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Encyclopedia > Gustav Vasa
Gustav VasaKing of Sweden
Gustav Vasa
King of Sweden
  Swedish Royalty
  House of Vasa

Gustav Vasa
Children
   Prince Eric
   Prince John
   Princess Catherine
   Princess Cecilia
   Prince Magnus
   Princess Anna
   Princess Sofia
   Princess Elizabeth
   Prince Charles
Eric XIV
Children
   Princess Sigrid
   Prince Gustav
John III
Children
   Prince Sigismund
   Princess Anna
   Prince John
Sigismund
Children
   Wladislaus
   John Casimir
   John Albert
   Charles Ferdinand
   Alexander Charles
   Anna Catherine Konstantia
Charles IX
Children
   Princess Catherine
   Prince Gustav Adolf
   Princess Maria Elizabeth
   Princess Christina
   Prince Carl Philip
Grandchildren
   Charles X Gustav
Gustav II Adolf
Children
   Princess Christina
Christina

Gustav Vasa, originally Gustav Eriksson Vasa (May 12, 1496September 29, 1560) was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death. He was elected regent in 1521 after leading the rebellion against Christian II of Denmark, who controlled most of Sweden. During his reign Protestantism was introduced in Sweden (Sweden-Finland). Image File history File links Gustav I of Sweden File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Gustav I of Sweden File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... The Vasa family heraldic shield, frpm the Polish Wikipedia This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Erik XIV of Sweden (December 13, 1533–February 26, 1577) was the son of Gustav I of Sweden and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 - November 27, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Princess Catherine of Sweden (Prinsessan Katarina) (November 10, 1584 – December 13, 1638) was the daughter of Charles IX of Sweden. ... Cecilia of Sweden, also Cecilia Vasa (Stockholm, November 16, 1540 - 1627), was Princess of Sweden and daughter of King Gustav I and Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Erik XIV of Sweden (December 13, 1533–February 26, 1577) was the son of Gustav I of Sweden and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. ... John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 - November 27, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Coronation... Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Coronation... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 16351 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Cecylia Renata Ludwika Maria Gonzaga Children with Cecylia Renata Zygmunt... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Constance of Austria Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna... John Albert Vasa (Jan Albert Waza) (June 25, 1612 – December 29, 1634), bishop of Warmia and Kraków, cardinal. ... Charles Ferdinand Vasa (Karol Ferdynand Vasa) (1613-1655), was Duke of Opole from 1648 to 1655. ... Alexander Charles Vasa (Aleksander Karol Waza) (November 4, 1614 – November 19, 1634) was the fifth son of King Sigismund III of Poland and his wife Constance of Austria. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Princess Catherine of Sweden (Prinsessan Katarina) (November 10, 1584 – December 13, 1638) was the daughter of Charles IX of Sweden. ... Gustav II Adolf (December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and in Protestant propaganda as the Lion of the North, was King of Sweden from 1611 until his death. ... For the present-day Prince Carl Philip, please refer to Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Wermelandia. ... Charles X Gustav (Karl X Gustav) (November 8, 1622 – February 13, 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. ... Gustav II Adolf (December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and in Protestant propaganda as the Lion of the North, was King of Sweden from 1611 until his death. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 18, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... Christina (Kristina) (December 18, 1626 – April 19, 1689), later known as Maria Christina Alexandra and sometimes Count Dohna, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 1632 to 1654. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests a flying machine. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berhick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. ... Christian II (1481 – 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid to late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Traditional lands of Sweden. ...


Gustav Vasa was an enigmatic person who has been referred to as both a liberator of the country and as a tyrannic ruler, which has made him the subject of many books. When he got to power in 1523, he was largely unknown, and he became the ruler of a still divided country without a central government. Yet, he managed to remain in power for 37 years, and at his death left behind him a strong central power with uniform rules.


In traditional Swedish history he has been labeled the founder of modern Sweden, and the country's liberator. Gustav liked to compare himself to Moses, who liberated his people and established a state. As a person, Gustav was known for ruthless methods and a bad temperament, but he also loved music, and had a certain sly wit. Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ...

Contents


Early life

Gustav's family descended from Birgitta Gustafsdotter Sture, the sister of childless Regent Sten Sture the Elder who had died in 1503 when Gustav was a baby. According to genealogical research, Birgitta and Sten Sture (and consequently also Gustav Vasa) descended from King Sverker II of Sweden, through King Sverker's granddaughter Benedikte Sunesdotter (who was married to Svantepolk Knutsson, son of Duke of Reval). The Vasa family belonged to the highest level of hereditary Swedish nobility (högfrälse) and they possessed some wealth: several manors etc. Sten Sture the Elder (Sten Sture den ldre; 1440–1503) was a Swedish statesman and regent of Sweden under the Kalmar Union (1470–1497 and 1501–1503. ... Events January 20 - Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World. ... Sverker the younger Karlsson or Sverker den yngre Karlsson in Swedish (born c. ...


Gustav Vasa's father Erik Johansson (Vasa) was involved in the party of Sten Sture the Younger fighting against the Danes in the early 16th century. When the Danes under Christian II conquered Sweden and took the capital Stockholm in 1517, several members of the Sture party were executed in the Stockholm Bloodbath in October that year, among whom was Erik Johansson. The young Gustav survived by hiding. The Death of Sten Sture the Younger on the ice of lake Mälaren. ... Stockholm Bloodbath - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


He got involved in some of the revolts against the Danish king. At the battle of Brännkyrka on October 2, 1518, he was among those captured and taken prisoner in Denmark. But he managed to escape, and on May 31, 1520, he returned by ship to Kalmar, on the southeastern side of Sweden. From there, he travelled all the way up to the province of Dalarna, in (what was then) northwestern Sweden. He tried to gather troops to take down the Danish government, but had little success initially. Brännkyrka is a parish in South Stockholm, Sweden. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining, as the last day of May. ... Kalmar (population 59,308) is a Municipality in southeastern Sweden, on the mainlands coast of the Baltic Sea, strategically watching over the narrow sound to the large island Öland, since 1972 connected by the Öland bridge. ...   Dalarna? is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. ...


According to popular history, as depicted in the 19th century in Swedish schoolbooks, Gustav encountered many adventures while he was fleeing around Dalarna. Their historical validity is however questioned.


In 1521 he had managed to gather a small army in Dalarna and become its leader. He also received help by troops from Leipzig, Germany. By August 1521, the men of Dalarna had elected him regent of Sweden, whereafter two years of battle followed whereby the Danish troops were gradually defeated. Map of Germany showing Leipzig   Leipzig? [ˈlaiptsɪç] (Polish; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk) is the largest city in the federal state (Bundesland) of Saxony in Germany. ...


In 1523, Gustav was able to be crowned in Strängnäs, south of the capital Stockholm, on June 6. The date has later been celebrated as the Swedish national day. His troops had besieged the capital, and on June 24, they finally could march into Stockholm. The country was however in no way united in support of the king at that time. Strängnäs is a Municipality in Södermanland County, in central Sweden, located by Lake Mälaren. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ...


Reformation

After seizing power, the previous Archbishop Gustav Trolle, who at the time held to a post of some kind of chancellor, was exiled from the country. Gustav sent a message to the pope requesting the acceptance of a new archbishop selected by Gustav himself: Johannes Magni. Gustav Eriksson Trolle (1488-1533) was Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden, in two sessions, and involved in the turbulent events at the break between Catholicism and Lutheranism in Scandinavia. ... Johannes Magnus, (before 1530 Johannes Magni, a Latin translation of his birth name Johannes Store) was born March 19, 1488 in Linköping, Sweden and died March 22, 1544 in Rome, and was the son of Måns Petersson Store och Kristina Magnus. ...


The Pope sent back his decision demanding the unlawful expulsion of Archbishop Gustav Trolle to be reverted, and that the archbishop was to be reinstated. Here Sweden's remote geographical location proved to have a marked impact – for the former Archbishop had been allied with the Danish king, or at least was considered to have been in contemporary Stockholm, and to reinstate him would be close to impossible for the king.


The king let the Pope know the impossibility of the request, and the possible results if the Pope persisted, but – for better or worse – the Pope did persist, and refused to accept the king's suggestions of archbishops. At the time, incidentally and for different reasons, there were also four other unoccupied bishop's seats, where the king made suggestions to the Pope about candidates, but the Pope only accepted one of the candidates. As the Pope refused to budge on the issue of Gustav Trolle, the king, influenced by Lutheran scholar Olaus Petri, in 1531 took it upon himself to appoint a new archbishop, namely the brother of Olaus, Laurentius Petri. Hereby in effect, the Pope had lost any influence over the Swedish Church. Olaus Petri, originally Olof Persson, (January 6, 1493 - April 19, 1552) was a Swedish clergyman and protestant reformer. ... Laurentius Petri, originally Lars Persson, (1499-1573) was a Swedish clergyman and the first Evangelical Lutheran Archbishop of Sweden. ...


In the 1520's, the Petri brothers' were driving a campaign, almost, for the introduction of Lutheranism. The decade saw many events which can be seen as gradual introductions of Protestantism, for instance the marriage of Olaus Petri – a consecrated priest, and several texts published by him, advocating Lutheran dogmas. A translation of the New Testament had also been published in 1526. After the reformation, a full translation was published in 1540-41, called the Gustav Vasa Bible. However, knowledge of Greek and Hebrew among Swedish clergymen were not sufficient for a translation from the original sources; instead the work followed the German translation made by Martin Luther in 1534. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Gustav Vasa Bible is how the Swedish Bible translation published in 1540-41 is referred to. ...


Further reign

Gustav encountered resistance from some areas of the country. In 1542, people from Dalarna rebelled, as they considered the king to have been too harsh on everyone he perceived as a supporter of the Danish. Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ...   Dalarna? is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. ...


People down in Smalandia rebelled later, and initially gave Gustav difficulties in the dense forests. What he did was to send a letter to the people of Dalarna, and requesting that they should send out letters to every Swedish province, saying that Dalarna would support the king with troops, and urging every other province to do the same. Gustav got his troops, with which help he managed to defeat the rebels.   SmÃ¥land? is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ...


Difficulties with the continuation of the Church also troubled him. The 1540's saw death sentences from his hand for both the Petri brothers, as well as his former chancellor Laurentius Andreae. All of them were however granted amnesty, after spending several months in jail. Laurentius Andreae (born as Lars Andersson) was a Swedish clergyman and scholar, and one of the main proponents of the Swedish Protestant reformation in the years 1520-1540. ...


End of his reign

Gustav in his old age
Gustav in his old age

In the late 1550's, Gustav was broken by bodily troubles. This has been confirmed when his grave was opened in 1945 and his corpse examined. It was discovered that he suffered chronic infections of a leg and in his jaw. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


He held a so called "last speech" in 1560 to the chancellors, his children and other noblemen whereby he encouraged them to remain united.


Heritage

Gustav's heritage has been disputed. In 19th century Swedish history, a folklore developed wherein Gustav was to have experienced all kinds of adventures when he liberated Sweden from the Danes. The memory of Gustav has been honored greatly, resulting in embroidered history books, memory coins, and the annual ski event Vasaloppet (the largest ski event in the world with 10,000 participants). Vasaloppet is named after Gustav Vasas aborted escape in 1520. ...


However, today most of these stories are regarded to have no other foundation than legend, and a skillful propaganda by Gustav himself during his time.


Gustav has by some been regarded as a power-hungry man who wished to control everything: the Church, the economy, the army and all foreign affairs. But in doing this, he also did manage to unite Sweden, a country that had previously not had a standardized language, and where individual provinces held a strong regional power.


Gallery

Gustav Vasa had a series of paintings made during his reign. The originals are lost but watercolor reproductions of unknown date remain. These paintings show Gustav's triumphs, showing what Gustav himself considered important to depict. Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ...

Family

Gustav's first wife was Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg (15131535), whom he married on 24 September 1531. They had a son: Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, Katarina in Swedish, (1513 - September 23, 1535), was the first consort of Sweden from 1531 until her death. ... Events January 20 - Christian II becomes King of Denmark and Norway. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga (now Montreal) June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake-- thousands die October 1 - Battle of Kappel - The forces of Zürich are defeated by the Catholic cantons. ...

  1. Eric XIV (15331577)

On 1 October 1536 he married his second wife, Margareta Leijonhufvud (15141551). Their children were: Erik XIV of Sweden (December 13, 1533–February 26, 1577) was the son of Gustav I of Sweden and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... // Events February 2 - Spaniard Pedro de Mendoza founds Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Margareta Leijonhufvud (January 1, 1516 - August 26, 1551) was the consort of King Gustav I and a Queen of Sweden from 1536 to 1551. ... // Events March - Louis XII of France makes peace with Emperor Maximilian. ... Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ...

  1. John III (Johan III) (15371592)
  2. Katharina (15391610). A great-grandmother of Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
  3. Cecilia (15401627)
  4. Magnus (15421595)
  5. Carl (1544)
  6. Anna Maria (15451610)
  7. Sten (15461549)
  8. Sofia (15471611)
  9. Elisabeth (15491598)
  10. Charles IX (Carl IX) (15501611)

In 1552 he married his third wife, Katarina Stenbock (15351621). John III (Johan III) (December 23, 1537 - November 27, 1592) was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz ( 19 October 1658 - 12 May 1708) was reigning Duke from 1658 to his death. ... Cecilia of Sweden, also Cecilia Vasa (Stockholm, November 16, 1540 - Sweden and daughter of King Gustav I and Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud. ... Events January 6 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves, his fourth Queen consort. ... Events A Dutch ship makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Events January 16 - Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Charles IX (Karl IX) (October 4, 1550 – October 30, 1611), was King of Sweden from 1604 until his death. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Katarina Stenbock (Torpa, Westrogothia in July 22, 1535 - Strömsholm, Westmannia in December 13, 1621) was the third and last consort of Gustav I of Sweden and the Queen of Sweden between 1552 and 1560. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga (now Montreal) June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ...


See also


// Gustav Vasa Main article: Gustav I of Sweden Gusav Vasa Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa) had political and religious difficulties in his kingdom established in 1523. ... Vasaloppet is named after Gustav Vasas aborted escape in 1520. ... Vasa from the side Vasa (also Regalskeppet Wasa, or Wasa, of 64 guns) is a famous warship built for King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden of the House of Vasa, between the years 1626 and 1628. ... Vaasa (Vasa in Swedish, Wasa in Latin), is a city on the west coast of Finland. ...

Preceded by:
Christian II
Regent of Sweden
1521–1523
Succeeded by:
became king
Preceded by:
himself as regent
King of Sweden
1523–1560
Succeeded by:
Eric XIV


Christian II (1481 – 1559) was a Danish monarch and King of Denmark, Norway (1513 – 1523) and Sweden (1520 – 1521), under the Kalmar Union. ... This is a list of Swedish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queens of Sweden with Regents and Viceroys of the Kalmar Union up until the present time. ... Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a representative democracy based on a parliamentary system. ... Erik XIV of Sweden (December 13, 1533–February 26, 1577) was the son of Gustav I of Sweden and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. ...


References

  • Robert, M: The Early Vasas: A History of Sweden 1523-1611 (1968)
  • Åberg/Aberg, Alf: Gustav Vasa 500 år / The official anniversary book (1996)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gustav I of Sweden - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1482 words)
Gustav Vasa was an enigmatic person who has been referred to as both a liberator of the country and as a tyrannic ruler, which has made him the subject of many books.
Gustav's family descended from Birgitta Gustafsdotter Sture, the sister of childless Regent Sten Sture the Elder who had died in 1503 when Gustav was a baby.
Gustav Vasa's father Erik Johansson (Vasa) was involved in the party of Sten Sture the Younger fighting against the Danes in the early 16th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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