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Encyclopedia > Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet

Gustave Courbet (portrait by Nadar).
Birth name Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet
Born 1819-06-10
Ornans, France
Died 1877-12-31
La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland
Nationality French
Field Painting, Sculpting
Training Antoine-Jean Gros
Movement Realism
Famous works Burial at Ornans (1849-1850)
L'Origine du monde (1866)

Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 181931 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ImageMetadata File history File links Gustave_Courbet. ... Nadar (self-portrait). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... La Tour-de-Peilz is a municipality in the district of Vevey of the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Painter redirects here. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... Napoleon on the battlefield of Preussisch-Eylau (detail), 1808. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... L’Origine du monde (The Origin of the World) is an oil on canvas painted by Gustave Courbet in 1866. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ...

I am fifty years old and I have always lived in freedom; let me end my life free; when I am dead let this be said of me: ”He belonged to no school, to no church, to no institution, to no academy, least of all to any régime except the régime of liberty. [1]

Contents

Realism

Best known as an innovator in Realism (and credited with coining the term), Courbet was a painter of figurative compositions, landscapes and seascapes. He also worked with social issues, and addressed peasantry and the grave working conditions of the poor. His work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor Neoclassical schools. Rather, Courbet believed the Realist artist's mission was the pursuit of truth, which would help erase social contradictions and imbalances. Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that...

Plage de Normandie. (c. 1872/1875). Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art.
Plage de Normandie. (c. 1872/1875). Washington D.C.: National Gallery of Art.

For Courbet realism dealt not with the perfection of line and form, but entailed spontaneous and rough handling of paint, suggesting direct observation by the artist while portraying the irregularities in nature. He depicted the harshness in life, and in so doing, challenged contemporary academic ideas of art, which brought the criticism that he deliberately adopted a cult of ugliness. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for... Naturalism in art refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting. ...


His work, along with the works of Honoré Daumier and Jean-François Millet, became known as Realism. Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Portrait of Countess Karoly (1865)

Born in Ornans (Doubs), into a prosperous farming family which wanted him to study law, he went to Paris in 1839, and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his own style by studying Spanish, Flemish and French painters and painting copies of their work. Download high resolution version (550x686, 87 KB)Gustave Courbet: Portrait of Countess Karoly, painted 1865, oil on canvas, in a private collection. ... Download high resolution version (550x686, 87 KB)Gustave Courbet: Portrait of Countess Karoly, painted 1865, oil on canvas, in a private collection. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Doubs is a département in eastern France named after the Doubs River. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


His first works were an Odalisque, suggested by the writing of Victor Hugo, and a Lélia, illustrating George Sand, but he soon abandoned literary influences for the study of real life. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... George Sand sewing, portrait by Eugène Delacroix (1838). ...


A trip to the Netherlands in 1847 strengthened Courbet's belief that painters should portray the life around them, as Rembrandt, Hals, and the other Dutch masters had done. 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the Dutch painter. ... Frans Hals (c. ...


Among his early works, he painted his own portrait with his dog, and The Man with a Pipe, both of which the Paris Salon jury rejected. However, the younger critics, the Neo-romantics and Realists, loudly sang his praises, and by 1849 Courbet was becoming well known, producing such pictures as After Dinner at Ornans (for which the Salon awarded him a medal) and The Valley of the Loire. Download high resolution version (855x1024, 149 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Honoré Daumier satirized the bourgeoises scandalized by the Salons Venuses, 1864 The Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris) is the official art exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris, France. ... The term neo-romanticism is used to cover a variety of movements in music and painting. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Burial at Ornans

Gustave Courbet. Burial at Ornans. 1849-1850. Oil on canvas. 314 x 663 cm. Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

One of Courbet's most important works is Burial at Ornans, a canvas recording an event which he witnessed in September 1848. Courbet's painting of the funeral of his grand uncle became the first masterpiece in the Realist style. People who had attended the funeral were used as models for the painting. Previously, models had been used as actors in historical narratives; here Courbet said that he "painted the very people who had been present at the interment, all the townspeople". The result is a realistic presentation of them, and of life, in Ornans. The painting caused a fuss with critics and the public. It is an enormous work, measuring 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6 meters), depicting a prosaic ritual on a scale which previously would have been reserved for a religious or royal subject. Eventually the public grew more interested in the new Realist approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of Romanticism lost popularity. The artist well understood the importance of this painting; as Courbet said: "The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism." Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 393 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 786 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gustave Courbet: Lenterrement à Ornans / A Burial at Ornans / Begräbnis in Ornans 1849 Louvre, Paris Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 393 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 786 pixel, file size: 210 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gustave Courbet: Lenterrement à Ornans / A Burial at Ornans / Begräbnis in Ornans 1849 Louvre, Paris Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract... Musée dOrsay Exterior view in the afternoon Musée dOrsay Inside the main hall The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, situated on the left bank of the River Seine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ...

Portrait of Jo (La belle Irlandaise), a painting of Joanna Hiffernan, the probable model for L'Origine du monde

The Salon of 1850 found him triumphant with the Burial at Ornans, the Stone-Breakers (destroyed in 1945), and the Peasants of Flagey. Other figurative works, with common folk and friends as his subjects, included Village Damsels (1852), the Wrestlers, Bathers, and A Girl Spinning (1852). Image File history File linksMetadata La_belle_Irlandaise_(Portrait_of_Jo). ... Image File history File linksMetadata La_belle_Irlandaise_(Portrait_of_Jo). ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with Socialism, and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and Socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and dissertations. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


To a friend in 1850 he wrote, For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

...in our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have my sympathies, I must address myself to them directly.[2]

He displayed his monumental The Artist's Studio in 1855. It is an allegory of his life as a painter, seen as a heroic venture, in which he is surrounded by friends and admirers, among them Charles Baudelaire. The Artists Studio (L‘Atelier du Peintre): A Real Allegory of a Seven Year Phase in my Artistic and Moral Life is an 1855 oil painting on canvas by Gustave Courbet. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ...


Notoriety

The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde). (1866). Paris: Musée d'Orsay.
The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde). (1866). Paris: Musée d'Orsay.

Towards the end of the 1860s, Courbet painted a series of increasingly erotic works, culminating in The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde) (1866), depicting female genitalia, and The Sleepers (1866), featuring two women in bed. While banned from public display, the works only served to increase his notoriety. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 725 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2854 × 2359 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 725 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2854 × 2359 pixel, file size: 2. ... L’Origine du monde (The Origin of the World) is an oil on canvas painted by Gustave Courbet in 1866. ... Vincent Van Gogh: Starry Night Over the Rhone, painted in September 1888 at Arles Pierre-Auguste Renoir: Bal au moulin de la Galette, Montmartre, 1876 Édouard Manet: The Luncheon on the Grass, 1862-3 Gustave Courbet: The Artists Studio (detail), 1855 Paul Cézanne: Apples and Oranges, circa 1899... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Eroticism is an aesthetic focused on sexual desire, especially the feelings of anticipation of sexual activity. ... L’Origine du monde (The Origin of the World) is an oil on canvas painted by Gustave Courbet in 1866. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Download high resolution version (1024x679, 116 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


On 14 April 1870, Courbet established a "Federation of Artists" (Fédération des artistes) for the free and uncensored expansion of art. The group's members included André Gill, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Eugène Pottier, Jules Dalou, and Édouard Manet. April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Self-portrait André Gill (October 17, 1840—May 1, 1885) was a French caricaturist. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape painter. ... Eugène Edine Pottier (1816 - 1887) was a French Communist, songwriter and transport worker. ... Aimé-Jules Dalou, born December 31, 1838 - died April 15, 1902, was a French sculptor. ... Articles with similar titles include Claude Monet, another painter of the same era. ...


His refusal of the cross of the Legion of Honour offered to him by Napoleon III made him immensely popular with those who opposed the current regime, and in 1871 under the revolutionary Paris Commune he was placed in charge of all the Paris art museums and saved them from looting mobs. For his insistence in executing the Communal decree for the destruction of the Vendôme Column, he was designated as responsible for the act and accordingly sentenced on 2 September 1871 by a Versailles court martial to six months in prison and a fine of 500 francs. French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (Legion of Honor ( AmE) or Legion of Honour ( ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Well now! buggering rascal, we will knock you the fuck off just like your crook of... Place Vendôme is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris located to the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1873, the newly elected president Mac-Mahon wanted to resurrect the Column, and Courbet was singled out to pay the expenses. He then took refuge in Switzerland to avoid bankruptcy. On 4 May 1877, the estimate of the costs was finally established: 323.091 fr 68 cent. Courbet was allowed to pay the fine in yearly installments of 10,000 francs for the next 33 years, until his 91st birthday. 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta President of France, 1873-1879 Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (July 13, 1808 - October 16, 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Courbet died, age 58, in La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, of a liver disease aggravated by heavy drinking on 31 December 1877, a day before the payment of the first installment was due. (Bernard Noël, 1978) La Tour-de-Peilz is a municipality in the district of Vevey of the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Gustave Courbet taking down a Morris column, caricature published by the Père Duchêne illustré
Gustave Courbet taking down a Morris column, caricature published by the Père Duchêne illustré

An exhibition of his works was held in 1882 at the École des Beaux-Arts. Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre7_1_0_-_Gustave_Courbet. ... Image File history File links PereDuchesneIllustre7_1_0_-_Gustave_Courbet. ... A Morris column in front of the Palais Brongniart Morris columns (French: Colonne Morris) are cylindrical outdoor sidewalk structures with a characteristic style that are used for advertising and other purposes. ... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ... Père Duchesne Le Père Duchesne (Old Man Duchesne or Father Duchesne) was an extreme radical newspaper during the French Revolution edited by Jacques Hébert, who brought out 385 issues, from September 1790 until eleven days before his death by guillotine, which took place on the 4th of... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ...


Pupils

  • Henri Fantin-Latour
  • Hector Hanoteau
  • Olaf Isaachsen

Self Portrait by Henri Fantin-Latour (1859), at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henri Fantin-Latour Henri Fantin-Latour (January 14, 1836 - August 25, 1904) was a French painter and lithographer. ...

See also

// The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition...

References

  • Nochlin, Linda, Courbet, (London: Thames & Hudson, 2007 ISBN 978-0-500-28676-0)
  • Champfleury, Les Grandes Figures d’hier et d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1861)
  • Mantz, "G. Courbet," Gaz. des beaux-arts (Paris, 1878)
  • Zola, Émile, Mes Haines (Paris, 1879)
  • Lemonnier, C, Les Peintres de la Vie (Paris, 1888).
  • Noël, Bernard, Dictionnaire de la Commune (Paris: Champs Flammarion, 1978)
  • Nochlin, Linda, Realism: Style and Civilization (New York: Penguin, 1972).
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
Footnotes
  1. ^ Courbet, Gustave: Letters of Gustave Courbet, 1992, University of Chicago Press, Translated by Petra Ten-Doesschate Chu, ISBN 0226116530. (Google Books)
  2. ^ Courbet, Gustave: artchive.com citing Perl, Jed: Gallery Going: Four Seasons in the Art World, 1991, Harcourt, ISBN 978-0151342600.

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Jules François Felix Fleury-Husson (1820 Laon - 1889 Sèvres), who wrote under the name Champfleury, was a French art critic, and supporter of the French Realist painters. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
WebMuseum: Courbet, Gustave (469 words)
Gustave Courbet was born on June 10, 1819, to a prosperous farming family in Ornans, France.
Courbet visited Germany in 1856, where he was welcomed by the artistic community.
Politically a socialist, Courbet took part in some revolutionary activities for which he was imprisoned for six months in 1871.
WetCanvas: Virtual Museum: Individual Artists: Gustave Courbet (1736 words)
Jean Desire Gustave Courbet was born on 10 June 1819 in Ornans, a small town in the Jura region of eastern France.
Courbet had embarked on this huge painting in the summer of 1849, with virtually everyone in the district clamoring to be included.
Courbet was surprisingly philosophical about this, writing to a friend that his art was keeping him busy and that in any case a married man was a reactionary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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