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Encyclopedia > Gymnastics

Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, gracefulness, and kinesthetic awareness, and includes such skills as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. It developed from beauty practices and fitness used by the ancient Greeks, including skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and circus performance skills. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A handspring is a gymnastics maneuver with two variations - the front handspring and the back handspring. ... a handstand performed with straight legs A capoeirista performs a handstand with legs bent. ... The Aerial Cartwheel is a popular move used in many martial arts, and can also be learned in gymnastics. ... In gymnastics, a cartwheel is the movement where one moves sideways (in the motion the wheel of a cart would follow) in a straight line keeping the back straight placing the hand of the same side on the ground followed by the other hand as the legs are passed over...



1908 Summer Olympics in London: Display of the British women's gymnastics team
1908 Summer Olympics in London: Display of the British women's gymnastics team

To the Ancient Greeks, physical fitness was paramount, and all Greek cities had a gymnasia, a courtyard for jumping, running, and wrestling. As the Roman Empire ascended, Greek gymnastics gave way to military training. The Romans, for example, introduced the wooden horse. In 393 AD the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games, which by then had become corrupt, and gymnastics, along with other sports declined. Later, Christianity, with its medieval belief in the base nature of the human body, had a deleterious effect on gymnastics. For centuries, gymnastics was all but forgotten.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Events Gao Zu succeeds Tai Zu as Emperor of the Later Qin Empire in China. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, however, two pioneer physical educators – Johann Friedrich GutsMuth (17591839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (17781852) - created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they designed that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. In particular, Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar, the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse.[1] 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (Turnvater Jahn) (August 11th 1778, Lanz - October 15th 1852, Freyburg) was a German Prussian gymnastics educator and patriot. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Two parallel bars form an artistic gymnastics apparatus only used by male gymnasts. ... The vault, formerly known as vaulting horse, is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ...

By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. However, from then, and up until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric gymnastics that would seem strange to today's audiences: synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, horizontal ladder, etc. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events, and the first women's Olympic competition – primitive, for it involved only synchronized calisthenics - was held at the 1928 Games in Amsterdam. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ...

By the 1954 Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 10) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues to inspire. The new medium of television helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Olympic Games held in Montreal, Canada. She was coached by the famous Romanian, Bela Karolyi. According to Sports Illustrated, Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars, two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise. Unfortunately, even with Nadia's perfect scores, the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviets. Nadia will always be remembered as "a fourteen year old, ponytailed little girl" who showed the world that perfection could be achieved. Nadia Elena Comaneci (originally Comăneci ) (born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian gymnast, winner of five Olympic gold medals, and the first to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. ... (Redirected from 1976 Olympic Games) There were two Olympic Games in the year 1976: 1976 Summer Olympics 1976 Winter Olympics This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... Bela Karolyi (born September 13, 1942 in Cluj-Napoca Romania), is a famous gymnastics coach. ... The first issue of Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954, showing Milwaukee Braves star Eddie Mathews at bat in Milwaukee County Stadium. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

In 2006, a new points system was put into play. Instead of being marked 1 to 10, the gymnast's start value depends on the difficulty rating of the exercise routine. Also, the deductions became higher: before the new point system developed, the deduction for a fall was 0.5, and now it is 0.8. The motivation for a new point system was to decrease the chance of gymnasts getting a perfect score. Gymnastics is open to ages starting very young at about 3 and carrying on to becoming world class. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Artistic gymnastics

Main article: Artistic gymnastics

Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Each group does different events; Men compete on Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, and High Bar, while women compete on Vault, Uneven Bars, Beam, and Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, and parallel bars (for example, in the 1950s in the USSR). Though routines performed on each event may be short, they are physically exhausting and push the gymnast's strength, flexibility, endurance and awareness to the limit. Artistic Gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which competitors perform short routines (ranging from approximately 30 to 90 seconds) on different apparatus, obviously less for vaulting (see lists below). ... Artistic Gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which competitors perform short routines (ranging from approximately 30 to 90 seconds) on different apparatus, obviously less for vaulting (see lists below). ...

Traditionally, at the international level, competitions on the various apparatus consisted of two different performance categories: compulsory and optional. For the compulsory event, each gymnast performing on a specific apparatus executed the same required routine. At the optional level, the gymnast performed routines that he or she choreographed. Nowadays, each country may use compulsory and optional routines at their discretion in the training of young gymnasts.

Women's events

In the vaulting events gymnasts: sprint down a 25 meter (about 82 feet) runway, take off the ground and land on a beat board - a kind of sprung board, (run/ take-off segment), land momentarily, generally on the hands, on the vaulting horse or vaulting table, (pre flight segment), then spring or block off of this platform to a two footed landing (post flight segment). Beginners will often remain upright during the vaulting sequence while more advanced gymnasts will block off as they pass through the handstand, an inverted position, and then to a landing on the feet. The post flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos or somersaults, and or twisting movements.
In 2001 the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue or table. The new apparatus is more stable, is wider and longer than the older vaulting horse - approx. 1m in length and 1m in width, gives gymnasts a larger blocking surface, and is therefore safer than the old vaulting horse. With the addition of this new, safer vault, gymnasts are attempting far more difficult and dangerous vaults.
Uneven Bars
On the uneven bars (also known as asymmetric bars, UK), the gymnast navigates two horizontal bars set at different heights. The height is generally fixed, but the width may be adjusted. Gymnasts perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves, as well as moves that pass through the handstand. Usually in higher levels of gymnastics, leather grips are worn to ensure that the gymnast maintains a grip on the bar, and to protect the hands from blisters and tears (known as rips), Gymnasts sometimes wet their grips with water from a spray bottle and then may apply chalk to their grips to prevent the hands from slipping. Chalk may also be applied to the hands if grips are not worn and/or to the bar. The most common way to mount the uneven bars is by using a springboard and jumping towards the lower bar.
Balance Beam
The gymnast performs a choreographed routine from 60 to 80 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, turns and dance elements on a padded sprung beam. Apparatus norms set by the International Gymnastics Federation (used for Olympic and most elite competitions) specify the beam must be 125 cm (4' 1") high, 500 cm (16' 5") long, and 10 cm (4") wide.[2] The event requires in particular, balance, flexibility and strength.
The floor event occurs on a carpeted 12m × 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood, which is supported by springs or foam blocks generally called a "sprung" floor. This provides a firm surface that will respond with force when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve extra height and a softer landing than would be possible on a regular floor. Female gymnasts perform a choreographed exercise 70 to 90 seconds long. The music is instrumental and cannot include vocals. The routines consist of tumbling passes, series of jumps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns. A gymnast usually performs three or four tumbling passes that include three or more skills or 'tricks".

At the compulsory levels gymnasts are judged on a scale of 10, but as they reach the higher levels, particularly levels 9 and 10, the gymnasts' start-values may vary depending upon a number of different factors such as skill level and skill combinations. Also, every skill has a letter grade describing its difficulty. At level nine, to reach a start value of ten, the gymnast has to acquire bonus points, which she can achieve by connecting two or more skills of a certain high level of difficulty. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,480 × 1,679 pixels, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) العربية | | Deutsch | English | Español | فارسی | Français | Italiano | | | | Nederlands | Polski | Português | | Svenska | | | | +/- File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 542 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,480 × 1,679 pixels, file size: 404 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) العربية | | Deutsch | English | Español | فارسی | Français | Italiano | | | | Nederlands | Polski | Português | | Svenska | | | | +/- File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as... The vault, formerly known as vaulting horse, is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The uneven bars or asymmetric bars is a artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... Young gymnast on the beam The balance beam is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... The Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) or International Federation of Gymnastics (IFG) is the governing body of competitive gymnastics. ... A Canadian gymnast trains on a floor. ...

Compulsory levels of gymnastics have choreographed routines, and all women competing at that level do the same routines. In the United States, compulsory levels go from 1-6; most gymnasts start at levels 2-4 . In optional level competitions, however, all routines are different and have different floor music. Optional levels in the U.S. include levels 7 - 10 (elite). The Olympics, and college level gymnastics are also optional. In the Olympics, gymnasts are considered elite level gymnasts, which is higher level than the U.S. level 10.

Men's events

Floor Exercise 
Male gymnasts also perform on a 12m. by 12m. sprung floor A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance. The gymnast must also show strength skills, including circles, scales, and press handstands. Men's floor routines usually have four passes that will total between 60–70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women's event. Rules require that gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine.
A boy on the pommel horse
A boy on the pommel horse
Pommel Horse 
The ultimate balancing act, gymnasts must perform continuous circular movements around the horse while allowing only their hands to actually touch it. This is considered one of the most difficult of the men's events and requires great upper body strength, and flawless control of balance and body position.
Still Rings 
Still Rings is arguably the most physically demanding event. The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5.75 meters off the floor, and adjusted in height so the gymnast has room to hang freely and swing. He must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine must begin with an impressive mount, and must conclude with an equally impressive dismount.
Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a spring board. The body position is maintained while "punching" (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing.Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power and strength the gymnast has in the legs and arms and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults.
Parallel Bars 
Men perform on two bars slightly further than a shoulder's width apart and usually 1.75m high while executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination.
High Bar 
A 2.4cm thick steel bar raised 2.5m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giants (revolutions around the bar), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather grips are usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar.

As with the women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events, for their execution, degree of difficulty, and overall presentation skills. A Canadian gymnast trains on a floor. ... Image File history File links Gymnastics_brokenchopstick. ... Image File history File links Gymnastics_brokenchopstick. ... The pommel horse is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... The pommel horse is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... The rings or still rings is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... The vault, formerly known as vaulting horse, is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... Two parallel bars form an artistic gymnastics apparatus only used by male gymnasts. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


TeamGym originates from Scandinavia and this particular type of Gymnastics has been a major event for over 20 years.[citation needed] A team in this sport can have from 6 to 12 members, either all male, all female or a mixed squad. The team shows three disciplines, Trampette, Tumbling and Floor.

In every run of Tumbling and Trampette only six gymnasts compete. They stream their abilities (meaning that one gymnast goes after one another very quickly) The best move is the one performed last. Both are performed to music.

All members of the Team take part here. It is a mixture of Dance, flexibility and skill. The routine has to be skillfully choreographed and the judges look out for changes in shape. There need's to be at least two body waves involved, one spin, two balance's and some actual gymnastic acrobatics. The Floor is performed to music.
Here a trampette is used. There are two components of this; Vault and the Trampette on its' own. There have to be three runs in total. At least one of these runs has to be a vault run. Another run has to include all the gymnasts doing the same move. This is generally the first run. This is also performed to music.
Again, here there are three runs (rounds) involved. One of which has to include all six gymnasts doing a forwards series. Another run also has to include the gymnasts completing the same move. Each series must have at least three different acrobatic elements.

A hardwood floor (parquetry) is a popular feature in many houses. ... Tumbling can have several meanings: Tumbling is floor gymnastics, similar to somersault, backhandsprings, and cartwheels. ...

Display gymnastics

General gymnastics enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. They perform synchronized, choreographed routines. Troupes may be all one gender or mixed. There are no age divisions in general gymnastics. The largest general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939. The World Gymnaestrada is the largest general gymnastics exhibition. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Rhythmic gymnastics

The discipline of rhythmic gymnastics is competed only by women (although there is a new version of this discipline for men being pioneered in Japan, see Men's rhythmic gymnastics), and involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatus — ball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, rope — on a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 20 points, and the music used by the gymnast can contain vocals, but may not contain words. Rhythmic gymnasts from Greece in the 2000 Sydney Olympics Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which single competitors or pairs, trios or even more manipulate one or two apparatuses: Ball, Clubs, Hoop, Ribbon, and Rope. ... Mens rhythmic gymnastics is a variation of the sport of womens rhythmic gymnastics that emerged in Japan from stick gymnastics taught and performed since long ago with the aim of improving physical strength and health. ...

Aerobic gymnastics

Aerobic gymnastics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals, pairs, trios or groups up to 6 people, emphasizing strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills. Routines are performed on a small floor area and generally last 60-90 seconds. The definition of Sports Aerobics is the ability to perform continuously complex and high intensity movement patterns to music- which originate from traditional aerobics - with a high degree of perfectly executed elements of difficulty. ...

Trampoline and Tumbling

Trampolining consists of four events, individual, synchronized, double mini and tumbling. Only individual trampoline is included in the Olympics. Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height, followed by a sequence of ten leaps without pauses during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial tumbling skills. Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves. Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronicity as well as the form of the moves. Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up, two moves are performed and the scores marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline. In power tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. Scoring is similar to trampolining. Trampolining is a competitive sport in which gymnasts perform acrobatics while bouncing on a trampoline. ... Power tumbling is a gymnastics sport which combines the skills of artistic gymnastics on the floor and those of trampolining. ...

Acrobatic Gymnastics

Acrobatic Gymnastics (formerly Sports Acrobatics), often referred to as acrobatics, "acro" sports or simply sports acro, is a group gymnastic discipline for both men and women. Acrobats in groups of two, three and four perform routines with the heads, hands and feet of their partners. They may pick their own music, but lyrics or Disney music are not allowed. High wire act Acrobatics (from Greek Akros, high and bat, walking) is one of the performing arts, and is also practiced as a sport. ...

Performers must compete in preparatory grades A and B, then move on to grades 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5; by 3, 4 and 5 two routines are required, one for balances and another for tempos.

Former apparatus & events

Rope Climb

Further information: rope climbing

Generally, competitors climbed either a 6m (6.1m = 20 ft in USA) or an 8m (7.6m = 25 ft in USA), 38mm (1.5") diameter natural fiber rope for speed, starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of "stride" was normally permitted. A competitor in a rope climbing event, at Lyons Part-Dieu shopping centre. ...

Flying Rings

Further information: Flying Rings

Flying Rings was an event similar to Still Rings, but with the performer swinging back and forth while executing a series of stunts. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both the NCAA and the AAU until the early 1960s. // Flying Rings was a gymnastic event similar to Still Rings, but with the performer gripping a pair of rings, approximately shoulder width apart, and swinging - from the point of suspension of the rings - while executing a series of stunts. ... The rings or still rings is an artistic gymnastics apparatus. ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often said NC-Double-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ... - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


Gymnastics is considered to be a dangerous sport, due in part to the height of the apparatus, the speed of the exercises and the impact on competitors' joints, bones and muscles. In several cases, competitors have suffered serious, lasting injuries and paralysis after severe gymnastics-related accidents. For instance, in 1998, world-class Chinese artistic gymnast Sang Lan was paralyzed after falling on vault at the Goodwill Games. Sang Lan (Simplified Chinese: æ¡‘å…°) (born June 11, 1981, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China) is a former Chinese gymnast, television personality and student. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... Logo of the 2nd Games in Seattle The Goodwill Games were an international sports competition, created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s. ...

Artistic gymnastics injuries have been the subject of several international medical studies, and results have indicated that more than half of all elite-level participants may eventually develop chronic injuries. In the United States, injury rates range from a high 56% for high school gymnasts to 23% for club gymnasts. However, the rates for participants in recreational or lower-level gymnastics are lower than that of high-level competitors. Conditioning, secure training environments with mats and knowledgeable coaching can also lessen the frequency or occurrence of injuries.[3][4][5] Military Air Transportation Service (MATS) was a command of the United States Air Force. ...

Popular Culture


Stick It is a teen comedy film starring Jeff Bridges, Missy Peregrym, and Vanessa Lengies. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Peaceful Warrior is a 2006 American film, starring Scott Mechlowicz, Nick Nolte and Amy Smart. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

Artistic Gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which competitors perform short routines (ranging from approximately 30 to 90 seconds) on different apparatus, obviously less for vaulting (see lists below). ... The gymnasium functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ... Gymnasts are people who participate in the sports of either artistic gymnastics or rhythmic gymnastics. ... The list of US National Collegiate Athletic Association mens Gymnastics Champions, by division and year. ... The NCAA introduced Womens Gymnastics as a championship sport in 1982. ... Turners (German: , gymnasts in English) are German Americans who have organised themselves in gymnastic unions. Together with Carl Schurz they were supportive in getting Abraham Lincoln elected as president of the United States of America (USA). ... Trampolining is a competitive sport in which gymnasts perform acrobatics while bouncing on a trampoline. ... The World Gymnastics Championships are held every year. ...


  1. ^ a b The Illustrated History of Gymnastics by John Goodbody, 1982
  2. ^ Apparatus Norms, International Gymnastics Federation, p.63. Retrieved 2007-03-27
  3. ^ Patria Hume Minimising Injuries in Gymnastics Activities Retrieved 2007-03-27
  4. ^ CB Lowry, BF Leveau A retrospective study of gymnastics injuries to competitors and noncompetitors in private clubs American Journal of Sports Medicine, V. 10, i. 4 pp. 237-239 July 1982. (Courtesy link to abstract. Subscription required for full article)
  5. ^ Gymnastics Safety SafeUSA.org. Retrieved 2007-03-27

http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/events/1996/olympics/daily/july25/flashback.html Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • FM Gymnastics- a list of Techniques and free animated comic tutorials for Floor Gymnastics.
Look up gymnastics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Cite error 4; Invalid <ref> tag; refs with no name must have content

  Results from FactBites:
As a governing body it is held in high esteem by both its member federations and gymnastics clubs throughout five continents.
In 1897, seventeen national associations joined together to form the basis of the European Gymnastics Federation.
However, when the USA was admitted in 1921, the Committee changed its name to the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique or FIG, as it is known today.
  More results at FactBites »



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