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Encyclopedia > Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Gustav II Adolf
King of Sweden, the Goths and the Wends; Grand Prince of Finland; Duke of Estonia and Karelia; Lord of Ingria
Reign 30 October 16116 November 1632
Coronation 12 October 1617
Born 9 December 1594
Stockholm Castle, Sweden
Died 6 November 1632 (aged 37)
Lützen, Electorate of Saxony
Buried Riddarholmen Church, Stockholm
Predecessor Charles IX
Successor Christina
Consort Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg
Issue Christina
Royal House Vasa
Royal motto Cum Deo et victribus armis
("With God and Arms Victorious")
Father Charles IX
Mother Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly.
The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly.
Gustav II Adolf in Polish 'delia' coat, painting by Merian, 1632
Gustav II Adolf in Polish 'delia' coat, painting by Merian, 1632
  Swedish Royalty
  House of Vasa

Gustav I
Parents
   Erik Johansson, Cecilia Månsdotter
Children
   Eric XIV, John III, Catherine, Cecilia, Magnus, Anna Maria, Sophia, Elizabeth, Charles IX
Eric XIV
Children
   Sigrid, Gustav
John III
Children
   Sigismund, Anna, John
Sigismund
Children
   Władysław IV, John II Casimir, John Albert, Charles Ferdinand, Alexander Charles, Anna Catherine Constance
Charles IX
Children
   Catherine, Gustav II Adolf, Maria Elizabeth, Christina, Charles Philip
Grandson
   Charles X Gustav
Gustav II Adolf
Children
   Christina
Christina

Gustav II Adolf (9 December 15946 November 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus (II) Adolphus and sometimes as Gustav Adolf the Great (Swedish: Gustav Adolf den store), was King of Sweden from 1611 until his death. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... The title of King of the Goths was for many centuries borne by both the Kings of Sweden and the Kings of Denmark, denoting sovereignty or claimed sovereignty over the antique people of the Goths, which is sort of poetic explanation. ... The title of King of the Wends denoted sovereignty or claims over Slavic lands of southern coasts of the Baltic Sea, those otherwise called Mecklenburg, Holstein and Pomerania, and was from 12th century used by Kings of Denmark and from 16th century by Kings of Sweden. ... Grand Duke of Finland, more correctly Grand Prince of Finland, (Finnish: Suomen suuriruhtinas, Swedish: Storfurste av Finland) was a title in use, sometimes sporadically, between 1584 and 1808. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the... Image File history File links Gustav_II_of_Sweden. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... The Stockholm Palace (Swedish: Stockholms slott) is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish monarch. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Lutzen or Lützen can have the following meanings: Lützen is a town in Germany The Battle of Lützen (1632) in the Thirty Years War The Battle of Lützen (1813) in the Napoleonic Wars This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... One of the oldest building in Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ...   Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (13 April 1573 – 8 December 1625) was a Queen-Consort of Sweden. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Battle of Breitenfeld was the first major Protestant victory in the Thirty Years War. ... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly (February, 1559 - April 30, 1632) was a general in Bavarian and later imperial service during the Thirty Years War, who Ferdinand II depended upon (since Wallenstein was a threat). ... Image File history File links Gustav_II_Adolf_by_Merian. ... Image File history File links Gustav_II_Adolf_by_Merian. ... Hetman Jan Zamoyski in a crimson delia and blue silk żupan. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (733x907, 190 KB) Snopek coat of arms, the arms of the Vasa dynasty and various kings of both Poland and Sweden made by Halibutt in Blender and GIMP Based on the excellent French Wikipédia:Projet/Blasons and help from w... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Erik Johansson (Vasa) was the Lord of Rydboholm in the Roslagen. ... Cecilia MÃ¥nsdotter, wife of Erik Johansson (Vasa) and mother of Gustav Eriksson (Vasa), was born around 1476 in Eka, Lillkyrka or what is now known as Eka, Örebro (Swedish: Örebro Län) in Sweden. ... Eric XIV (December 13, 1533 – February 26, 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 – November 17, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Katarina Gustavsdotter Vasa, princess of Sweden, (June 6, 1539 - December 21, 1610) was the daughter of Gustav Vasa and Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Cecilia of Sweden, also Cecilia Vasa (Stockholm, November 16, 1540 - 1627), was Princess of Sweden and daughter of King Gustav I and Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Magnus Vasa (July 25, 1542-June 26, 1595), prince of Sweden, Duke of Östergötland from 1555. ... Anna Maria of Sweden, also Anna Maria Vasa (June 19, 1545 - March 20, 1610) was the daughter of Gustav Vasa and Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Sofia Vasa (October 29, 1547 – March 17, 1611), was a Swedish princess, daughter of King Gustav Vasa of Sweden and Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Elizabeth Vasa (1549-1597), was a Swedish Princess, daughter of King Gustav Vasa of Sweden and Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Eric XIV (December 13, 1533 – February 26, 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. ... Sigrid Eriksdotter Vasa (1566-1633) Princess Sigrid of Sweden or Sigrid Eriksdotter Vasa was born October 15th, 1566 at Svartsjö castle, Färingsö. She was the daughter of king Eric XIV of Sweden and Queen Karin MÃ¥nsdotter. ... This detail comes from a 1870s glass painting by Wladimir Swertschkoff in the Cathedral of Turku pictures Karin_MÃ¥nsdotter rejecting the crown. At her side are the two children Sigrid Eriksdotter Vasa and Gustav Eriksson Vasa . Prince Gustav of Sweden, or Gustav Eriksson Vasa was born January 28, 1568 and... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 – November 17, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Anna Vasa Anna Vasa (17 May 1568 - 26 February 1625) was a royal sister of the monarch of Poland, Sweden and Lithuania. ... John, Duke of Ostrogothia (1589 – 1618) John, in Swedish Johan, in Finnish Juhana, (18 April 1589 at Uppsala Castle – 5 March 1618 at BrÃ¥borg Castle in Östergötland) was a Swedish royal dynast. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Reign in Poland November 8, 1632 – May 20, 1648. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Constance of Austria Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna... John Albert Vasa (Jan Albert Waza) (June 25, 1612 – December 29, 1634), bishop of Warmia and Kraków, cardinal. ... Charles Ferdinand Vasa (Karol Ferdynand Vasa) (1613-1655), was Duke of Opole from 1648 to 1655. ... Alexander Charles Vasa (Aleksander Karol Waza) (November 4, 1614 – November 19, 1634) was the fifth son of King Sigismund III of Poland and his wife Constance of Austria. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Princess Catherine of Sweden (Prinsessan Katarina) (November 10, 1584 – December 13, 1638) was the daughter of Charles IX of Sweden. ... Duke Carl Philip (1601-1622) was the second surviving son of King Charles IX of Sweden and his second wife Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...

Contents

Gustav II Adolf was born in Stockholm as the oldest son of King Charles IX of Sweden of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. He inherited the throne at his fathers death, at the age of seventeen. His reign was marked by the Swedish participation in the Thirty Years' War, where he entered the war on the Protestant side. He was married to Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, the daughter of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, and chose the Prussian city of Elbing as the base for his operations in Germany. He died in the Battle of Lützen in 1632. His participation in the Thirty Years' War also earned him the nickname "the Lion of the North". For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ...   Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (13 April 1573 – 8 December 1625) was a Queen-Consort of Sweden. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia-Masuria Municipal government Rada Miejska w Elblągu Mayor Henryk Słonina Area 83,32 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 130. ... The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen...


Gustav II Adolf was known as a skillful military commander. His innovative skills in the tactical integration of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and logistics, earned the title of the "Father of Modern Warfare". Future commanders who studied and admired Gustav II Adolf include Napoleon I of France and Carl von Clausewitz. His advancements in military science made Sweden the dominant Baltic power for the next one hundred years (see Swedish Empire). He is also the only Swedish monarch to be styled "the Great". Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... This is a list of people whose names in English are commonly appended with the phrase the Great, or who were called that or an equivalent phrase in their own language. ...


Military commander

As a general, Gustav Adolf is famous for employing mobile artillery on the battlefield, as well as very aggressive tactics, where attack was stressed over defense and mobility emphasized over the usual linear tactics. His musketeers were widely known for their shooting accuracy and reload speed, three times faster than any contemporary rivals. Carl von Clausewitz and Napoleon Bonaparte considered him one of the greatest generals of all time. He was famed for consistency of purpose, and amity with his troops. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For other uses of this term, see Musketeer (disambiguation). ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from...


Gustav Adolf was killed at the Battle of Lützen, when, at a crucial point in the battle, he became separated from his troops while leading a cavalry charge into a dense smog of mist and gunpowder smoke. After his death, his wife initially kept his body, and later his heart, in her castle for over a year. His remains (including his heart) now rest in Riddarholmskyrkan in Stockholm. The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... -1...


In February 1633, following the death of the king, the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates decided that his name would be styled Gustav Adolf the Great (or Gustaf Adolf den Store in Swedish). No such honor has been bestowed on any other Swedish monarch since. Events February 13 - Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ...


The crown of Sweden was inherited in the Vasa family, and from Charles IX's time excluded those Vasa princes who had been traitors or descended from deposed monarchs. Gustav Adolf's younger brother had died years ago, and therefore there were only female heirs left. Maria Eleonora and the king's ministers took over the government on behalf of Gustav Adolf's underage daughter Christina on her father's death. He left one other known child, his illegitimate son Gustav, Count of Vasaborg. Portrait by Sébastien Bourdon. ... Count Gustav Gustavsson of Nystad (1616-1653), an illigitimate son of King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf) and his mistress Margareta Slots. ...


Alternative views

The German Socialist Franz Mehring (1846–1919) wrote a biography of Gustavus Adolphus with a Marxist analysis of the actions of the Swedish king during the Thirty Years' War. In it, he claimed he makes a case that the war was fought over economics and trade rather than religion. Franz Erdmann Mehring (born 27 February 1846 in Schlawe, Pomerania, died 29 January 1919 in Berlin), was a German publicist, politician and historian. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


The Swedish historian and author Peter Englund states in his book "Ofredsår" ("Years of Warfare") that there was not a single all-dominant reason for the King deciding to going into war, instead it was probably a combination of mainly religious, geopolitical safety as well economical reasons. Peter Englund (born April 4th 1957) is a Swedish author and historian, and is also a member of the Swedish Academy. ...


Timeline

  • July 1626. Gustav Adolf and his army disembark at Pillau, Prussia during the Polish-Sweden War of 1625-1629.
  • August 18, 1627. The King is seriously wounded by a Polish soldier in the battle of Tczew.
  • May 1630. Gustav Adolf lands with his army in Pomerania. On July 6 he lands in Germany.
  • September 1631. At the Battle of Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf decisively defeats the Catholic forces led by Tilly, even after the allied Protestant Saxon army had been routed and fled with the baggage train.
  • April 1632. At the Battle of Lech, Gustav Adolf defeats Tilly once more, and in the battle Tilly sustains a fatal wound.
  • May 1632. Munich yields to the Swedish army.
  • September 1632. Gustav Adolf attacks the stronghold of Alte Veste, which is under the command of Wallenstein, but is repulsed, marking the first defeat in the Thirty Years' War of the previously invincible Swedes. This leads to defection of some mercenary elements in the Protestant army.
  • November 1632. At the Battle of Lützen, Gustav Adolf is killed but the Swedes win the day, thanks to Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar, who assumed command, and defeat Wallenstein. The Swedish war effort was kept up by generals Gustav Horn, Johan Banér, Lennart Torstenson and chancellor Axel Oxenstierna until the Peace of Westphalia.

A history of Gustavus Adolphus' wars was written by Johann Philipp Abelin. Baltiysk (Балтийск) – known prior to 1945 by its German name, Pillau – is a Russian sea port in the strait between Vistula Bay and Gdansk Bay, called Strait of Baltiysk on the territory of Kaliningrad Oblast with about 20,000 inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... In 1625, the Swedes quickly occupied all of Livonia and Courland by the years end. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat Tczew County Gmina Tczew Established 12th century City Rights 1260 Government  - Mayor Zenon Odya Area  - Town 22. ... Pommern redirects here. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Sweden  Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Commanders Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden John George I, Elector of Saxony Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly Strength Sweden 23,500 Saxony 18,000 (deserted during onset of battle) 35,000 Casualties 5,500 dead/wounded 7... Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck Bronze statue of Count Tilly in the Feldherrnhalle in Munich Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly (Nivelles,February 1559 - Ingolstadt, April 30, 1632) was a General (Field Marshal) who commanded the Imperial and Holy Roman Empires forces in the Thirty Years War... On April 5, 1632, Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus crossed the Lech river near the city Rain, Bavaria after a short battle against Tillys army during the Thirty Years War. ... The Battle of the Alte Veste was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Albrecht von Wallenstein Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein (also Waldstein, Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z ValdÅ¡tejna), September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634) was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty... Bernhard, duke of Saxe-Weimar (1604 - July 18, 1639), a celebrated general in the Thirty Years War, was the eleventh son of John, duke of Saxe-Weimar. ... Gustaf Horn (1592-1657) Count Gustaf Horn (October 22, 1592 - May 10, 1657) was a Finnish soldier and politician. ... Johan Banér (June 23, 1596 - May 10, 1641) was a Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years War. ... Count Lennart Torstenson (August 17, 1603 - April 7, 1651) was a Swedish soldier and military engineer and the son of Torsten Lennartson, commandant of Älvsborg Fortress. ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster. ... Johann Philipp Abelin was an early 16th-century German chronicler. ...


Gustav Adolf Day is celebrated in Sweden each year on November 6. On this day only a special pastry, with a chocolate or marzipan medallion of the king, is sold. The day is also an official flag day in the Swedish calendar. In Finland, the day is celebrated as svenska dagen or ruotsalaisuuden päivä, "swedishness day", and is a customary flag day. In both countries, November 6 is the name day for Gustav Adolf, one of the few exceptional name days in the year. is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... By Swedish law a number of days of the calendar year are designated as official flag days. ... The Finnish flag By law, the Finnish flag must be flown from public buildings on the following days: February 28, day of Kalevala; the occasion is also celebrated as the Day of Finnish culture May 1, Labour Day Second Sunday in May, Mothers Day June 4, birthday of Carl Gustaf... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ...


Fictional appearances

  • Gustavus Adolphus plays an important supporting role in Eric Flint's 1632 series, living beyond his battle death after being warned by the Americans, fitted with eye-glasses, and becomes Emperor of the United States of Europe.
  • In Sid Meier's game Civilization IV: Warlords, Gustavus Adolphus makes the appearance of a Great General.

Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... The 1632 series, also known as the 1632-verse or Ring of Fire series, is an alternate history book series, created, primarily co-written-by and coordinated by historian Eric Flint. ... Sidney K. Meier (born 1954 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American programmer and designer of some of the most commercially and critically successful computer strategy games of all time. ...

Ancestors

Gustavus Adolphus's ancestors in three generations

 
 
 
 
Erik Johansson (Vasa)
 
 
Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cecilia Månsdotter (Natt och Dag)
 
 
Charles IX of Sweden (Vasa)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Erik Abrahamsson (Leijonhufvud)
 
 
Margaret Leijonhufvud
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ebba Eriksdotter (Vasa)
 
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick I of Denmark
 
 
Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sophie of Pomerania
 
 
Christina of Holstein-Gottorp
 
 
 
 
 
 
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
 
 
Christine of Hesse
 
 
 
 
 
 
Christine of Saxony
 

Erik Johansson (Vasa) was the Lord of Rydboholm in the Roslagen. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Cecilia MÃ¥nsdotter, wife of Erik Johansson (Vasa) and mother of Gustav Eriksson (Vasa), was born around 1476 in Eka, Lillkyrka or what is now known as Eka, Örebro (Swedish: Örebro Län) in Sweden. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... King Frederick I. Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (October 7, 1471 – April 10, 1533) was the son of the first Oldenburg King Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (1426-1481) and of Dorothea of Brandenburg (1430-1495). ... Duke Adolf in the cuirass, paimting by a unknown author, 1586 Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp (25 January 1526 – 1 October 1586) was the first Duke of Holstein-Gottorp from the line of Holstein-Gottorp of the House of Oldenburg. ... Sophie of Pomerania (1498 – 1568) was Queen of Denmark. ...   Christina of Holstein-Gottorp (13 April 1573 – 8 December 1625) was a Queen-Consort of Sweden. ... Philip I of Hesse Philip I of HESSE, (13 November 1504 - 31 March 1567), was a leading champion of the Reformation and one of the most important German rulers of the Renaissance. ... Christine of Hesse-Kassel (29 June 1543 – 13 May 1604) was duchess of Holstein-Gottorp as a wife of Duke Adolf of Holstein-Gottorp. ... Philip I of Hesse and Christine of Saxony, by Jost v. ...

See also

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Gustav II Adolf of Sweden

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... // Main article: Prehistoric Sweden Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (ristningar[1] or hällristningar[2] in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province of Bohuslän. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna   listen? or Oxenstjerna (June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at FÃ¥nö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. ... Count Gustav Gustavsson of Nystad (1616-1653), an illigitimate son of King Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav II Adolf) and his mistress Margareta Slots. ... Descent from Gustav II Adolf, King of Sweden, a venerated hero to some peoples and ideological groups, has often been alleged to have gone totally extinct, as far as known and/or documented descents are in question, as opposite to invented or sort of mythical descendants. ... Christ Chapel at Gustavus Adolphus College. ...

External links

  • Gustavus II Adolphus
Gustav II Adolf
Born: December 9, 1594 Died: November 6, 1632
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Karl IX
King of Sweden
1611-1632
Succeeded by
Christina
as Queen regnant of Sweden

  The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... The House of Munsö is the Scandinavian semi-legendary dynasty which is descended from Björn Ironside, one of the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Eric the Victorious (VI), or Erik Segersäll, (985?- 995), was king of the Swedes during the last two decades of the 10th century. ... Olof Björnsson (ca 970 - 975), was a semi-legendary Swedish king, who according to Hervarar saga and the Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa ruled together with his brother Eric the Victorious. ... Coin minted for Olof Skötkonung in Sigtuna Olof of Sweden or Olof Skötkonung/Skottkonung (the meaning of the cognomen is disputed) was the son of Eric the Victorious and Sigrid the Haughty. ... Coin minted for Anund Jakob Anund Jakob (Old Icelandic: Önundr Óláfsson, Old Swedish: Æmundær colbrænnæ, meaning Emund coal-burner) was King of Sweden 1022-1050. ... Emund the Old, Emund den Gamle, (king of Sweden 1050-1060) was an illegitimate son of Olof Skötkonung. ... The House of Stenkil was the first Geatish dynasty on the Swedish throne. ... Stenkil (Old Norse Steinkel) (1028–1066) was a Jarl and King of Sweden from 1060 to his death. ... At the death of his father Stenkil, Erik Stenkilsson or Erik VII (king of Sweden 1066-1067) made war on Erik the Pagan (Eric VIII) (king of Sweden 1066-1067) for the Swedish throne. ... At the death of his father Stenkil, Erik Stenkilsson or Erik VII (king of Sweden 1066-1067) made war on Erik the Pagan (Eric VIII) (king of Sweden 1066-1067) for the Swedish throne. ... Halsten Stenkilsson was king of Sweden for a short time, 1067-1070, before he was deposed, according to Adam of Bremen. ... Anund GÃ¥rdske came from Kievan Rus, but is only mentioned by Adam of Bremen. ... The Swedes rebelled against the Anund Gårdske because he did not want to worship the Norse gods and Håkan the Red became king, 1070-1079, although he was a Christian. ... Halsten Stenkilsson was king of Sweden for a short time, 1067-1070, before he was deposed, according to Adam of Bremen. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Eric of Good Harvests or Eirik Arsale (Swedish: Erik Ã…rsäll, Old Norse: Eiríkr hinn ársæli) was a semi-historical king of Sweden during the last decades of the 11th century and the son of the pagan Swedish king Blot-Sweyn[1]. Like his father before him, Eric... ... King Philip (Swedish: ) was King of Sweden 1105–1118. ... Inge the Younger was the King of Sweden in the early 12th century and the son of king Halsten[1][2] and he was probably Halstens youngest son. ... Ragnvald Knaphövde or Ragnvald the Fool (king 1125) is only mentioned in the Westrogothic law. ... Magnus Nilsson, Mogens Nielsen, or Magnus the Strong (born c. ... The house of St Eric was one of the two noble families, dynastiesk, which rivalled for the kingship of Sweden between 1150 and 1220. ... After the extinction of the House of Stenkil and the coronation of Sverker I of Sweden in 1130, a civil war commenced. ... Sverker I Kolson or Sverker the Elder (died c. ... The third seal of the City of Stockholm, depicting the crowned head of Eric the Saint, attested for the first time in 1376. ... Magnus (died 1161), son of Henry (known as Magnus Henriksson or Magnus Henriksen), was a Danish lord and the king of Sweden between 1160 and 1161, being afterwards treated as usurper. ... Charles Sverkersson - seal Charles VII Sverkersson or Karl Sverkersson in Swedish was king of Sweden and Earl of Götaland from circa 1161 to 1167, when he was assassinated, he was the first Swedish king with the name Charles. ... Kol Sverkerson bastard son of Sverker I of Sweden, named after the grandparent as traditional in medival Sweden. ... Boleslas Sverkerson (Swedish: Burislev Sverkersson) was the son of Sverker the Elder, King of Sweden and his second wife Rikissa of Poland, and was the younger brother of king Karl Sverkerson and jarl John Sverkerson. ... Seal of Canute I Canute I Eriksson or Knut Eriksson in Swedish was king of Sweden from 1167 to 1195. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Erik X ( c 1180 – 1216), Erik Knutsson (Eric son of Canute) was the King of Sweden between 1208 and 1216. ... Johan Sverkersson (c. ... Eric XI of Sweden Eric XI Ericsson (1216 – February 2, 1250) den läspe och halte: the stuttering and lame, was king of Sweden 1222 – 1229 and 1234 – 1250. ... Canute II (in Sweden called Knut LÃ¥nge till Sko) was king of Sweden from 1229 to 1234. ... Eric XI of Sweden Eric XI Ericsson (1216 – February 2, 1250) den läspe och halte: the stuttering and lame, was king of Sweden 1222 – 1229 and 1234 – 1250. ... House of Bjelbo, also known as House of Bjälbo (Bjälboätten in Swedish) or House of Folkung (Folkungaätten in Swedish), was an Ostrogothian Swedish family that provided for several medieval Swedish bishops, jarls and kings. ... Valdemar Birgersson (1239-1302), King of Sweden 1250-1275/1288/1302, was the son of princess Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden and Birger Jarl, Earl Birger Magnusson of Bjälbo, who more or less ruled Sweden from 1248 under king Eric Ericsson the Lame his brother in law. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus II Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, (1316–1377), King of Sweden, Norway and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric and Ingeborg, daughter of Hakon V of Norway. ... Birger Magnusson (1280 – 1321) was hailed king when he was four years old. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Eric XII Magnusson (1339-1359) was rival King of Sweden and to his father Magnus II from 1356 to his death in 1359. ... Sigillum ad causas for Magnus II of Sweden Magnus Ericson, Magnus VII of Norway, the fourth Magnus to have been proclaimed king of Sweden (1316 – December 1, 1377), King of Sweden, Norway, and Terra Scania, son of Duke Eric Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. ... Haakon VI Magnusson (appr. ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Albert of Sweden (or Albrecht von Mecklenburg in German or Albrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish) was born in 1338 and became king of Sweden in 1363. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Late 19th century model for a statue of Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson to be placed in Örebro; no contemporary image of Engelbrekt is known Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson (1390s – May 4, 1436) was a Swedish statesman and rebel leader. ... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Eric of Pomerania A caricature of the king, the only contemporary likeness of him in existence Eric of Pomerania, Erik af Pommern, Erik VII (Danish title), Erik av Pommern (Eirik III) (Norwegian title) Erik av Pommern (Eric XIII) (Swedish title) or Eryk Pomorski (Polish title), was adopted by Margaret I... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Christopher of Bavaria, known by his Danish and Norwegian title as Christoffer (III) af/av Bayern and by his Swedish title as Kristofer av Bayern (26 February 1418-6 January 1448) was union king of Denmark and Norway (1440-1448), and of Sweden (1441-1448). ... Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450) Swedish statesman and co-regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, from January to June of 1448, together with his brother Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna. ... Nils Jönsson Oxenstierna, (1390s-1450s) Swedish statesman and co-regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, from January to June of 1448, together with his brother Bengt Jönsson Oxenstierna. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), (1417 – 1467) Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Erik Axelsson (Tott), and alone 1465-1466. ... Erik Axelsson (Tott), (c 1419-1481) Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), and alone 1466-1467. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (1433 – August 11, 1465) was a Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union from February 1464 to August 1465, interluded by a six month interregnum of king Charles VIII of Sweden. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (1433 – August 11, 1465) was a Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union from February 1464 to August 1465, interluded by a six month interregnum of king Charles VIII of Sweden. ... Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), (1417 – 1467) Swedish clergyman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Erik Axelsson (Tott), and alone 1465-1466. ... Erik Axelsson (Tott), (c 1419-1481) Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1457, shared with Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna), and alone 1466-1467. ... Charles VIII of Sweden, Charles I of Norway, a. ... Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den äldre; 1440–December 14, 1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden during the Union of Kalmar (1470–1497 and 1501–1503). ... John, Johann, Johan II, Danish and Norwegian name Hans, was a Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1481 – 1513), Norway (1483 – 1513) Sweden (1497 – 1501), under the Kalmar Union, and also Duke of Schleswig and Holstein. ... Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den äldre; 1440–December 14, 1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden during the Union of Kalmar (1470–1497 and 1501–1503). ... Svante Nilsson, (1460 – January 2, 1512) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union, 1504 - January 2, 1512. ... Erik Trolle (died 1530), elected regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, in 1512. ... Sten Sture the Younger, or Sten Sture den yngre, Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden, under the Kalmar Union, 1512 - February 5, 1520. ... Christian II (July 2, 1481 – January 25, 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... Gustav I of Sweden, commonly known as Gustav Vasa, but originally known as Gustav Eriksson (May 12, 1496 – September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. ... Eric XIV (December 13, 1533 – February 26, 1577) was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 – November 17, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 8, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... The House of Pfalz-Zweibrücken was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Charles XI (Karl XI) (November 24, 1655 – April 5, 1697) was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Ulrika Eleonora (January 23, 1688 – November 24, 1741) was Queen regnant of Sweden from November 30, 1718, to February 29, 1720, and then Queen consort until her death. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Frederick I (Fredrik I) (April 23, 1676–March 25, 1751), was King of Sweden from 1720 and (as Friedrich I von Hessen-Kassel) Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730 until his death. ... The House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the Oldenburg dynasty, ruled Sweden from 1751 until 1818, and Norway from 1814 to 1818. ... Adolf Frederick King of Sweden Adolf Frederick (Adolf Fredrik) (May 14, 1710 – February 12, 1771), was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... For other people and places of the same name, see Gustaf Adolf (disambiguation). ... Charles XIII (Swe: Karl XIII) (October 7, 1748 - February 5, 1818), was King of Sweden from 1809 and King of Norway (where he was known as Carl II) from 1814 until his death. ... The House of Bernadotte, the current Royal House of the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... Karl XV (Karl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – September 18, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Karl IV) from 1859 until his death. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf) (June 16, 1858 – October 29, 1950) was King of Sweden from 1907 until his death. ... Gustaf VI Adolf (Oskar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf) (November 11, 1882 – September 15, 1973) was King of Sweden from 1950 until his death. ... Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus; born 30 April 1946) is the current Swedish monarch and head of state of the Kingdom of Sweden. ...


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