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Encyclopedia > Guyana
Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Flag of Guyana
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"One people, one nation, one destiny"
Capital
(and largest city)
Georgetown
6°46′N, 58°10′W
Official languages English
Recognised regional languages Guyanese Creole, Akawaio, Hindi, Macushi, Wai-Wai, Arawakan, Cariban
Demonym Guyanese
Government Semi-presidential republic
 -  President Bharrat Jagdeo
 -  Prime Minister Sam Hinds
Independence
 -  from the United Kingdom May 26, 1966 
Area
 -  Total 214,970 km² (84th)
83,000 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 8.4
Population
 -  March 2008 estimate 751,0001 (162nd)
 -  2007 census 769,095 
 -  Density 3.5/km² (217th)
9.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1.378 billion (157th)
 -  Per capita $4,612 (106th)
HDI (2007) 0.750 (medium) (97th)
Currency Guyanese dollar (GYD)
Time zone (UTC-4)
Internet TLD .gy
Calling code +592
1 Population includes excess mortality caused by AIDS. Around one-third of the population (230,000) live in the capital, Georgetown.

Guyana (pronounced /ɡaɪˈænə/ or /ɡuyːˈɑːnə/), officially named the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and previously known as British Guiana, is the only nation state of the Commonwealth of Nations on the mainland of South America. Bordered to the east by Suriname, to the south and southwest by Brazil and to the west by Venezuela, it is the third-smallest country on the mainland of South America. It is one of four non-Spanish-speaking territories on the continent, along with the countries of Brazil (Portuguese), Suriname (Dutch) and the French overseas region of French Guiana (French). Culturally, Guyana associates primarily with the English-speaking Caribbean countries such as Jamaica, or Trinidad and Tobago. Image File history File links Flag_of_Guyana. ... Guyanese coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 The flag of Guyana, known as The Golden Arrowhead, was adopted in 1966. ... ONE PEOPLE, ONE NATION, ONE DESTINY So reads the banner displayed proudly at the base of Guyanas COAT OF ARMS. The design consists of an Amerindian head-dress symbolizing the indigenous people of the country, two diamonds at the sides of the head-dress representing mining industry, a helmet... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links LocationGuyana. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Guyanas population is made up of five main ethnic groups--East Indian, African, Amerindian, Chinese, and Portuguese. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Akawaio is a Carib language spoken mainly in Guyana, most commonly in the region of the Upper Mazaruni. ... -1... The Macushi are an ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil. ... Wai Wai is a popular snack in Nepal, Sikkim and parts of northern West Bengal. ... The Arawakan languages are an indigenous language family of South America and the Caribbean. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... This page lists presidents of Guyana since 1970. ... Pres. ... This page lists chief ministers and prime ministers of Guyana. ... For the baseball player, see Sam Hinds (baseball). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The dollar (currency code GYD) has been the currency of Guyana since 1966. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .gy is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Guyana. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Overseas region (French: Région doutre-mer), is a recent designation given to the overseas departments which have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... West Indies redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Guyana

The first Europeans arrived in the area around 1500. Guyana was inhabited by the Arawak and Carib tribes of Amerindians. Although Christopher Columbus sighted Guyana during his third voyage (in 1498), the Dutch were first to establish colonies: Essequibo (1616), Berbice (1627), and Demerara (1752). The British assumed control in the late 18th century, and the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. Guyana had been peopled for thousands of years before Europeans became aware of the area some five hundred years ago. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Essequibo is the name of a Dutch colony founded in 1616 and located in the region of the Essequibo River. ... Berbice is the Second largest of the three counties in Guyana and is known as the ancient county. ... For other uses, see Demerara (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ...

The State House, Guyana's Presidential Residence.
The State House, Guyana's Presidential Residence.

Escaped slaves formed their own settlements known as Maroon communities. With the abolition of slavery in 1834 many of the former enslaved people began to settle in urban areas. Indentured labourers from modern day Portugal (1834), Germany (first in 1835), Ireland (1836), Scotland (1837), Malta (1839), China and India (beginning in 1838) were imported to work on the sugar plantations. Image File history File linksMetadata Old_residence. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Old_residence. ... Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before a shaman, Suriname 1955 A Maroon (from the word marronage or American/Spanish cimarrón: fugitive, runaway, lit. ... Slave redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ...


In 1889 Venezuela claimed the land up to the Essequibo. Ten years later an international tribunal ruled the land belonged to British Guiana.


During World War II the United States arranged for its air force to use British airports in South America, including those in British Guiana[citation needed]. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... USAF redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth. The United States State Department and the CIA, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing who would politically control Guyana during this time.[1] They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to pro-western Guyanese of African descent, especially Forbes Burnham's People's National Congress to the detriment of the Cheddi Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, mostly supported by Guyanese of Indian descent, which had ties with the Soviet Union. In 1978, Guyana received considerable international attention when 918 almost entirely American members of the Peoples Temple died in Jonestown, Georgetown and at a Temple attack at a small airstrip which resulted in the murder of five people, including the only Congressman murdered in the line of duty in U.S. History. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... CIA, see CIA (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Peoples National Congress is a formerly socialist political party in Guyana. ... Cheddi Jagan, also known as Cheddi Berret Jagan (March 22, 1918 – March 6, 1997), was the chief minister (1957-1964) and president (1992-1997) of Guyana. ... PPP fist logo The Peoples Progressive Party is the ruling political party in Guyana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


Geography

Map of Guyana
Map of Guyana
Kaieteur Falls in central Guyana
Kaieteur Falls in central Guyana
Main article: Geography of Guyana

Guyana is an Amerindian word meaning "Land of many waters".[1] The country can be characterized by its vast rain forests dissected by numerous rivers, creeks and waterfalls, notably Kaieteur Falls on the Potaro River. The country enjoys a diverse, multicultural society, high floral and faunal biodiversity, prize-winning rum, and Demerara sugar. Guyana is also known internationally as the site of the notorious Jonestown Massacre. Download high resolution version (329x706, 9 KB)Map of Guyana from the 2002 CIA Factbook File links The following pages link to this file: Guyana Geography of Guyana Talk:Guyana Talk:Geography of Guyana Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Download high resolution version (329x706, 9 KB)Map of Guyana from the 2002 CIA Factbook File links The following pages link to this file: Guyana Geography of Guyana Talk:Guyana Talk:Geography of Guyana Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... -1... -1... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Suriname and Venezuela Geographic coordinates: 5 00 N, 59 00 W Map references: South America Area: total: 214,970 km² land: 196,850 km² water: 18,120 km² Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Idaho Land boundaries: total: 2,462 km... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... A gold dredger (known locally as a missile) on the Potaro River. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Demerara is used as the generic name of a type of specialty raw cane sugar often used in home baking and in sweetening coffee. ... Houses in Jonestown Jonestown was a town in Guyana established by Peoples Temple cult leader Jim Jones. ...


Guyana can be divided into four natural regions: a narrow and fertile marshy plain along the Atlantic (low coastal plain) coast where most of the population lives, then a white sand belt more inland (hilly sand and clay region), containing most of Guyana's mineral deposits, the dense rainforests (Forested Highland Region) across the middle of the country, the grassy flat savannah in the south and finally the larger interior highlands (interior savannah) consisting mostly of mountains that gradually rise to the Brazilian border. Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ...


Guyana's main mountains are contained here, including Mount Ayanganna (6,699 ft (2,042 m)) and on Mount Roraima (9,301 ft (2,835 m) – the highest mountain in Guyana) on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint, part of the Pakaraima range. Roraima and Guyana's tepuis are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel The Lost World. There are also many steep escarpments and waterfalls, including the famous Kaieteur Falls. Between the Rupununi River and the border with Brazil lies the Rupununi savannah, south of which lie the Kanuku Mountains. Mount Ayanganna is a sandstone tepui in the Pakaraima Mountains of western Guyana, 85 kilometres east of Mount Roraima at . ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Mount Roraima is the highest of the table-top mountains (called Tepuis) of the Guiana Highlands (or Guayana Highlands). ... A tripoint is a point at which three areas join. ... The Pacaraima or Pakaraima Mountains (Portuguese: Serra Pacaraimã, Spanish: Sierra Pacaraima) are the mountains of Guyana, lying in southwestern part of this country just near the border with Venezuela. ... Kukenan tepui. ... Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (May 22, 1859 - July 7, 1930) is the British author most famously known for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction. ... For the 1995 Michael Crichton novel, see The Lost World (novel). ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... The Rupununi River is a river in southern Guyana, originating in the Kanuku Mountains. ... The Rupununi savannah is a savanna plain in Guyana between the Rupununi river and the Brazilian border, located in the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region. ... The Kanuku mountains are a group of mountains in Guyana, located in the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region. ...


There are many rivers in the country, the three main ones being (west to east) the Essequibo, the Demerara, and the Berbice. There is also the Corentyne along the border with Suriname. At the mouth of the Essequibo are several large islands. The 90-mile (145 km) Shell Beach along the north-west coasts. Guyana is a major breeding area for sea turtles (mainly Leatherbacks) and other wildlife. The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... The Demerara River is a river in eastern Guyana that rises in the central rainforests of the country and flows to the north for 346 kilometres without tributaries until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Berbice River located in eastern Guyana. ... The Corentyne River is a river in northern South America. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Shell Beach, located on the Atlantic coast of Guyana in the Barima-Waini Region, near the Venezuelan border, is a nesting site for four of the eight sea turtle species - the Olive Ridley, Hawksbill, Green and Leatherback. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ... Binomial name Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) The Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the biggest of all living turtles, reaching a length of over 2. ...


The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, though moderated by northeast trade winds along the coast. There are two rainy seasons, the first from May to mid-August, the second from mid-November to mid-January. Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ...


Boundary disputes

Guyana was in a border dispute with both Suriname, which claimed the land east of the Corentyne River in southeastern Guyana, and Venezuela which claims the land west of the Essequibo River as part of Guayana Esequiba. The dispute with Suriname was arbitrated by the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea and a ruling in favor of Guyana was announced in September, 2007.[2][3][4] A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... The Corentyne / Courantyne / Corantijn River is a river in northern South America. ... The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... Guayana Esequiba is the territory of Guyana claimed by Venezuela. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 153[2] The term United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, also called simply...


When the British surveyed British Guiana in 1840, they included the entire Cuyuni River basin within the colony. Venezuela did not agree with this as it claimed all lands west of the Essequibo River. In 1898, at Venezuela's request, an international arbitration tribunal was convened and in 1899 they issued an award giving about 94% percent of the disputed territory to British Guiana. Venezuela and Great Britain accepted the award by treaty in 1905.[5]. British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ... The Cuyuni River is a river in northern Guyana and eastern Venezuela. ... The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... The London Court of International Arbitration An arbitral tribunal (or arbitration tribunal) is a panel of one or more adjudicators which is convened and sits to resolve a dispute by way of arbitration. ...


Demographics

The present population of Guyana is racially and ethnically heterogeneous, composed chiefly of the descendants of immigrants who came to the country either as enslaved people or as indentured labourers. The population therefore comprises groups of persons with nationality backgrounds from Europe (especially the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Portugal), Africa, China, India, and the Middle East, with the Aboriginal Indians as the indigenous population. These groups of diverse nationality backgrounds have been fused together by a common language, i.e., English and Creole. Guyanas population is made up of five main ethnic groups--East Indian, African, Amerindian, Chinese, and Portuguese. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a nativized pidgin. ...


The largest nationality sub-group is that of the descendants of India, also known as East Indians (Indo-Guyanese), comprising 43.5 percent of the population in 2002. They are followed by people of African heritage (Afro-Guyanese) (30.2 percent). The third in number are those of mixed heritage (16.7 percent), while the Aboriginal Indians are fourth with 9.2 percent. The smallest groups are European, including Portuguese, (0.06 percent or 476 persons) and the Chinese (0.19 percent or 1395). A small group (0.01 percent or 112 persons) did not identify their race/ethnic background. Guyanese of Indian (Asian Indian) origin. ... Afro-Guyanese Guyana Table of Contents Descendants of the Africans, the Afro-Guyanese came to see themselves as the true people of British Guiana, with greater rights to land than the indentured workers who had arrived after them. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Th history of Portuguese immigrants in Guyana is directly related to the end of slavery. ...


The population distribution in 2002 was determined by nationality background. The distribution pattern has been similar to those of the 1980 and 1991 censuses, but the share of the two main groups has declined. The East Indians were 51.9 percent of the total population in 1980, but by 1991 had fallen to 48.6 percent, and then 43.5 percent in 2002 census. Those of African descent increased slightly from 30.8 to 32.3 percent during the first period (1980 and 1991) before falling to 30.2 percent in the 2002 census. With small growth in the population, the decline in the shares of the two larger groups has resulted in the relative shares of the ‘Mixed’ and Amerindian groups. The Amerindian population rose by 22,097 persons between 1991 and 2002. This represents an increase of 47.3 percent or annual growth of 3.5 percent. Similarly, the ‘Mixed’ population increased by 37,788 persons, representing a 43.0 percent increase or annual growth rate of 3.2 percent from the base period of 1991 census. The whites and Chinese populations which declined between 1980 and 1991 regained in numbers by the 2002 census by 54.4 percent (168 persons) and 8.1 percent (105 persons) respectively. However, because of their relatively small sizes, the increase has effectively a zero effect on the overall change. The Portuguese group has declined constantly over the decades. Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


Languages

English is the official language of Guyana. In addition, Amerindian languages are spoken by a small minority, while Guyanese Creole (an English-based creole with African and Indian syntax) is widely spoken. Grammar is not standardized.[6] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


In addition to English, other languages of Guyana include Guyanese Creole, Akawaio, Wai-Wai, Arawak and Macushi. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Akawaio is a Carib language spoken mainly in Guyana, most commonly in the region of the Upper Mazaruni. ... The Wai-wai (or Waiwai) are an ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil. ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... The Macushi are an ethnic group of Guyana and northern Brazil. ...


Regions and neighborhood councils

Regions of Guyana
Regions of Guyana

Guyana is divided into 10 regions:[7][8] Map of the regions of Guyana in alphabetical order Guyana is divided into 10 administrative regions: Barima-Waini Cuyuni-Mazaruni Demerara-Mahaica East Berbice-Corentyne Essequibo Islands-West Demerara Mahaica-Berbice Pomeroon-Supenaam Potaro-Siparuni Upper Demerara-Berbice Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo External links Statoids Categories: Lists of subnational entities... Neighborhood councils of Guyana The regions of Guyana are divided into 27 neighborhood councils. ... Map of the regions of Guyana in alphabetical order Guyana is divided into 10 administrative regions: Barima-Waini Cuyuni-Mazaruni Demerara-Mahaica East Berbice-Corentyne Essequibo Islands-West Demerara Mahaica-Berbice Pomeroon-Supenaam Potaro-Siparuni Upper Demerara-Berbice Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo External links Statoids Categories: Lists of subnational entities...

No Region Area km² Population Population
per km²
1 Barima-Waini 20 339 24 275 1,2
2 Pomeroon-Supenaam 6 195 49 253 8,0
3 Essequibo Islands-West Demerara 3 755 103 061 27,5
4 Demerara-Mahaica 2 232 310 320 139,0
5 Mahaica-Berbice 4 190 52 428 12,5
6 East Berbice-Corentyne 36 234 123 695 3,4
7 Cuyuni-Mazaruni 47 213 17 597 0,4
8 Potaro-Siparuni 20 051 10 095 0,5
9 Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo 57 750 19 387 0,3
10 Upper Demerara-Berbice 17 040 41 112 2,4
Guyana 214 999 751 223 3,5

The regions are divided into 27 neighborhood councils. Region One (Barima-Waini) is found in the North West of Guyana. ... Pomeroon-Supenaam (Region 2) is a region in Guyana, bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the region of Essequibo Islands-West Demerara to the east, the region of Cuyuni-Mazaruni to the south and the region of Barima-Waini to the west. ... Essequibo Islands-West Demerara is a region of Guyana, split in two by the Essequibo river. ... Demerara-Mahaica (Region 4) is a region of Guyana, bordering the Atlantic Ocean to the north, the region of Mahaica-Berbice to the east, the region of Essequibo Islands-West Demerara to the south and the region of Essequibo Islands-West Demerara to the west. ... Mahaica-Berbice is a region of Guyana, bordering the Atlantic Ocean the north, the region of East Berbice-Corentyne to the east, the region of Upper Demarara-Berbice to the south and the region of Demerara-Mahaica to the west. ... First of all, the Regions here are not correct as they are called in Guyana. ... Bartica is the capital of Region Seven (Cuyuni-Mazaruni) in Guyana. ... Potaro-Siparuni is a region in Guyana, bordering the region of Cuyuni-Mazaruni to the north, the regions of Upper Demerara-Berbice and East Berbice-Corentyne to the east, the region of Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo to the south and Brazil to the west. ... Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo (Region 9) is a region of Guyana, bordering the region of Potaro-Siparuni to the north, the region of East Berbice-Corentyne to the east and Brazil to the south and west. ... Upper Demerara-Berbice is a region of Guyana, bordering the regions of Essequibo Islands-West Demerara, Demerara-Mahaica and Mahaica-Berbice to the north, the region of East Berbice-Corentyne to the east, and the regions of Potaro-Siparuni and Cuyuni-Mazaruni to the west. ... Neighborhood councils of Guyana The regions of Guyana are divided into 27 neighborhood councils. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Guyana

Politics of Guyana takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guyana is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly of Guyana. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The 2006 national elections were the first peaceful elections in recent times. The elections were free and fair and were a welcome departure from the turmoil of previous elections. Politics of Guyana takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Guyana is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page lists presidents of Guyana since 1970. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A multi-party system is a type of party system. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The National Assembly is the parliament of Guyana. ... In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...


Historically, politics is a source of tension in the country and violent riots have often broken out during elections. During the 1970s and 1980s, the political landscape was dominated by The People's National Congress, who retained their power by skewing election results. In 1992, the first "free and fair" elections were overseen by former American president Jimmy Carter, and the People's Progressive Party has led the country since. The two parties are principally organized along ethnic lines and as a result often clash on issues related to the allocation of resources. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Economy

Tractor in a rice field on Guyana's coastal plain.
Tractor in a rice field on Guyana's coastal plain.
Main article: Economy of Guyana

Guyana's economy depends on agriculture. Chronic problems include a shortage of skilled labour and a deficient infrastructure. Until recently, the government was juggling a sizable external debt against the urgent need for expanded public investment. Low prices for key mining and agricultural commodities combined with troubles in the bauxite and sugar industries had threatened the government's tenuous fiscal position and dimmed prospects for the future. However, the Guyanese economy has rebounded slightly and exhibited moderate economic growth since 1999, based on an expansion in the agricultural and mining sectors, a more favorable atmosphere for business initiatives, a more realistic exchange rate, fairly low inflation, and the continued support of international organizations. Exports of Guyana include rice, sugar, molasses, bauxite, gold, furniture, electrical and household appliances, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmeceuticals, wood, wood products, processed food, spices, fish, fruits, vegetables, hides, skins, leather and leather products, flowers and plants, textiles, yarns, fabrics, gold jewelry, toys and games, travel goods, stationery, paper products, ceramics, handicrafts, wildlife, packaged foods, and tobacco. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 574 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guyana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 574 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guyana Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... With a per capita gross domestic product of only $4,700 in 2006, Guyana is one of the poorest countries in the Western Hemisphere. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... This article is about the ore. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...


The main economic activities in Guyana are agriculture (producing rice and Demerara sugar), bauxite mining, gold mining, timber, shrimp fishing and minerals. The sugar industry, which accounts for 28% of all export earnings, is largely run by Guysuco, which employs more people than any other industry. Many industries have a large foreign investment. The mineral industry, for example, is heavily invested in by the American company Reynolds Metals, the Canadian Alcan and the Korean/Malaysian Barama Company has a large stake in the logging industry. Demerara is used as the generic name of a type of specialty raw cane sugar often used in home baking and in sweetening coffee. ... This article is about the ore. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Reynolds Metals Company (RMC) was the second largest aluminum company in the United States. ... Alcan (ALaska CANada) is also one of the common names for the Alaska Highway that connects Dawson Creek, British Columbia, with Fairbanks, Alaska. ...

A section of Bourda Market.
A section of Bourda Market.

The production of balatá (natural latex) was once big business in Guyana. Most of the balata bleeding in Guyana took place in the foothills of the Kanuku Mountains in the Rupununi. Early exploitation also took place in the North West District, but most of the trees in the area were destroyed by illicit bleeding methods that involved cutting down the trees rather than making incisions in them. Image File history File linksMetadata Bourda-market. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bourda-market. ... Binomial name Manilkara bidentata (A. DC.) Chev. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ...


Folk uses of balatá included the making of homegrown cricket balls, the temporarily filling of troublesome tooth cavities, and the crafting of figurines and other decorative items (particularly by the Macushi people of the Kanuku mountains).


Major private sector organizations include the Private Sector Commission (PSC)[9] and the Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI);[10] See a list of companies in Guyana. The private sector of a nations economy consists of all that is outside the state. ... The following is a list of companies in Guyana, South America. ...


In addition, the government initiated a major overhaul of the tax code with the start of 2007. The Value Added Tax (VAT) was brought into effect, replacing six different taxes. Prior to the implementation of the VAT it had been relatively easy to evade sales tax and many businesses were in violation of tax code. Many businesses were very opposed to VAT introduction because of the extra paperwork required; however, the Government has remained firm on the VAT. By replacing several taxes with one flat tax rate, it will also be easier for government auditors to spot embezzlement. While the adjustment to VAT has been a tough one, it may improve day-to-day life because of the significant additional funds the government will have available for public spending. Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST...


President Bharrat Jagdeo has made debt relief a foremost priority of his administration. He has been quite successful, getting US$800 million8 of debt written off by the IMF, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), in addition to millions more from other industrial nations. Mr.Jagdeo was lauded by IDB President Moreno for his strong leadership and negotiating skills in pursuing debt relief for Guyana and several other regional countries. Pres. ...


Summary

GDP/PPP (2006 estimate) 
US$3.757 billion (US$4,900 per capita)
Real growth rate  
5.4%
Inflation  
6.0%
Unemployment  
9.1% (2000, understated[citation needed])
Arable land  
2%
Labour force  
418,000 (2001 estimate)
Agricultural produce
sugar, rice, wheat, vegetable oils; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish, shrimps
Industrial produce  
bauxite, sugar, rice milling, timber, textiles, gold mining
Natural resources  
bauxite, gold, diamonds, hardwood timber, shrimp, fish
Exports  
US$621.6 million (2006 estimate)
sugar, gold, bauxite/alumina, rice, shrimps, molasses, rum, timber.
Imports  
US$706.9 million (2006 estimate)
manufactured items, machinery, petroleum, food.
Major trading partners
Canada, U.S., UK, Portugal, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, China, Cuba (2005)

GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... PPP is an abbreviation for: In real estate: prepayment penalty, a penalty paid when property is sold before an agreed-upon date. ... This article is about the ore. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ...

Communications

Telephones
110,100 main lines (ITU, 2005)
400,000 mobile cellular (2007)
Radio broadcast stations
1 (government-owned, broadcasting on AM, FM, and shortwave)[11]
Television broadcast stations
21 (in 2007; one government-owned station; the rest are private stations which relay a variety of American programmes via satellite services)
Internet hosts
3,000 (ITU, 2006)
Internet users
160,000 (ITU, 2005)

This article is about the location. ...

Transport

Cross-border bridge from Guyana to Brazil under construction near Lethem.
Cross-border bridge from Guyana to Brazil under construction near Lethem.
Main article: Transport in Guyana
Railways
Total 116 miles (187 km), all dedicated to ore transport (2001 estimate)
Highways
Total 4,952 miles (7,970 km), of which 367 miles (590 km) paved and 4,586 miles (7,380 km) unpaved (1999 estimate)
Waterways
669 miles (1,077 km)[12]
Ports and harbors
Georgetown, Port Kaituma
Airports
1 international airport (Cheddi Jagan International Airport, Timehri); 1 regional int'l airport (Ogle Airport); and about 90 airstrips, 9 of which have paved runways (2006 estimate).

Railways: total: 187 km (all dedicated to ore transport) standard gauge: 139 km 1. ... Cheddi Jagan International Airport (IATA: GEO, ICAO: SYCJ) is located at , , 41 kilometres south of Guyanas capital, Georgetown. ... Ogle Airport (, ) is located on the Atlantic Ocean coast of Guyana, 6 miles east of the capital, Georgetown. ...

Culture

Holidays
Date Name
January 1 New Year's Day
February 23 Mashramani-Republic Day
variable Phagwah
variable Eid-ul-Fitr
variable Youm Un Nabi
variable Good Friday
variable Easter Monday
May 1 Labour Day
May 5 Indian Arrival Day
May 26 Independence Day
First Monday in July CARICOM Day
August 1 Emancipation Day
variable Diwali
December 25 Christmas
December 26 or 27 Boxing Day
Main article: Culture of Guyana
See also: Literature of Guyana and Music of Guyana

Guyana, along with Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil, is one of the four non-Hispanic nations in South America. Guyana's culture is very similar to that of the English-speaking Caribbean, to the extent that Guyana is included and accepted as a Caribbean nation and is a founding member of the Caricom (Caribbean Community) economic bloc and also the home of the Bloc's Headquarters, the CARICOM Secretariat. Its geographical location, its sparsely populated rain forest regions, and its substantial Amerindian population differentiate it from English-speaking Caribbean countries. Its blend of Indo-Guyanese (East Indian) and Afro-Guyanese (African) cultures gives it similarities to Trinidad and distinguishes it from other parts of the Americas. Guyana shares similar interests with the islands in the West Indies, such as food, festive events, music, sports, etc. Guyana plays international cricket as a part of the West Indies cricket team, and the Guyana team plays first class cricket against other nations of the Caribbean. In addition to its CARICOM membership, Guyana is a member of CONCACAF, the international football federation for North and Central America and the Caribbean. Another aspect of Guyanese culture is its rich folklore about Jumbees. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Holi is an annual Hindu spring festival. ... The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) marks the end of Ramadan. ... It has been suggested that Milad-e-sherif be merged into this article or section. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic cultures. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian Arrival Day is a holiday celebrated on May 30 in Trinidad and Tobago each year since the 1990s. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Independence Day (disambiguation). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emancipation Day is celebrated in various locations in observation generally of the emancipation of slaves. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 27 December) December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... The Culture of the South American nation, Guyana, is very similar to that of the English speaking Caribbean, so much so that Guyana is considered a Caribbean Nation. ... Guyana has produced a number of authors, most of whom write in the English language. ... Guyana is a South American country whose musical traditions are a mix of Indian, African, European and native elements. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Learie Constantine, was one of the first great West Indian players. ... The Guyanese cricket team is the representative cricket team of the country of Guyana. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... CONCACAF (the Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football) is the continent-wide governing body for football in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. ... A Jumbee is a type of spirit or demon in Guyanese folk tale. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Guyana

According to the 2002 Census, Guyana's religions breakdown is 28.4% Hindu, 16.9% Pentecostal, 8.1% Roman Catholic, 7.3% Muslim, 6.9% Anglican, 3% Seventh-day Adventist, 16.5% other Christian denominations, 4.3% no religion, 0.5% Rastafarian, 0.1% Bahá'í, and 2.2% other faiths.[13] Most Guyanese Christians are either Protestants or Roman Catholics and include a mix of all races. Hinduism is dominated by the Indians who came to the country in the early 1800s, while Islam varies between the Afro-Guyanese, and Indian-Guyanese.


Events

Mashramani (Mash) · Phagwah (Holi) · Deepavali (Diwali) Mashramani is the celebration of Guyanas independence from Great Britain. ... Holi is an annual Hindu spring festival. ... For the Indian film of the same name, see Holi (film). ... Diwali taking place in a rural area Dīpãvali (also transliterated Deepavali; Sanskrit: row of lights) or Diwãli (contracted spelling) is the Hindu festival of lights, held on the final day of the Vikram calendar, one type of a Hindu calendar that is followed by North Indians. ... Diwali, or Deepawali, (also called Tihar and Swanti in Nepal) (Markiscarali) is a major Indian and Nepalese festive holiday, and a significant festival in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ...


Education

Bishops' High School
Bishops' High School

Guyana's educational system was at one time considered to be among the best in the Caribbean, but it significantly deteriorated in the 1980s because of the emigration of highly educated citizens and the lack of appropriate funding. Although the education system has recovered somewhat in the 1990s, it still does not produce the quality of educated students necessary for Guyana to modernize its workforce. The country lacks a critical mass of expertise in many of the disciplines and activities on which it depends. Image File history File linksMetadata Bishops_high_gt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bishops_high_gt. ...


The educational system does not sufficiently focus on the training of Guyanese in science and technology, technical and vocational subjects, business management, nor computer sciences. The Guyanese education system is modeled after the former British education system. Students are expected to write SSEE (secondary school entrance exam) by grade 6 for entrance into High School in grade 7. They write CXC at the end of high school. Recently they have introduced the CAPE exams which all other Caribbean countries have now introduced. The A-level system left over from the British era has all but disappeared and is now offered only in a few schools (current as at January 2007). The reason for the insufficient focus or various disciplines can be directly attributed to the common choices made by students to specialize in areas that are similar (math/chemistry/physics or geography/history/economics). With the removal of the old A-level system that encouraged this specialization, it is thought that it will be more attractive[citation needed] for students to broaden their studies. The A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education qualification in England, Northern Ireland and Wales, usually taken by students during the optional final two years of secondary school (Years 12 & 13 (usually ages 16-18), commonly called the Sixth Form except for Scotland), or at...


There are wide disparities among the geographical regions of the country in the availability of quality education, and the physical facilities which are provided are in poor condition.[citation needed]


Further adding to the problems of the educational system, many of the better-educated professional teachers have emigrated to other countries over the past two decades, mainly because of low pay, lack of opportunities and crime. As a result, there is a lack of trained teachers at every level of Guyana's educational system.


There are however several very good Private schools that have sprung up over the last fifteen years. Those schools offer a varied and balanced curriculum.


Public health

Service delivery

The delivery of health services is provided at five different levels in the public sector:

  • Level I: Local Health Posts (166 in total) that provide preventive and simple curative care for common diseases and attempt to promote proper health practices. Community health workers staff them.
  • Level II: Health Centres (109 in total) that provide preventive and rehabilitative care and promotion activities. These are ideally staffed with a medical extension worker or public health nurse, along with a nursing assistant, a dental nurse and a midwife.
  • Level III: Nineteen District Hospitals (with 473 beds) that provide basic in-patient and outpatient care (although more the latter than the former) and selected diagnostic services. They are also meant to be equipped to provide simple radiological and laboratory services, and to be capable of gynecology, providing preventive and curative dental care. They are designed to serve geographical areas with populations of 10,000 or more.
  • Level IV: Four Regional Hospitals (with 620 beds) that provide emergency services, routine surgery and obstetrical and gynecological care, dental services, diagnostic services and specialist services in general medicine and pediatrics. They are designed to include the necessary support for this level of medical service in terms of laboratory and X-ray facilities, pharmacies and dietetic expertise. These hospitals are located in Regions 2, 3, 6 and 10.
  • Level V: The National Referral Hospital (937 beds) in Georgetown that provides a wider range of diagnostic and specialist services, on both an in-patient and out-patient basis; the Psychiatric Hospital in Canje; and the Geriatric Hospital in Georgetown. There is also one children’s rehabilitation centre.

This system is structured so that its proper functioning depends intimately on a process of referrals. Except for serious emergencies, patients are to be seen first at the lower levels, and those with problems that cannot be treated at those levels are referred to higher levels in the system. However, in practice, many patients by-pass the lower levels.


The health sector is currently unable to offer certain sophisticated tertiary services and specialized medical services, the technology for which is unaffordable in Guyana, or for which the required medical specialists simply do not exist. Even with substantial improvements in the health sector, the need for overseas treatment for some services might remain. The Ministry of Health provides financial assistance to patients requiring such treatment, priority being given to children whose condition can be rehabilitated with significant improvements to their quality of life.


In addition to the facilities mentioned above, there are 10 hospitals belonging to the private sector and to public corporations, plus diagnostic facilities, clinics and dispensaries in those sectors. These ten hospitals together, provide for 548 beds.


Eighteen clinics and dispensaries are owned by GUYSUCO.


The Ministry of Health and Labour is responsible for the funding of the National Referral Hospital in Georgetown, which has recently been made a public corporation managed by an independent Board. Region 6 is responsible for the management of the National Psychiatric Hospital. The Geriatric Hospital, previously administered by the Ministry of Labour, became the responsibility of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security in December 1997.


Health conditions

One of the most unfortunate consequences of Guyana's economic decline in the 1970s and 1980s was that it led to very poor health conditions for a large part of the population. Basic health services in the interior are primitive to non-existent and some procedures are not available at all. The U.S. State Department Consular Information Sheet warns "Medical care is available for minor medical conditions. Emergency care and hospitalization for major medical illnesses or surgery is limited, because of a lack of appropriately trained specialists, below standard in-hospital care, and poor sanitation. Ambulance service is substandard and may not routinely be available for emergencies." Many Guyanese seek medical care in the United States, Trinidad or Cuba.


Compared with other neighboring countries, Guyana ranks poorly in regard to basic health indicators. In 1998, life expectancy at birth was estimated at 66.0 years for Guyana, 71.6 for Suriname, 72.9 for Venezuela; 73.8 for Trinidad and Tobago, 74.7 for Jamaica, and 76.5 for Barbados. In Guyana, the infant mortality rate in 1998 was 24.2, in Barbados 14.9; in Trinidad and Tobago 16.2; in Venezuela 22; in Jamaica 24.5; and in Suriname 25.1.


Maternal mortality rates in Guyana are also relatively high, being estimated at 124.6/1000 for 1998. Comparable figures for other Caribbean countries are 50/1000 for Barbados, 75/1000 for Trinidad and 100/1000 for Jamaica.


It must be emphasized, however, that although Guyana's health profile still falls short in comparison with many of its Caribbean neighbours, there has been remarkable progress since 1988, and the Ministry of Health is constantly upgrading conditions, procedures, and facilities. Open heart surgery is now available in the country, and in the second half of 2007 an ophthalmic center will open.[citation needed]


The leading causes of mortality for all age groups are cerebrovascular diseases (11.6%); ischemic heart disease (9.9%); immunity disorders (7.1%); diseases of the respiratory system (6.8%); diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of heart disease (6.6%); endocrine and metabolic diseases (5.5%); diseases of other parts of the Digestive System (5.2%); violence (5.1%); certain condition originating in the prenatal period (4.3%); and hypertensive diseases (3.9%).


The picture in regard to morbidity patterns differs. The ten leading causes of morbidity for all age groups are, in decreasing order: malaria; acute respiratory infections; symptoms, signs and ill defined or unknown conditions; hypertension; accident and injuries; acute diarrhoeal disease; diabetes mellitus; worm infestation; rheumatic arthritis; and mental and nervous disorders.


This morbidity profile indicates that it can be improved substantially through enhanced preventive health care, better education on health issues, more widespread access to potable water and sanitation services, and increased access to basic health care of good quality.


Guyana also suffers from the highest suicide rate of any South America country. The Guyana Health Minister, Leslie Ramsammy, estimates that at least 200 people commit suicide each year in Guyana, or 27.2 people for each 100,000 people each year.[2]


Environment and biodiversity

Satellite image of Guyana 2004.
Satellite image of Guyana 2004.
Blue-and-yellow Macaw.
Blue-and-yellow Macaw.
See also: Category:Flora of Guyana and Category:Fauna of Guyana

Guyana abounds with plant and animal life. Each region boasts unique species. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1294x1910, 2987 KB) Satellite image of Guyana in November 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1294x1910, 2987 KB) Satellite image of Guyana in November 2004. ... http://jpatokal. ... http://jpatokal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution across South America The Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), also known as the Blue-and-gold Macaw, is a member of the macaw group of parrots which breeds in the swampy forests of tropical South America from Panama south to Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. ...


The following habitats have been categorized for Guyana: coastal, marine, littoral, estuarine palustrine, mangrove, riverine, lacustrine, swamp, savannah, white sand forest, brown sand forest, montane, cloud forest, moist lowland and dry evergreen scrub forests (NBAP, 1999). About 14 areas of biological interest have been identified as possible hotspots for a National Protected Area System.


More than 80% of Guyana is still covered by forests, ranging from dry evergreen and seasonal forests to montane and lowland evergreen rain forests. These forests are home to more than a thousand species of trees. Guyana's tropical climate, unique geology, and relatively pristine ecosystems support extensive areas of species-rich rain forests and natural habitats with high levels of endemism. Approximately eight thousand species of plants occur in Guyana, half of which are found nowhere else.


Guyana is one of the countries with the highest biodiversity in the world. Guyana, with 1,168 vertebrate species, 1600 bird species, boasts one of the richest mammalian fauna assemblages of any comparably sized area in the world. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ...


The Guiana Shield region is little known and extremely rich biologically. Unlike other areas of South America, over 70% of the natural habitat remains pristine. Mt Roraima in Guyana The Guiana Shield (Spanish: Guayana) forms a portion of the northern coast of South America. ...


The rich natural history of British Guiana was described by early explorers Sir Walter Raleigh and Charles Waterton and later by naturalists Sir David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell. This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ... Charles Waterton (June 3, 1782 - May 27, 1865) was an English naturalist and explorer. ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS, FZS (born on 8 May 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds most acclaimed broadcasters and naturalists. ... Gerald Durrell – founder of the Jersey Zoo and pioneer of captive breeding The Gerald Durrell Memorial VHS cover, with a self portrait Gerald (Gerry) Malcolm Durrell OBE (January 7, 1925 – January 30, 1995) was a naturalist, zookeeper, conservationist, author, and television presenter. ...


Ecology and World Heritage Site status

Countries interested in the conservation and protection of natural and cultural heritage sites of the world accede to the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage that was adopted by UNESCO in 1972. Guyana is no exception, and signed the treaty in 1977. In fact, Guyana was the first Caribbean State Party to sign the treaty. Sometime in the latter half of the mid-1990s, Guyana seriously began the process of selecting sites for World Heritage nomination and three sites were considered: Kaieteur National Park, Shell Beach and Historic Georgetown. By 1997, work on Kaieteur National Park was started and in 1998 work on Historic Georgetown was begun. To date, however, Guyana has not made a successful nomination. Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Kaieteur National Park is a National Park located in the Potaro-Siparuni Region of Guyana. ... Shell Beach, located on the Atlantic coast of Guyana in the Barima-Waini Region, near the Venezuelan border, is a nesting site for four of the eight sea turtle species - the Olive Ridley, Hawksbill, Green and Leatherback. ...

Among many other mammals, Guyanese jungles are home to the jaguar.
Among many other mammals, Guyanese jungles are home to the jaguar.

In 2000[citation needed], Guyana submitted the Kaieteur National Park, including the Kaieteur Falls, to UNESCO as its first World Heritage Site nomination. The proposed area and surrounds have some of Guyana's most diversified life zones with one of the highest levels of endemic species found anywhere in South America. The Kaieteur Falls is the most spectacular feature of the park falling a distance of 226 m and exceeding the height of Niagara Falls (USA/Canada) five times. Unfortunately, the nomination of Kaieteur Park as a World Heritage Site was not successful, primarily because the area was seen by the evaluators as being too small, especially when compared with the Central Suriname Nature Reserve that had just been nominated as a World Heritage Site (2000). The dossier was thus returned to Guyana for revision. Image File history File links Leopard_zoo. ... Image File history File links Leopard_zoo. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ...


Guyana continues in its bid for a World Heritage Site. Work continues, after a period of hiatus, on the nomination dossier for Historic Georgetown. A Tentative List indicating an intention to nominate Historic Georgetown was submitted to UNESCO in December 2004. There is now a small committee put together by the Guyana National Commission for UNESCO to complete the nomination dossier and the management plan for the site. Recently, in April 2005, two Dutch experts in conservation spent two weeks in Georgetown supervising architecture staff and students of the University of Guyana in a historic building survey of the selected area. This is part of the data collection for the nomination dossier.


Meanwhile, as a result of the Kaieteur National Park being considered too small, there is a proposal to prepare a nomination for a Cluster Site that will include the Kaieteur National Park, the Iwokrama Forest and the Kanuku Mountains. The Iwokrama Rain Forest, an area rich in biological diversity, has been described by Major General (Retired) Joseph Singh as “a flagship project for conservation.” The Kanuku Mountains area is in a pristine state, and is home to more than four hundred species of birds and other animals. The Iwokrama Forest is nearly 371,000 hectares (1 million acres) of central Guyana located in the heart of the Guiana Shield, one of the four last pristine tropical forests in the world, (Congo, Papua New Guinea, and Amazonia being the others). ... The Kanuku mountains are a group of mountains in Guyana, located in the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region. ...


There is much work to be done for the successful nomination of these sites to the World Heritage List. The State, the private sector and the ordinary Guyanese citizens each have a role to play in this process and in the later protection of the sites. Inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage will open Guyana to more serious tourists thereby assisting in its economic development.


Guyana exhibits two of the World Wildlife Fund's Global 200 eco-regions most crucial to the conservation of global biodiversity, Guianan moist forests and Guyana Highlands moist forests and is home to several endemic species including the tropical hardwood Greenheart (Chlorocardium rodiei). Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Chlorocardium rodiei (M.R.Schomb. ...


Landmarks

St. George's Cathedral
St. George's Cathedral
St. George's Anglican Cathedral 
One of the tallest wooden structures in the world, and the second tallest wooden church after the Todaiji Temple in Japan.
Demerara Harbour Bridge 
The world's fourth-longest floating bridge (formerly the longest).
Kaieteur Falls 
One of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world.
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Building
Houses the largest and most powerful political union in the Caribbean.
Providence Stadium 
Situated in Providence on the east bank of the Demerara River and built in time for the ICC World Cup 2007, it is the largest sports stadium in the country. It is also near the Providence Mall, forming a major spot for leisure in Guyana.
Guyana International Conference Centre
Presented as a gift from the People's Republic of China to the Government of Guyana. It is the only one of its kind in the country.
Stabroek Market
A large cast-iron colonial structure that looked like a statue was located next to the Demerara River.
The City Hall
A beautiful wooden structure also from the colonial era.
Queen's College
Top educational intuition in Guyana

Image File history File linksMetadata St_georges. ... Image File history File linksMetadata St_georges. ... St. ... Main hall of Tōdaiji Tōdai-ji (東大寺), the Eastern Great Temple, is a Buddhist temple in Nara, Japan. ... The Demerara Harbour Bridge is a 6,074 feet long floating toll bridge. ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... The Providence Stadium in Guyana will be the largest stadium in Guyana and is built for the ICC World Cup 2007. ... The Demerara River is a river in eastern Guyana that rises in the central rainforests of the country and flows to the north for 346 kilometres without tributaries until it reaches the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Military

Main article: Military of Guyana
Forces
Guyana Defence Force (GDF; includes Ground Forces, Coast Guard, and Air Corps) · Guyana People's Militia (now Defunct);(GPM) · Guyana National Service (now defunct);(GNS) · Guyana Police Force
Available manpower
206,199 males aged 15 to 49, of which 155,058 are fit for service (2002 estimates)

The Co-operative Republic of Guyana is a nation along the northern coastline of South America. ... Guyana Defence Force The Guyana Defence Force (GDF) came into existence on 1965-11-01 when training began under a team of instructors from the United Kingdom. ...

Miscellaneous

  • The 1856 British Guiana 1c magenta stamp is considered the rarest in the world, with only one copy known to exist.
  • The 1959 film Green Mansions, starring Audrey Hepburn and Anthony Perkins, was filmed in Guyana (then British Guiana).
  • Guyana is the only South American country where the death penalty is still in use for serious crimes and where male homosexuality is still illegal.
  • On November 18, 1978, 913 people (all American) died in the Jonestown Massacre, a mass murder-suicide that took place in the jungle of Northwest Guyana.
  • The 1990 edition of the Guinness Book of Records lists the Guyanese-born Sir Lionel Luckhoo as "the world's most successful lawyer." He obtained 245 consecutive acquittals for clients that were accused of murder.
  • A Guyanese saying is that if you eat labba and drink black water while visiting Guyana, you are bound to return. (Labba is a small agouti or South American rodent that can be eaten in a dark stew called "pepperpot"; "Black water" is the water found in the many creeks in the interior of Guyana, made black by tannin found in rotting vegetation.)
  • Andrew "Six-Heads" Lewis was the first man from Guyana to win a world boxing championship, when he beat James Page to claim the WBA Welterweight Championship of the World.
  • Abdul Kadir, a former PNC member of the Guyanese parliament, and Guyanese immigrant Russell Defreitas were arrested on 2 June 2007 for allegedly plotting to blow up fuel lines for New York City airports.
  • In March and April 2007 Guyana hosted the Cricket World Cup--the premier event on the Cricket World Calender.
  • The video for "Gyasi Went Home", the third single from Sounding a Mosaic, the second album from Canadian band Bedouin Soundclash, was filmed in Guyana. The song and video were inspired by the band's bassist, Eon Sinclair, going back to his parents' hometown and seeing the changes, and the lyrics reference Guyanese history, such as Sir Walter Raleigh's search for gold in the region.
  • There is a variation of the Red Tailed Boa Constrictor, named Guyana Red Tail, that hails from this region.

British Guiana 1¢ magenta The British Guiana 1¢ magenta is among the rarest of all postage stamps. ... Green Mansions: A Romance of the Tropical Forest is an exotic romance about a traveller to the Guyana jungle of Southeastern Venezuela, as told by William Henry Hudson. ... Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929) – January 20, 1993) was an English Academy Award-, Tony Award-, Grammy Award-, and Emmy Award-winning film and stage actress, fashion icon, and humanitarian. ... Anthony Perkins (April 4, 1932 – September 12, 1992) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American stage and screen actor best known for his role as Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho and its three sequels. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Houses in Jonestown Jonestown was a town in Guyana established by Peoples Temple cult leader Jim Jones. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Sir Lionel Alfred Luckhoo KCMG, CBE, Q.C. (March 2, 1914–December 27, 1997) was a Guyana born politician, diplomat, and well-known lawyer, famed for his 245 consecutive successful defences in murder cases. ... Agouti refers to a number of species of rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in several different animals. ... Guyanese Pepperpot Not to be confused with the Jamaican name for Callaloo, a soup or stew made with dark greens. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Abdul Kadir (born May 10, 1944, Karachi, Sind, died March 12, 2002, Karachi) was a Pakistani cricketer who played in four Tests from 1964 to 1965. ... The Cricket World Cup is the premier international championship of mens One Day International (ODI) cricket. ... Sounding A Mosaic is the second album from the Canadian rock band Bedouin Soundclash. ... Main articles: History of Canada, Timeline of Canadian history Canada has been inhabited by aboriginal peoples (known in Canada as First Nations) for at least 40,000 years. ... Bedouin Soundclash is a Canadian band from Kingston, Ontario. ... Sinclair at a 2006 rally Eon Sinclair (born 1981) is the bassist for Canadian indie rock group Bedouin Soundclash. ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... After independence in 1966, Guyana sought an influential role in international affairs, particularly among Third World and nonaligned nations. ... Guyana had been peopled for thousands of years before Europeans became aware of the area some five hundred years ago. ... About 10% of Guyanas population is Muslim. ... For other uses, see Jonestown (disambiguation). ... This is a list of cities in Guyana: Bartica Corriverton Georgetown Ituni Lethem Linden Mabaruna New Amsterdam Parika Categories: Lists of cities | Guyana ... Guyana is a South American country whose musical traditions are a mix of Indian, African, European and native elements. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... This page lists presidents of Guyana since 1970. ... The Co-operative Republic of Guyana is a nation along the northern coastline of South America. ... Queens College is a prestigious secondary school in Guyana. ... The Scout Association of Guyana (399 members as of 2001), was founded in 1909, and joined the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1967. ... Railways: total: 187 km (all dedicated to ore transport) standard gauge: 139 km 1. ... // Key issues in the water and sanitation sector in Guyana area very low coverage and poor service quality. ... The Essequibo River is the longest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon. ... Parika is a port township located in the Essequibo Islands-West Demerara region of Guyana. ... Leguan Island is a small island situated in the delta of the Essequibo River on the coast of Guyana, South America. ... Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Guyana. ... Bartica is a town in Guyana, standing on the left bank of the Essequibo River in Region 7, at the confluence of the Mazaruni and Cuyuni Rivers with the Essequibo. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ US Declassifed Documents (1964-1968)
  2. ^ Welcome to guyanachronicle.com
  3. ^ Guyana to experience ‘massive' oil exploration this year
  4. ^ Business: News in the Caribbean - Caribbean360.com
  5. ^ Ishmael, Odeen (1998, rev. 2006) "The Trail Of Diplomacy: A Documentary History of the Guyana-Venezuela Border Issue" Dr. Ishmael was Ambassador of Guyana to Venezuela when this was written.
  6. ^ Damoiseau, Robert (2003) Eléments de grammaire comparée français-créole guyanais Ibis rouge, Guyana, ISBN 2844501923
  7. ^ Bureau of Statistics - Guyana, CHAPTER III: POPULATION REDISTRIBUTION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION, Table 3.4: Population Density, Guyana: 1980 - 2002
  8. ^ Guyana - Government Information Agency, National Profile
  9. ^ Private Sector Commission
  10. ^ Georgetown Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI)
  11. ^ The government has refused to grant radio licenses to private operators (1998)[citation needed]
  12. ^ The Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo rivers are navigable by oceangoing vessels for 93 miles (150 km), 62 miles (100 km), and 50 miles (80 km) respectively.
  13. ^ Final Version

Further reading

  • Stanley E. Brock, All the Cowboys Were Indians and Jungle Cowboy
  • Donald Haack, Bush Pilot In Diamond Country
  • Hamish McInnes, Climb To The Lost World (1974)
  • Andrew Salkey, Georgetown Journal (1970)
  • Marion Morrison, Guyana (Enchantment of the World Series)
  • Bob Temple, Guyana
  • Noel C. Bacchus, Guyana Farewell: A Recollection of Childhood in a Faraway Place
  • Marcus Colchester, Guyana: Fragile Frontier
  • Matthew French Young, Guyana: My Fifty Years in the Guyanese Wilds
  • Margaret Bacon, Journey to Guyana
  • Father Andrew Morrison SJ, Justice: The Struggle For Democracy in Guyana 1952-1992
  • Vere T. Daly, The Making of Guyana
  • D. Graham Burnett, Masters of All They Surveyed: Exploration, Geography and a British El Dorado
  • Ovid Abrams, Metegee: The History and Culture of Guyana
  • Evelyn Waugh, Ninety-Two Days
  • Gerald Durrell, Three Singles To Adventure
  • Colin Henfrey, Through Indian Eyes: A Journey Among the Indian Tribes of Guiana
  • Stephen G. Rabe, U.S. Intervention in British Guiana: A Cold War Story
  • Charles Waterton, Wanderings in South America
  • David Attenborough, Zoo Quest to Guiana (Lutterworth Press, London: 1956)

Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ... Gerald Durrell – founder of the Jersey Zoo and pioneer of captive breeding The Gerald Durrell Memorial VHS cover, with a self portrait Gerald (Gerry) Malcolm Durrell OBE (January 7, 1925 – January 30, 1995) was a naturalist, zookeeper, conservationist, author, and television presenter. ... Charles Waterton (June 3, 1782 - May 27, 1865) was an English naturalist and explorer. ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS, FZS (born on 8 May 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds most acclaimed broadcasters and naturalists. ...

External links

Find more about Guyana on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Government
General
News media
  • Guyana Portal
  • Guyana and the Caribbean News and Information
  • Guyana News and Information One of the most popular websites for current news and information, this site also hosts an email directory of people from the Guyanese Community and Discussion Forum.
  • GINA - Government Information Agency. Updated daily.
  • The Guyana Chronicle - Local daily government run newspaper.
  • Kaieteur news - Local daily independent newspaper.
  • Stabroek News - Local daily independent newspaper. Updated daily and maintains archives for 7 days.
  • Voice of Guyana International - independent owned Internet radio
  • - BBC Caribbean NewsGuyana Suicide rates.

] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Map
  • Guyana on Google Maps.

 
 

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