St. Prkich (Saviour) church was erected, made to resemble the Cathedral of Ani. The first rail link to Alexandropol was finished in 1899, which was the Tiflis-Alexandropol railway. The rail line was then extended from Alexandropol to Yerevan, Jolfa (in 1906) and Tabriz. As a result, Alexandropol became an important rail hub. Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... Coordinates: , Country Azerbaijan Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mother Cathedral of Ani A far view of the Cathedral The Cathedral of Ani, built in A.D by the architect Trdat offers an example of a cruciform domed church within a rectangular plan, The Catholicosate was relocated to the Arkina district, in the suburbs of Ani, and in 990... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about a city in northwest Iran. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


During the Turkish-Armenian War, Turkey attacked Gyumri and occupied the city on November 7, 1920 after winning the Battle of Alexandropol. After the battle, The Turks were headquartered in Gyumri. From this city Turks presented the Armenians with an ultimatum that Armenia was forced to accept -- otherwise Turkey would have invaded Yerevan, Armenia's capital, from their headquarters in Gyumri. Armenia was forced to sign the Treaty of Alexandropol to stop the Turkish advance towards Yerevan, the capital of Democratic Republic of Armenia, thus ending the Turkish-Armenian War. Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Kazım Karabekir Strength 50,000. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Kazim Karabekir  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | | ... The Treaty of Alexandropol was a peace treaty between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and TBMM ending the Turkish-Armenian War, before decleration of the Republic of Turkey on December 2, 1920. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of...


In 1924 the name was changed to Leninakan after the deceased Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Leninakan was a major industrial center for the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and its second largest city, after Yerevan, the capital. The city suffered major damage during the 1988 Spitak Earthquake, which devastated large parts of the country. Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) Russian: , IPA: , better known by the alias   () (April 22, 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Spitak Earthquake was a tremor, measuring 6. ...


The current name of the city was chosen in 1990, at the time of the breakup of the Soviet Union. The Russian 102nd military base is located in the city. Today, Gyumri is Armenia's second largest city. // The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... Russian 102nd Military Base (Russian: 102-я Российская военная база) is a Russian military base in Gyumri, Armenia, part of the Transcaucasian Group of Forces. ...

View from steps of Gyumri
View from steps of Gyumri

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Buildings and constructions

Sports

Gyumri is home to the Armenian football (soccer) team FC Shirak. They play their home games at Gyumri City Stadium, built in 1924. Other teams from Gyumri are Aragats, Kumairi and FK Gyumri. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... FC Shirak (Armenian: Õ–Õ¸Ö‚Õ¿Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¡ÕµÕ«Õ¶ Ô±Õ¯Õ¸Ö‚Õ´Õ¢ Õ‡Õ«Ö€Õ¡Õ¯ Ô³ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ´Ö€Õ«), is an Armenian football team, playing in the town of Gyumri (formerly Leninakan). ... Gyumri City Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Gyumri, Armenia. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aragats Gyumri is an Armenian football club from Gyumri. ... Kumairi Gyumri is an Armenian football club from Gyumri. ... FK Gyumri is an Armenian football club from Gyumri. ...


Religious Buildings

There are five churches, one convent, and one Russian chapel in Gyumri. One of the most important historical churches is the Church of the Holy Saviour of All (Sourb Amenaprkich), resembling Ani Mother Cathedral. Construction of the church began in 1859 and was completed in 1873. It was greatly damaged by the 1988 Spitak earthquake and is currently being reconstructed. It has been suggested that Ecclesia (Church) be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Sister cities

City Country
Alexandria Flag of the United States United States
Kutaisi Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia
Osasco Flag of Brazil Brazil
Plovdiv Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria

Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - City  15. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Kutaisi (Georgian: ; ancient names: Aea/Aia, Kutatisi, Kutaïssi ) is Georgias second largest city in the western province of Imereti. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... Nickname: The City-Larbor Coordinates: Mayor Emidio Pereira de Souza (PT) Area    - City 67 km² Elevation 745 m  (2444 ft) Population (2005)  - City 694,856  - Density 10,370. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

Famous natives

Manuel Gamburyan is a mixed martial artist with a background in judo. ... Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff Georges Ivanovich Gurdjieff (January 13, 1872 - October 29, 1949), the Greek-Armenian mystic and teacher of dancing born in Alexandropol, Armenia (then of the Russian Empire, now Gyumri, Armenia), traveled to many parts of the world (i. ... Avetik Isahakian (Russian: Аветик Саакович Исаакян) (Armenian: Ավեթիգ Իսահագիան) (October 31 (October 19, O.S.), 1875 in Kazarapat, near Aleksandropol - October 17, 1957 in Yerevan) was an Armenian lyric poet, native of Gyumri. ... Edmond Keosayan was an Armenian Soviet film director and musician. ... Frunzik (Mher) Mkrtchyan Frunzik (Mher) Mkrtchyan (Russian: ; 4 July 1930 – 29 December 1993) was a popular Soviet Armenian actor who was named a Peoples Artist of the USSR in 1984. ... Levon Mkrtchyan and Sergei Parajanov Director Levon Mkrtchyan,(Armenian: ; Russian: ; born February 25, 1953, in Leninakan (now Gyumri), is an Armenian director known for his documentaries, The Muses, Charentz: Known and Unknown Sides, Hovhannes Shiraz, Mashtots, My Komitas, And There Was Light, The Manuscript of Independence which was dedicated to... Armen Nazarian (Армен Назарян) (born March 9, 1974) is a Bulgarian Greco Roman wrestler of Armenian origin and member of the Fila Hall of Fame. ... Hovhannes Shiraz (April 27, 1915 as Hovhannes Onnig Garabedian - 1984) is a noted Armenian poet. ... Svetlana Svetlichnaya (Russian: ) (born 15. ... Armen Tigranyan (born November 27, 1985 in Yerevan) is an Armenian defender who plays for Armenian club FC Pyunik, is also a member of Armenian national team, has 3 caps since his debut in 2005. ... Yurik Norairovich Vardanian (Russian: , born June 13, 1956 in Leninakan, Armenian SSR[1]) is a former Olympic weightlifter for the USSR. He trained at Lokomotiv in Leninakan. ... Robert Emmiyan (born February 16, 1965) is a retired long jumper who represented USSR and later Armenia. ...

Gallery

Modern Gyumri

Historic photographs of Gyumri

Film

Levon Mkrtchyan and Sergei Parajanov Director Levon Mkrtchyan,(Armenian: ; Russian: ; born February 25, 1953, in Leninakan (now Gyumri), is an Armenian director known for his documentaries, The Muses, Charentz: Known and Unknown Sides, Hovhannes Shiraz, Mashtots, My Komitas, And There Was Light, The Manuscript of Independence which was dedicated to...

References

Footnotes

  • ^  See:
    • Encyclopedia Britannica
    • Adrian Room, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for Over 5000 Natural Features, Countries, Capitals, Territories, Cities and Historical Sites, McFarland, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-1814-1 (pbk) p.192
  • ^  See http://www.gyumri.am/eng/history.html

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gyumri - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (526 words)
Gyumri (Armenian: Գյումրի) is the capital and largest city of the Shirak province in northwest Armenia.
It is located about 75 miles (120 km) from the capital Yerevan, and, with a population of 150,917 (2001 census), is the second-largest city in the country.
The first settlement at the location occupied by the modern city of Gyumri is believed to have been founded some time in the 5th century BC, perhaps ca.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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