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Encyclopedia > Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium (pronounced with /g-/ or, in Swedish, /j-/ as opposed to /dʒ-/) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. The word γυμνάσιον (gymnasion) was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men (see gymnasium (ancient Greece)). The gymnasium prepares pupils to enter a university. This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Grammar school can refer to various types of schools in different English-speaking countries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... In ancient Greece, the gymnasium (Greek: ; gymnasion) functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games. ...


In Germany, for instance, pupils study subjects like German, math, physics, chemistry, geography, biology, arts, music, physical education, divinity, history and social sciences. They are also required to study at least two foreign languages. The most popular choices are the combinations English and Latin, English and French, English and Italian or English and Spanish. In the Netherlands the gymnasium consists of six years in which pupils study the same subjects as their German counterparts, with the addition of compulsory Ancient Greek and Latin. Incorrect shortening of Mathematics. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... // Music is an art form consisting of sound and silence expressed through time. ... Physical education (PE) is the interdisciplinary study of all area of science relating to the transmission of physical knowledge and skills to an individual or a group, the application of these skills, and their results. ... Divinity has a number of related uses in the field of religious belief and study. ... HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


This meaning of a secondary school preparing for higher education at university in the German-speaking, the Scandinavian, the Benelux and the Baltic countries has been the same at least since the Protestant reformation in the 16th century. The first general system of schools which provided for the Gymnasia was that of Saxony, formulated in 1528. They are thus meant for the more academically-minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13. In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium often study Latin and Greek. The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Some gymnasiums provide general education, others have a specific focus. (This also differs from country to country.) The three traditional branches are:

  • humanities education (specialising in Classical languages, such as Latin and Greek)
  • modern languages (students are required to study at least three languages)
  • mathematical-scientific education

Today, a number of other areas of specialisation exist, such as gymnasiums specialising in economics or domestic science. The humanities are those academic disciplines which study the human condition using methods that are largely analytic, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural and social sciences. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, which is equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix "pro" means "instead of".


In Italy, the first two years of secondary school are called Gymnasium if the school chosen is a classical lyceum (a particular secondary school focusing on Latin and Greek as well as literature). Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Countries with gymnasium schools

  • Argentina Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, 6 years.
  • Austria 8 years, after 4 years of primary school, or 4 years, after primary school and 4 years of Hauptschule, ends with Matura at the age of 18.
  • Belarus.
  • Bulgaria 5 years, after 7 years of primary school. Currently graduation after passing the Matriculation Examination.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 9 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Croatia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Cyprus 3 years, starting at age 12 and following 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15-18) for students with academic aspirations or TEL for students who prefer vocational training.
  • Czech Republic (4 years starting at age 14/15; 6 years starting at age 12/13; 8 years starting at age 10/11; all of them end with a Maturita)
  • Denmark 3 years (4 years for athletes who are part of the Team Denmark elite program, or musicians who have chosen MGK), usually starting after 9 or 10 years of primary school). This is more like a prep school or the first years of college than high school. Everyone is eligible to go to a US high school, but you have to be deemed competent to get into a gymnasium. Gymnasium is also available in an intensive 2 year program leading to the Højere Forberedelseseksamen ("Upper Preparatory Exam").
  • Estonia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
  • Finland (2-4 years (most students spend 3 years), after 9 years of primary school, starting usually at age 15/16, Abitur after passing the Matriculation Examination)
  • Germany (6-9 years (depending on the Bundesland) (now being changed to 8 years nationwide), starting at 5th (at age 10) or 7th grade, Abitur in 12th or 13th grade). Also, there are progymnasiums and realgymnasiums. (For more information, see Gymnasia and Realgymnasia.)
  • Greece 3 years, starting at age 12 after 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all children, it is followed by the non-mandatory Lyceum (ages 15-18) for students with academic aspirations, or the Technical Vocational Educational School (TEE) for students who prefer vocational training.
  • Hungary (4/6/8 years, starting after 8/6/4 years of primary school, ends with Matura)
  • Iceland (usually 4 years, starting at age 15/16 after 10 years of elementary school, though 3 years can also be chosen. If chosen, students at Menntaskólinn Hraðbraut finish the school in 2 years.)
  • Israel, five schools termed "gymnasium" located in Tel Aviv, Rishon LeZion, Jerusalem and Haifa.
  • Italy, ginnasio is the name of the two first years of Liceo Classico
  • Liechtenstein (ends with Matura)
  • Latvia (3 years, after 9 years of primary school)
  • Lithuania (4 years, after 4 years of primary school and 4 years of secondary school)
  • Luxembourg (usually 7 years, starting at age 12-13 after 6 years of primary school)
  • Macedonia (4 years, starting at age 14)
  • Montenegro (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Netherlands (6 years, starting at age 11-13, after 8 years of primary school. Prepares for admission to University. Gymnasia in the Netherlands have compulsory classes in Ancient Greek and Latin; a similar high level secondary school without the classical languages is called "Atheneum")
  • Norway (2/3/4 years depending on course path taken, starting at the age of 15/16, final examination upon completion) (This is no longer in official use - it's been subsumed within the "videregående skole" - but many people still refer to it as "gymnas")
  • Poland - 3 years, type of middle school, starting at age 13/14 and following 6 years of Elementary School. Compulsory for all students. Followed by the non-mandatory 3 years Liceum, 4 years technikum, or 2 or 3 years vocational technical school.
  • Russia
  • Serbia (4 years, starting at age 14/15 after 8 years in elementary school, ends with Matura)
  • Slovakia (4 years starting at age 14/15; 8 years starting at age 9/10; both end with a Maturita)
  • Slovenia (4 years, starting at age 14/15, ends with Matura)
  • Sweden (3 years, starting at age 15/16 after 9 years of primary school)
  • Switzerland (either 6 years after 6 years of primary school or 4 years after 6 years of primary school and 2-3 years of secondary school, ends with Matura)
  • Ukraine (8 years, starting after 4 years of primary school)
  • United Kingdom: historically, grammar schools have been the English equivalent of the gymnasium, selecting pupils on the basis of academic ability and educating them with the assumption that they would go on to study at a university; such schools were largely phased out under the Wilson government, with less than 5% of pupils now attending grammar schools, and the UK now has no widespread equivalent of the gymnasium. The exception is Northern Ireland which retained the system.
  • United States

The Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires is a public high school in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... A Lyceum can be an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Gymnasia (singular: Gymnasium) and Realgymnasia were the classical higher or secondary schools of Germany from the sixteenth century to the twentieth century. ... A Lyceum can be an educational institution (often a school of secondary education in Europe), or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... A blacksmith is a traditional trade. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Menntaskólinn hraðbraut is an Icelandic gymnasium established in 2003 that allows students to get a gymnasium diploma in only two years, contrary to normal period of four years. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Rishon Le Zion in 2002 Rishon LeZion, or Rishon LeZiyyon (ראשון לציון) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, in the Center District of Israel, just south of Tel Aviv, and part of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area (Gush... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Liceo classico is a secondary school type in Italy. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... A lyceum is most often used today to denote either an educational institution (most often a school of secondary education in parts of Europe) or a public hall used for cultural events like concerts. ... ... Vocational Technical School (Russian: профессиона́льно-техни́ческое учи́лище) – Professionalno-tehnicheskoye uchilishche (acronym: PTU; ПТУ, пэ-тэ-у́) is a Soviet vocational education facility aimed to train qualified industrial workers and servicemen. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Events George Friderich Handel becomes a British subject. ... Pedagogy, the art or science of being a teacher, generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction[1]. The word comes from the Ancient Greek παιδαγωγέω (paidagōgeō; from παῖς (child) and ἄγω (lead)): literally, to lead the child”. In Ancient Greece, παιδαγωγός was (usually) a slave who supervised the education... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom. ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ... Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto Sumus Primi Founded April 23, 1635 Head Master Cornelia A. Kelley Affiliation Boston Public Schools Curriculum College-Preparatory Grades 7-12 Enrollment c. ... Central High School is the second oldest public high school in the United States. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Private schools, or independent schools, are schools not administered by local, state, or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public (state) funds. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ...

Final degree

Depending on country, the final degree (if any) is called Abitur, Artium, Diploma, Matura, Maturita or Student and it usually opens the way to professional schools directly. The final two or three years at a gymnasium are therefore equivalent to the first two years at college in the United States. Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Diploma from Mexico City College, 1948 (in Latin) A diploma (from Greek δίπλωµα diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Austria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Matura (Matur, Maturità, Maturität) is the word commonly used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine for the final exams young adults (aged 18 or 19) take at the end of their secondary education. ... Student was, until 1968, a designation for those who had passed the final examinations at an upper secondary school (läroverk) or a gymnasium in Sweden. ...


Relationship with other education facilities

In countries like Croatia, most university faculties only accept students from secondary schools that last four years (rather than three). This includes all Gymnasium students but only a part of vocational high schools, in effect making Gymnasium the preferred choice for all pupils aiming for university diplomas.


In Germany, other types of secondary school are called Realschule, Hauptschule and Gesamtschule. These are attended by about two thirds of the students and the first two are practically unknown in other parts of the world. A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to an American high school. However, it offers the same school leaving certificates as the other three types of German secondary schools - the Hauptschulabschluss (school leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th Grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th Grade), the Realschulabschluss, also called Mittlere Reife, (school leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th Grade) and Abitur, also called Hochschulreife, after 13th or seldom after 12th Grade. Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule may continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. It is also possible to get an erweiterter Realschulabschluss after 10th grade that allows the students to continue their education at the Oberstufe of a gymnasium and get an Abitur. There are two types of vocational school in Germany. The Berufsschule, a part time vocational school and a part of Germany's dual education system, and the Berufsfachschule, a full time vocational school outside the dual education system. Both types of school are also part of Germany's secondary school system. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with a good GPA from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German secondary school, the Fachoberschule, a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the Fachhochschulreife, enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule (polytechnic), and in Hesse also at an university within the state. Students who have graduateded from vocational school and have been working in a job for at least 3 years can go to Berufsoberschule to get either a "Fachabitur" (meaning they may go to university, but they can only study the subjects belonging to the "branch" (economical, technical, social) they studied in at Berufschule.) after one year, or the normal "Abitur" (after two years), which gives them complete access to universities. In Germany, the Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ... Rütli-Hauptschule, Berlin-Neukölln. ... The education system in Germany has a long tradition of compulsory state schools. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... The education system in Germany has a long tradition of compulsory state schools. ... A dual education system is practised in several countries, notably Germany, Austria and Switzerland, but also Denmark, the Netherlands and France. ... The initials GPA can refer, among other things, to Grade Point Average; see Grade (education) Guinness Peat Aviation General Practice Australia, a private, independent medical accreditation society Greyhound Pets of America This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... A Fachhochschule (plural: Fachhochschulen) or University of Applied Sciences in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland is a university specialized in certain topical areas (e. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... Hesse (German: Hessen) is a state of Germany with an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants. ... Berufsoberschule is an optional part of the german education system, and it the only way to be allowed at university for students who didn´t get an Abitur at a Gymnasium. ...


In Sweden, the term gymnasium was traditionally reserved for the theoretical education described above. However, due to the egalitarian strivings of post-war Sweden's social democratic governments, the term is today used for all kinds of secondary education, both theoretical and vocational.


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