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Encyclopedia > Gustave Le Bon

Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist. He was the author of several works in which he expounded theories of national traits, racial superiority, herd behaviour and crowd psychology. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Social psychology is the study of the nature and causes of human social behavior. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Supremacism is the belief that ones race or religion is the supreme, and that those of other distinctions are (by various arbitrary criteria) unfit for social or religious interaction, and sexual reproduction. ... Herd behaviour is the term used to describe situations in which the individuals of any particular group react coherently. ... Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ...


His work on crowd psychology became important in the first half of the twentieth century when it was used by media researchers such as Hadly Cantril and Blumer to describe the reactions of subordinate groups to media.


He also contributed to on-going debates in physics about the nature of matter and energy. His book The Evolution of Matter was very popular in France (going through twelve editions), and though some of its ideas — notably that all matter was inherently unstable and was constantly and slowly transforming into luminiferous ether — were taken up favorably by physicists of the day (including Henri Poincaré) though his specific formulations were not given much consideration. In 1896 he reported observing a new kind of radiation, which he termed "black light" (not the same thing as a black light today), though it was later discovered to not exist.[1] The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century the luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether), or ether, was a substance postulated to be the medium for the propagation of light. ... Jules TuPac Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [][1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Spectrum of a fluorescent black light source. ...

Contents

Life

Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, France, and died in Marnes-la-Coquette. He studied medicine and toured Europe, Asia and North Africa in the 1860s to 1880s while writing on archaeology and anthropology, making some money from the design of scientific apparatus. His first great success however was the publication of Les Lois psychologiques de l'évolution des peuples (1894; The Psychology of Peoples), the first work in which he hit upon a popularising style that was to make his reputation secure. His best selling work, La psychologie des foules (1895; English translation The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, 1896), followed soon after. For the magazine about archaeology, see Archaeology (magazine). ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...


Le Bon enjoyed considerable security at the centre of French intellectual life thereafter. In 1902, he launched a series of weekly luncheons (les déjeuners du mercredi) to which prominent figures from all the professions were invited to discuss topical issues. The strength of Le Bon's personal networks is apparent form the guest list: participants included Henri and Raymond Poincaré (cousins, physicist and President of France respectively), Paul Valéry and Henri Bergson. An intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. ... Jules TuPac Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [][1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Raymond Poincaré, President of the French Republic during the Great War. ... For other people of the same name, see Valery. ... Henri-Louis Bergson (October 18, 1859–January 4, 1941) was a major French philosopher, influential in the first half of the 20th century. ...


Influence

The ideas put forward in La psychologie des foules played an important role in the early years of group psychology: Sigmund Freud's Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse (1921; English translation Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, 1922) was explicitly based on a critique of Le Bon's work. Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Le Bon was one of the great popularisers of theories of the unconscious at a critical moment in the formation of new theories of social action. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Wilfred Trotter, a famous surgeon at University College Hospital, London, wrote along similar lines in his famous book Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War, just before the outbreak of World War II; he has been referred to as 'LeBon's populariser in English.' Trotter also read Freud, and it was he who introduced Wilfred Bion, who worked for him at the hospital, to Freud's writings, and ultimately both he and Ernest Jones ascribed to the field of what would later be called Group Psychology. Both of these men became closely associated with Freud when he fled Austria shortly after the Anschluss. Both men were closely linked to the Tavistock Institute as key figures in the field of Group Dynamics. Wilfred Trotter (1872-1939) was a British surgeon, a pioneer in neurosurgery. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Social psychology is often conceived to be the study of how individuals perceive, influence, and relate to others. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was an outgrowth of the original parent body, the Tavistock Institute of Medical Psychology, commonly referred to then as the Tavistock Clinic, which was founded in 1920 in Tavistock Square in London. ... The term group dynamics implies that individual behaviours may differ depending on individuals current or prospective connections to a sociological group. ...


It is arguable that the fascist theories of leadership that emerged in the 1920s owed much to his theories of crowd psychology. Indeed, Hitler's Mein Kampf drew largely on the propaganda techniques proposed in Le Bon's 1895 book. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... The word leadership can refer to: The process of leading. ... Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician and dictator Adolf Hitler which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers Nazi political ideology. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Edward Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, was influenced by LeBon and Trotter. In his famous book 'Propaganda' he declared that a major feature of democracy was the manipulation of the mass mind by media and advertising. Cover of Bernays 1928 book, Propaganda. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Bibliography

  • Les Lois psychologiques de l'évolution des peuples (1894; The Psychology of Peoples),
  • La psychologie des foules (1895; English translation The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind, 1896),
  • L'home et les sociétés (1881; Man and Society),
  • Psychologie du socialisme (1896; Psychology of Socialism)

References

  1. ^ Helge Kragh, Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999): 11-12.

See also

Crowd psychology is a branch of social psychology. ... Wilfred Trotter (1872-1939) was a British surgeon, a pioneer in neurosurgery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Cover of Bernays 1928 book, Propaganda. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gustave Le Bon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (526 words)
Gustave Le Bon (May 7, 1841 – December 13, 1931) was a French social psychologist, sociologist, and amateur physicist.
Le Bon was born in Nogent-le-Rotrou, France, and died in Marnes-la-Coquette.
Le Bon was one of the great popularisers of theories of the unconscious at a critical moment in the formation of new theories of social action.
Crowd psychology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1449 words)
Le Bon’s idea that crowds foster anonymity and sometimes generate emotion has became somewhat of a cliché.
However, it must be noted that if Le Bon often referred to the cliché of the irrational crowd, which was current in the 19th century and before (in particular in the fields of criminology, which tended to describe crowds as irrational and criminal groups), he considered himself the founder of "crowd psychology".
Le Bon was a pioneer in propaganda, which he considered a suitable and rational technique for managing groups, using for example communal reinforcement of beliefs, etc. Le Bon's 1895 The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind influenced many 20th century figures, including Adolf Hitler, whose Mein Kampf insisted on Le Bon's work
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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