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Encyclopedia > Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site
Gwaii Haanas National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location of Gwaii Haanas National Park in Canada
Location ((Canada))
Nearest city Sandspit
Coordinates 52°23′21″N 131°28′16″W / 52.38917, -131.47111
Area 1,495 km²
Established 1988
Governing body Gwaii Haanas Archepelago Management Board

Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site, often referred to simply as Gwaii Haanas, is located in the southern part of Haida Gwaii / Queen Charlotte Islands 130 kilometres off the coast of British Columbia, Canada. Gwaii Haanas protects an archipelago of 138 islands, the largest being Moresby Island. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... This article is about national parks. ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x790, 57 KB) Summary Location of Canadian national parks Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of Canadian national parks Point Pelee National Park Bruce Peninsula National Park Gros Morne National Park Forillon National Park Cape Breton... Sandspit is the largest town on the Queen Charlotte Islands off the Pacific coast of northern British Columbia, Canada. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... (Public domain map) The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii are an archipelago off the north-west coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands: Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south. ... Leaving Skidegate Inlet aboard BC Ferries M/V Queen of Prince Rupert The Queen Charlotte Islands or Haida Gwaii (Land of the Haida) are an archipelago off the northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, consisting of two main islands, Graham Island in the North, and Moresby Island in the south... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ...

Contents

Establishing Gwaii Haanas

In 1981 plans to expand logging to Burnaby Island led to the first concerted efforts to protect Gwaii Haaans.


In 1985 the Haida Nation designated Gwaii Haaanas a Haida Hertiage Site. Two years later logging ended when Canada and British Colombia signed the South Moresby Memorandum of Understanding. Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total)  Ranked 5th 944,735...


A year later the South Moresby Agreement was signed providing for the designation of a National Park Reserve. [1]


Cooperatively managed

In 1993 the Government of Canada and the Council of Haida Nation signed the Gwaii Haanas Agreement. This Agreement expresses respect for both Canadian and Haida interests, and includes a mutual commitment to the protection of Gwaii Haanas. Based on the Agreement, Gwaii Haanas is cooperatively managed by the Archipelago Management Board (AMB), which is made up of an equal number of representatives from the Council of Haida Nation and the Government of Canada. The AMB is responsible for all aspects of planning, operation, and management of Gwaii Haaans. [2]


Gwaii Haanas Crest

The AMB's crest is a unique design crafted by local Haida artist Giitsxaa. The AMB chose the sea otter and the sea urchin because of the creatures' significance in the history and tradition of the protected area and because of their ecological significance. [3]

Populations of sea urchin, a kelp-grazing species, were once kept in check by sea otters, ensuring an abundance of kelp and species that depend upon kelp communities. With the extirpation of sea otters during the maritime fur trade, the natural balance between species in the community was disturbed. [4] As a result the sea urchin population has increased dramatically over time and the health of kelp forests is threatened. The loss of the sea otter is a powerful reminder of the vulnerability of individual species and entire ecosystems. [5] Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ...


World Heritage Haida Village

SGang Gwaay*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party Flag of Canada Canada
Type Cultural
Criteria iii
Reference 157
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1981  (5th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

SGang Gwaay (Anthony Island), an island in the southern part of Gwaii Haanas, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981. The remains of a Haida village on the eastern side of the island - SGang Gwaay Llnaagay - represent an outstanding example of a traditional Northwest Coast First Nations village site, complete with standing totem poles and the remains of cedar longhouses. [6] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Haida people have a continuing presence at SGang Gwaay and four other village sites between May to September as part of the Haida Gwaii Watchmen Program. Between two and four Watchmen live at each site serving as guardians to protect the natural and cultural heritage of these sites. [7]


Natural values

The landscapes of Gwaii Haanas vary from deep fjords to rugged mountains, salmon spawning streams to sub-alpine tundra. Lysefjorden in Norway A fjord (pronounced FEE-ord or fyord, SAMPA: [fi:3:d] or [faI3:d]; sometimes written fiord) is a glacially overdeepened valley, usually narrow and steep-sided, extending below sea level and filled with salt water. ...


The west coast of Gwaii Haanas can receive over 4 metres of rain annually. As water drains from the highest mountains - including the rugged San Christoval mountains with peaks over 1100 metres - it helps fill over 40 freshwater lakes. In turn, this water drains through more than 50 salmon spawning streams. [8] In low lying areas streams pass beneath a canopy of old growth temperate rainforest, including some of the worlds largest Sitka spruce, western hemlock and western red cedar. Binomial name Picea sitchensis (Bong. ... Binomial name Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. ... Species Thuja plicata Western Redcedar, Thuja plicata, a species of thuja, is an evergreen coniferous tree in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to the northwestern US and southwestern Canada, from southern Alaska and British Columbia south to northwest California and inland to western Montana. ...


Unique island wildlife

Distinct island flora and fauna have evolved over thousands of years. Species here often differ from those found on the mainland. Many common continental species are not found on the islands, or have evolved into unique subspecies such as the black bear which is larger than its mainland cousin. Other species have been introduced relatively recently, such as the Sitka black-tailed deer, racoons, squirrels and beaver. Introduced species now exist in large numbers, much to the detriment of native plants and animals. [9]


An estimated 750 000 seabirds nest along the shoreline of Gwaii Haanas from May through August. [10] Many are burrow-nesters, such as the rhinoceros auklet, ancient murrelet and tufted puffin. Bald eagles are a common site and nest along the coastline. Because the islands are situated along the Pacific flyway, dozens of species of migrating birds stop here in spring and fall. [11]


Proposed National Marine Conservation Area Reserve

Parks Canada has identified the waters around Gwaii Haaans as a potential national marine conservation area reserve (NMCAR). Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ...


For the Haida, the marine and terrestrial environments are inseperable. The boundary between earth and ocean exists only on a map. [12]


The Gwaii Haanas NMCAR will balance protecting marine ecosystems, while also allowing ecolgocially sustainable use. This includes traditional harvesting, recreational and commercial fishing. [13]


Once the NMCAR is established, nearly 5 000 square kilometres of Gwaii Haanas will be protected. This will be one of the only places in the world where a representative area is protected from mountain top to ocean depth.


Visiting Gwaii Haanas

Gwaii Haanas came first in a survey of US and Canadian National Parks in National Geographic Traveler magazine, recognized for its pristine environment and sustainable management practices.[14] National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. ...


Gwaii Haanas is a remote location; accessible by sea kayak, boat or chartered floatplane only.


An orientation is provided to all visitors before they enter Gwaii Haanas.


See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

References

  1. ^ AMB, Public Planning Program, Newsletter No.1, September 1993
  2. ^ Parks Canada Website[1]
  3. ^ AMB, Gwaii Haanas Visitor Guide, April 2008
  4. ^ Rodney Hsu, Implications of Sea Otter Population on Kelp Forest communities [2]
  5. ^ AMB, Gwaii Haanas Visitor Guide, April 2008
  6. ^ AMB, Gwaii Haanas Visitor Guide, April 2008
  7. ^ AMB, Gwaii Haanas Visitor Guide, April 2008
  8. ^ AMB, Public Planning Program, Newsletter No.1, September 1993
  9. ^ Parks Canada Website>[3]
  10. ^ AMB, Public Planning Program, Newsletter No.1, September 1993
  11. ^ Parks Canada Website>[4]
  12. ^ Parks Canada Website>[5]
  13. ^ AMB, Gwaii Haanas Visitor Guide, April 2008
  14. ^ National Geographic Traveler

External links

Recommended Reading

"MacDonald, George F.". Ninstints- Haida World Heritage Site. Vancouver: UBC Press. 1983

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