FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gustav Stresemann
Gustav Stresemann


In office
August 13 – November 23, 1923
Preceded by Wilhelm Cuno
Succeeded by Wilhelm Marx

Born May 10, 1878(1878-05-10)
Died October 3, 1929 (aged 51)
Political party German People's Party

Gustav Stresemann  (May 10, 1878October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. jur. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... Image File history File links De-GustavStresemann. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

Contents

Early Years

Stresemann was born in Berlin, Germany. He came from middle class origins, as the son of a Berlin innkeeper and beer distributor. However, he attended Universities of Berlin and Leipzig, studied philosophy and literature and received a doctorate in economics. He also became a spokesman for his student association. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


In 1902 he founded the Saxon Manufacturers' Association. In 1903 he married Käte Kleefeld, daughter of a wealthy Jewish Berlin businessman. At that time he was also a member of Friedrich Naumann's National-Social Association. In 1906 he was elected into Dresden town council. Though he had initially worked in trade associations, Stresemann soon became a leader of the National Liberal Party in Saxony, being elected to the Reichstag in 1907, where he soon became a close associate of party chairman Ernst Bassermann. However, he disagreed with the most conservative party member and lost his post in the party's executive committee in 1912 and later the same year both his parliamentary and town council seats. He returned to business and founded the German-American Economic Association. He returned to Reichstag in 1914. He was exempted from the war service due to poor health. Friedrich Naumann Friedrich Naumann (March 25, 1860 – August 24, 1919) was a German politician and Protestant parish priest. ... In the second half of the 19th century Germany underwent a rapid industrialization, which was connected with rising social problems. ... The National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) was a German political party which flourished between 1867 and 1918. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


Stresemann's politics defy easy categorisation. Today, he is generally considered one of the most important leaders of Germany and a staunch supporter of democracy in the fragile Weimar Republic. Further, he is noted as one of the first to envisage European economic integration. Arguably, his most notable achievement is the reconciliation between Germany and France, for which he and Aristide Briand received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926. Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


However, the evolution of his political ideas appears somewhat erratic. Initially, in the German Empire, Stresemann had been associated with the left wing of the National Liberals. During World War I, he gradually moved to the right, expressing his support of the monarchy and Germany's expansionist goals. He was one of the proponents of the unrestricted submarine warfare. For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Stresemann's association with the right ultimately led to his exclusion from the new German Democratic Party after the war, leading him to found his own party, the DVP (Deutsche Volkspartei German People's Party), compoosed of the right wing of the old National Liberal Party. Most of its support came from middle class and upper class Protestants. The DVP platform promoted Christian family values, secular education, a policy of lowering tariffs, hostility to Marxism (in the Weimar Republic, the term Marxism referred not only to the Communists, but to the Social Democrats as well), opposition to welfare spending and agrarian subsides, and at best a grudging acceptance of democracy. The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Although the party was initially seen, along with the more straightforwardly conservative German National People's Party, as part of the "national opposition" to the Weimar Republic, particularly for its ambivalent attitude towards the Freikorps and the Kapp Putsch in 1920, Stresemann gradually tried to cooperate with the parties of the left and center - possibly under the impression of political murders like that of Walther Rathenau. 1924 electoral poster, using the Admiral Tirpitz as a figurehead The German National Peoples Party (German: Deutschnationale Volkspartei) (DNVP) was a right wing national-conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Memorial for the suppression of the Kapp putsch in Wetter station The Kapp Putsch —or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch —was an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic, based in opposition to the imposed Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I. It was branded right... Walter Rathenau Walther Rathenau (September 29, 1867–June 24, 1922) was a German industrialist and politician who served as Foreign Minister of Germany. ...


In the Weimar Republic

On August 13, 1923, in the midst of the Ruhr Crisis, sophie was appointed Chancellor of a grand coalition government. As Chancellor, Stresemann went a long way towards resolving the crisis, but some of his moves - like his refusal to deal firmly with culprits of the Beer Hall Putsch - alienated the Social Democrats, who left the coalition and arguably caused its collapse in November 23, 1923. Stresemann remained as Foreign Minister in the government of his successor, Centrist Wilhelm Marx, and continued to hold that position through numerous governments until his death. is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Beer Hall Putsch was a failed coup détat that occurred between the evening of Thursday, November 8 and the early afternoon of Friday, November 9, 1923, when the Nazi partys Führer Adolf Hitler, the popular World War I General Erich Ludendorff, and other leaders of the... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Wilhelm Marx (January 15, 1863–August 5, 1946) was a German Catholic politician and a member of the Centre Party. ...


As Foreign Secretary, Stresemann had numerous achievements, particularly the signing of the Locarno Pact with Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium in 1925, the entry of Germany into the League of Nations as permanent member of the Security Council in 1926, and the Dawes Plan of 1924, the Treaty of Berlin in 1926 and Young Plan of 1929, which reduced Germany's reparations payments under the Treaty of Versailles. He also befriended Aristide Briand, with whom he shared the 1926 Nobel Peace Prize for achieving Franco-German reconciliation along with Britain's Foreign Minister Austen Chamberlain.[1] The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of central and eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... At the conclusion of World War I the Allies imposed in the Treaty of Versailles a plan for reparations to be paid by Germany. ... The term Treaty of Berlin is often used for the agreement of April 24, 1926 under which Germany and the Soviet Union each pledged neutrality in the event of an attack on the other by a third party. ... The Young Plan was a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by Owen D. Young. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... The Rt. ...


Stresemann was not, however, in any sense pro-French. His main preoccupation was how to free Germany from the burden of reparations payments to Britain and France that had been imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. His strategy for achieving this was to forge an economic alliance with the United States. This was based on the fact that the U.S. was Germany's main source of food and raw materials imports, and one of the Germany's largest export markets for manufactured goods. Germany's economic recovery was thus in the interests of the U.S., and gave the U.S. an incentive to help Germany escape from the reparations burden. The Dawes and Young plans were the result of this strategy. Stresemann had a close relationship with Herbert Hoover, who was Secretary of Commerce 1921-28 and President from 1928. This strategy worked remarkably well until it was derailed by the Great Depression after Stresemann's death.[2] World War I reparations refers to the payments and transfers of property and equipment that the German state was forced to make following its defeat during World War I. Article 231 of the Treaty (the war guilt clause) held Germany solely responsible for all loss and damage suffered by the... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


During his period in the foreign ministry, Stresemann came more and more to accept the Republic, which he had at first rejected. By the mid-1920s, having contributed much to a (temporary) consolidation of the feeble democratic order, Stresemann was regarded as a Vernunftrepublikaner (republican by reason) - someone who accepted the Republic as the least of all evils, but was in their heart still loyal to the monarchy. The conservative opposition criticised him for his supporting the republic and fulfilling too willingly the demands of the Western powers; along with Matthias Erzberger and others, he was attacked as a Erfüllungspolitiker ("fulfillment politician"). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Stresemann is remembered for his role in consolidating liberal democracy in Germany and concluding peace with her western neighbours. On the other hand, his position on the Polish-German border per the treaty of Versailles and the Upper Silesian plebiscite was as uncompromising as any German politician's of that time, with the exception of far-left social democrats and communists. This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


In 1925, when he first proposed an agreement with France, he made it clear that in doing so he intended to "gain a free hand to secure a peaceful change of the borders in the East and [...] concentrate on a later incorporation of German territories in the East".[3] In the same year, while Poland was in a state of political and economic crisis, Stresemann began a trade war against the country. Stresemann hoped for an escalation of the Polish crisis, which would eventually enable Germany to take back territories it was forced to cede to Poland after WW1 and he wanted Germany to gain a larger market for its products there. For this reason, Stresemann refused to engage in any international cooperation that would have "prematurely" restabilised the Polish economy. In response to a British proposal, Stresemann wrote to the German ambassador in London: "[A] final and lasting recapitalisation of Poland must be delayed until the country is ripe for a settlement of the border according to our wishes and until our own position is sufficiently strong". According to Stresemann's letter, there should be no settlement "until [Poland's] economic and financial distress has reached an extreme stage and reduced the entire Polish body politic to a state of powerlessness".[4] A trade war refers to two or more nations raising or creating tariffs or other trade barriers on each other in retaliation for other trade barriers. ...


Gustav Stresemann died of a heart attack in October 1929 at the age of 51. His sudden and premature death, as well as that death of his "pragmatic moderate" French counterpart Briand in 1931, and the assassination of Briand's successor Louis Barthou in 1934, left a vacuum in European statesmanship that further tilted the slippery slope towards World War II. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... French politician Louis Barthou Jean Louis Barthou (August 25, 1862 – October 9, 1934) was a French politician of the Third Republic. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Gustav and Käthe had two sons, Wolfgang and Joachim Stresemann. Wolfgang Stresemann (born 1904; died 1998) was a German jurist, orchestra leader, conductor and composer. ...


Long Hanborough in Oxfordshire contains a small plaque to commemorate his life. Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ...


First Cabinet, August - October 1923

This page is about the German Peoples Party which existed between 1918 and 1933. ... This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... Robert Schmidt (15 May 1864 - 16 September 1943) was a German politician, and member of the SPD party. ... Social Democratic Party of Germany Spectral Power Density ... The Deputy Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor (Vizekanzler) in Germany is often the Minister of Foreign Affairs. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Sollmann (1881-1951) was a German journalist, politician, and interior minister of the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German State Secretaries and Ministers of the Interior. ... Rudolf Hilferding (1877 - 1941) was an Austrian Marxist economist and a popularizer of the economic reading of Karl Marx. ... This page lists German finance ministers. ... This page lists German Economics Ministers. ... The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or merely Zentrum), often called the Catholic Centre Party, was a Catholic political party in Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German Labour Ministers. ... Gustav Radbruch, born November 21, 1878 in Lübeck; died November 23, 1949 in Heidelberg, was a German law professor, most famous for the Radbruchsche Formel (Radbruchs formula) which states that where statutory law is incompatible with the requirements of justice to an intolerable degree, or where statutory law... This page lists German Justice Ministers. ... Dr. Otto Karl Gessler (or Geßler) (February 6, 1875-March 24, 1955) was a German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German Defence Ministers. ... This page lists German Postal Ministers. ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ... This page lists German Agriculture ministers. ...

Second Cabinet, October - November 1923

Changes This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Sollmann (1881-1951) was a German journalist, politician, and interior minister of the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German State Secretaries and Ministers of the Interior. ... Hans Luther (10 March 1885–11 May 1962) was a German politician and former Chancellor of Germany. ... This page lists German finance ministers. ... This page lists German Economics Ministers. ... Gustav Radbruch, born November 21, 1878 in Lübeck; died November 23, 1949 in Heidelberg, was a German law professor, most famous for the Radbruchsche Formel (Radbruchs formula) which states that where statutory law is incompatible with the requirements of justice to an intolerable degree, or where statutory law... This page lists German Justice Ministers. ... Dr. Otto Karl Gessler (or Geßler) (February 6, 1875-March 24, 1955) was a German politician during the Weimar Republic. ... This page lists German Defence Ministers. ... This page lists German Postal Ministers. ... This page lists German Agriculture ministers. ... Robert Schmidt (15 May 1864 - 16 September 1943) was a German politician, and member of the SPD party. ...

  • November 3, 1923 - The Social Democratic Ministers, Sollmann, Radbruch, and Schmidt, resign. Sollmann is succeeded as Interior Minishter by Karl Jarres (DVP). The others are not replaced before the ministry falls

is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Jarres (21 September 1874 -20 October 1951) was a politician of the German Peoples Party (Deutsche Volkspartei, or DVP) during the Weimar Republic. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Annelise Thimme. "Stresemann and Locarno", 74
  2. ^ Adam Tooze, Wages of Destruction, 6
  3. ^ Stresemann in an article for the Hamburger Fremdenblatt, 10 April 1922, quoted after Martin Broszat, 200 Jahre deutsche Polenpolitik, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1972, p. 220.
  4. ^ Stresemann in a letter to the German ambassador in London, quoted after Broszat (see above), p. 224.

is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Broszat (August 14, 1926 – October 14, 1989) was a left-wing West German historian. ...

Books

  • Turner, Henry Ashby Stresemann and the politics of the Weimar Republic, Princeton, N. J. : Princeton University Press, 1963.
  • Wright, Jonathan Gustav Stresemann: Weimar's Greatest Statesman (2002).
  • Enssle, Manfred J. Stresemann's Territorial Revisionism (1980).

Henry Ashby Turner, Jr. ...

External links

  • Hitler, Stresemann and the Discontinuity of German Foreign Policy by Edgar Feuchtwanger
  • Nobel biography
Preceded by
Hans von Rosenberg
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1923-1929
Succeeded by
Julius Curtius
Preceded by
Wilhelm Cuno
Chancellor of Germany
1923
Succeeded by
Wilhelm Marx

  Results from FactBites:
 
First World War.com - Who's Who - Gustav Stresemann (548 words)
Gustav Stresemann (1879-1929) was a National Liberal Party deputy in the Reichstag from 1907 and an enthusiastic supporter of ambitious German war aims.
Becoming politically active Stresemann was elected to Dresden town council in 1906 (a seat he held until 1912) and in 1907 was elected to the Reichstag as a member of the National Liberal Party.
On 3 November 1929 Stresemann suffered a stroke and died while in Berlin at the age of 51.
Gustav Stresemann (316 words)
Gustav Stresemann (May 10, 1878 - October 3, 1929) was a German politician and statesman and the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Stresemann remained as Foreign Minister in the government of his successor, Centrist[?] Wilhelm Marx[?], and continued to hold that position through numerous governments until his death in 1929.
As Foreign Secretary, Stresemann had numerous achievements, particularly the signing of the Locarno Pact[?] with Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium in 1925, the entry of Germany into the League of Nations in 1926, and the Dawes Plan[?] of 1924 and Young Plan[?] of 1929, which reduced Germany's reparations payments under the Treaty of Versailles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m