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Encyclopedia > Gypsum
Gypsum

Desert rose, 10 cm long
General
Category Mineral
Chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O
Identification
Color White to grey, pinkish-red
Crystal habit Massive, flat. Elongated and generally prismatic crystals
Crystal system Monoclinic 2/m
Twinning common {110}
Cleavage 2 good (66° and 114°)
Fracture Conchoidal, sometimes fibrous
Mohs Scale hardness 1.5-2
Luster Vitreous to silky or pearly
Refractive index α=1.520, β=1.523, γ=1.530
Optical Properties 2V = 58° +
Pleochroism None
Streak White
Specific gravity 2.31 - 2.33
Fusibility 3
Solubility hot, dilute HCl
Diaphaneity transparent to translucent
Major varieties
Satin Spar Pearly, fibrous masses
Selenite Transparent and bladed crystals
Alabaster Fine-grained, slightly colored

Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite (chemical formula: CaSO4·2H2O) is a hydrous calcium sulfate, meaning it is composed of oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, calcium and water. ... Gypsum is a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate. ... Download high resolution version (1000x600, 101 KB)desert rose, found in the sahara; 10 cm long; picture taken september 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Saharan desert rose, 10 cm long. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... It has been suggested that twin boundary be merged into this article or section. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... For other uses, see Fracture (disambiguation). ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... Pleochroism is an optical phenomenon in which grains of a rock appear to be different colors when observed at different angles,under a petrographic microscope. ... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Fusibility is the ease with which a material will melt. ... Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite (chemical formula: CaSO4·2H2O) is a hydrous calcium sulfate, meaning it is composed of oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, calcium and water. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Calcium sulphate is a common laboratory and industrial chemical. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

Contents

Crystal varieties

Gypsum from New South Wales, Australia
Gypsum from New South Wales, Australia

Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals and transparent cleavable masses called selenite. It may also occur silky and fibrous, in which case it is commonly called satin spar. Finally it may also be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. A very fine-grained white or lightly-tinted variety of gypsum is called alabaster, which is prized for ornamental work of various sorts. In arid areas, gypsum can occur in a flower-like form typically opaque with embedded sand grains called desert rose. The most visually striking variety, however, is the giant crystals from Naica Mine. Up to the size of 11m long, these megacrystals are among the largest crystals found in nature. A recent publication shows that these crystals are grown under very constant temperature such that large crystals can grow slowly but steadily without excessive nucleation.[1] Photograph of gypsum specimen from New South Wales, Australia taken by Dlloyd. ... Photograph of gypsum specimen from New South Wales, Australia taken by Dlloyd. ... It has been suggested that twin boundary be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite Gypsum crystal Selenite (chemical formula: CaSO4·2H2O) is a hydrous calcium sulfate, meaning it is composed of oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, calcium and water. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... Saharan desert rose, 10 cm long. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Bubbles in a soft drink each nucleate independently, responding to a decrease in pressure. ...


Occurrence

Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. The largest deposits known occur in strata from the Permian age. Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near surface exposures. It is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur. A sample of evaporite material Evaporites (IPA: ) are water-soluble, mineral sediments that result from the evaporation of bodies of surficial water. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... In geology, a vein is a finite volume within a rock, having a distinct shape, filled with crystals of one or more minerals, which were precipitated from an (aqueous) fluid. ... Hydrothermal circulation in the oceans is the passage of the water through mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) systems. ... Anhydrite is a mineral - anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4. ... For Halite Bittorrent client , see Halite Client. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

Fibrous Gypsum from Brazil
Fibrous Gypsum from Brazil

The word gypsum is derived from the aorist form of the Greek verb μαγειρεύω, "to cook", referring to the burnt or calcined mineral. Because the gypsum from the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris has long furnished burnt gypsum used for various purposes, this material has been called plaster of Paris. It is also used in foot creams, shampoos and many other hair products. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x840, 76 KB) Gipsita Origem:Brasil Description = 3 fragmentos (1x3 cm) Source = the author is owner Date = created setembro 2004 Author = Eurico Zimbres FGEL/UERJ Permission = Free for all use File links The following pages link to this file: Gypsum ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (870x840, 76 KB) Gipsita Origem:Brasil Description = 3 fragmentos (1x3 cm) Source = the author is owner Date = created setembro 2004 Author = Eurico Zimbres FGEL/UERJ Permission = Free for all use File links The following pages link to this file: Gypsum ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ... For other uses, see Quarry (disambiguation). ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Because gypsum dissolves over time in water, gypsum is rarely found in the form of sand. However, the unique conditions of the White Sands National Monument in the US state of New Mexico have created a 710 km² (275 sq mile) expanse of white gypsum sand, enough to supply the construction industry with drywall for 1,000 years.[2] Commercial exploitation of the area, strongly opposed by area residents, was permanently prevented in 1933 when president Herbert Hoover declared the gypsum dunes a protected national monument. White Sands National Monument is well-known for its fields of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ...


Commercial quantities of gypsum are found in Iran,Thailand, Germany, Italy, England, Ireland, in British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in Canada,[3] and in New York, Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah and Nevada in the United States. There is also a large mine located at Plaster City, California in Imperial County. There are commercial quantities in East Kutai, Kalimantan. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Plaster City, California, is an unincorporated place in Imperial County in the U.S. state of California. ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ...


Vast crystals of gypsum, up to 10metres in length have been found in the "Cueva de los Crystales" in Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico.[4] This article is about the state in Mexico. ...


Uses of Gypsum

1. Drywall For the musical group Drywall, see Drywall (musical project) Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. ...


2. Plaster ingredient. This article is about the building material. ...


3. Fertilizer and soil conditioner. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Nova Scotia gypsum, often referred to as plaister, was a highly sought fertilizer for wheat fields in the United States. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Soil conditioners, also called soil amendments, are materials added to soil to improve plant growth and health. ...


4. Plaster of Paris (surgical splints; casting moulds; modeling). This article is about the building material. ...


5. A tofu (soy bean curd) coagulant, making it ultimately a major source of dietary calcium, especially in Asian cultures which traditionally use very few dairy products. For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ...


6. Adding hardness to water used for Homebrewing. For other meanings, see Homebrew. ...


7. An ingredient in the popular snack food Twinkie Twinkies A Twinkie is a Golden Sponge Cake with Creamy Filling distributed by Continental Baking Co. ...


8. Blackboard chalk. The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ...


9. A component of Portland cement used to prevent flash setting of concrete. Sampling fast set Portland cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage, as it is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. ...


10. Soil Water Potential monitoring (soil moisture tension)


References

  1. ^ Juan Manuel García-Ruiz, Roberto Villasuso, Carlos Ayora, Angels Canals, and Fermín Otálora (2007). "Formation of natural gypsum megacrystals in Naica, Mexico". Geology 35 (4): 327-330. doi:10.1130/G23393A.1. 
  2. ^ Abarr, James. "Sea of Sand", The Albuquerque Journal, 1999-02-07. Retrieved on 2007-01-27. 
  3. ^ Mines, Mills and Concentrators in Canada. Natural Resources Canada (2005-10-24). Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  4. ^ http://naica.laventa.it/naica-crystal-cave.en.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gypsum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (891 words)
Gypsum is a very common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks.
Gypsum is deposited in lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins.
Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near surface exposures.
Gypsum - definition of Gypsum in Encyclopedia (641 words)
The ability of hydrated gypsum to remain at relatively low temperatures, even if a flame is applied directly to it for a short period of time, is exploited by drywall to confer fire resistance to the wooden frames of houses and other buildings.
Gypsum, on the other hand, forms a strong crystal structure immediately upon receiving the water, and this phenomenon is responsible for gypsum's ease of being cast into sheets (for drywall), sticks (for flboard chalk), molds (to set broken bones, or create molds for metal casting), and other forms.
The word gypsum is derived from the Greek meaning 'to cook', in reference to the burnt or calcined mineral.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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