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Encyclopedia > Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (July 7, 1860May 18, 1911) was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor. Mahler most often refers to Gustav Mahler, Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor. ... Gustav Mahler This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ...


Mahler was best known during his own lifetime as one of the leading orchestral and operatic conductors of the day. He has since come to be acknowledged as among the most important late-romantic composers, although his music was never completely accepted by the musical establishment of Vienna while he was still alive. Mahler composed primarily symphonies and songs; however, his approach to genre often blurred the lines between orchestral Lied, symphony, and symphonic poem. Romantics redirects here. ... Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Gustav Mahler at six years
Gustav Mahler at six years

Gustav Mahler was born into a German-speaking, Ashkenazic Jewish family in Kaliště (in German, Kalischt), Bohemia, then in the Austrian Empire, today in the Czech Republic, the second of fourteen children, of whom only six survived infancy.[1] His parents soon moved to Jihlava (in German Iglau), Moravia, also today in the Czech Republic, where Mahler spent his childhood. Having noticed the boy's talent at an early age, his parents arranged piano lessons for him when he was six years old. Image File history File links Gustav_mahler_as_child. ... Image File history File links Gustav_mahler_as_child. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... KaliÅ¡tÄ› (German Kalischt) is a village and municipality near Humpolec in Vysočina Region, Czech Republic. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Jihlava â–¶(?) (German Iglau) is a city in the Czech Republic. ... For other uses, see Moravia (disambiguation). ...


In 1875, Mahler, then fifteen, was admitted to the Vienna Conservatoire where he studied piano under Julius Epstein, harmony with Robert Fuchs, and composition with Franz Krenn. Three years later Mahler attended Vienna University, where Anton Bruckner was lecturing. There he studied history and philosophy as well as music. While at the university, he worked as a music teacher and made his first major attempt at composition with the cantata Das klagende Lied. The work was entered in a competition where the jury was headed by Johannes Brahms, but failed to win a prize. 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien) is an Austrian university in located in Vienna, established in 1808. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... Robert Fuchs (February 15, 1847 – February 19, 1927) was an Austrian composer and Professor of Music Theory at the Vienna Conservatory. ... Franz Krenn (born 26th February 1816 in Droß, Austria; died 18th June 1897 in St. ... The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Das klagende Lied (Song of Lamentation) is a cantata by Gustav Mahler, composed between 1878 and 1880 and greatly revised over the next two decades. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ...


Growing reputation

In 1880, Mahler began his career as a conductor with a job at a summer theatre at Bad Hall; in the years that followed, he took posts at successively larger opera houses: in Ljubljana in 1881, Olomouc in 1882, Vienna in 1883, Kassel also in 1883, Prague in 1885, Leipzig in 1886 and Budapest in 1888. In 1887, he took over conducting Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen from an ill Arthur Nikisch, firmly establishing his reputation among critics and public alike. The year after, he made a complete performing edition of Carl Maria von Weber's unfinished opera Die drei Pintos, the success of which brought financial rewards and contributed to his gradually growing fame. Brahms was greatly impressed by his conducting of Don Giovanni. His first long-term appointment was at the Hamburg Opera in 1891, where he stayed until 1897. From 1893 to 1896, he took summer vacations at Steinbach am Attersee in Upper Austria, where he revised his Symphony No. 1 (first heard in 1889), composed his Symphony No. 2, sketched his Symphony No. 3, and wrote most of the song collection Lieder aus "Des Knaben Wunderhorn" (Songs from 'The Youth's Magic Horn'), based on a famous set of heavily redacted folk-poems. Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Arthur Nikisch (or Nikitsch) (October 12, 1855 – January 23, 1922) was a Hungarian conductor who performed mainly in Germany. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Die drei Pintos (The Three Pintos) is a comic opera by Carl Maria von Weber with a libretto by Theodore Hell. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... The Hamburg State Opera (in German: Hamburgische Staatsoper) is one of the leading opera companies in Germany. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Steinbach am Attersee is a village on the banks of the Attersee (Lake Atter) in the province of Upper Austria. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The boys magic horn) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ...


In 1897, Mahler, then thirty-seven, was offered the directorship of the Vienna Opera, the most prestigious musical position in the Austrian Empire. This was an 'Imperial' post, and under Austro-Hungarian law, no such posts could be occupied by Jews. Mahler, who was never a devout or practicing Jew, had, in preparation, converted to Roman Catholicism. As a child, he had been a chorister in a Catholic Church where he had also learned piano from the choir master.[1] As the years passed Mahler found much to attract him in Catholicism, and Catholic influences are observable in his music, for example his use of the hymn "Veni Creator Spiritus" in his Eighth Symphony. [2] Vienna State Opera (German: Wiener Staatsoper), located in Vienna, Austria, is one of the most important opera companies in Europe. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Veni Creator Spiritus is a hymn normally sung in Gregorian Chant and is considered the most famous of hymns. ...


In 1899 and 1910 he conducted his revised versions of Schumann's Symphonies Nos. 2 and 4.[2] Schumann is the name of several notable people: Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856), German composer (husband of composer Clara Schumann) Clara Wieck Schumann (1819 - 1896), German pianist and composer, (wife of composer Robert Schumann) Georg Schumann (1886 - 1945), German Communist and resistance fighter against the Nazis Georg Schumann (1866 - 1952), German...


In ten years at the Vienna Opera, Mahler transformed the institution's repertoire and raised its artistic standards, bending both performers and listeners to his will. When he first took over the Opera, the most popular works were Lohengrin, Manon, and Cavalleria rusticana; the new director concentrated his energies on classic operas of Christoph Willibald Gluck and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and, in collaboration with the painter Alfred Roller (Brno 1864-Vienna 1935), created shadowy, transfixing productions of Fidelio, Tristan und Isolde, and Der Ring des Nibelungen. Lohengrin is a romantic opera (or music drama) in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... Manon is an opera in five acts by Jules Massenet to a French libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille, based on L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by Abbé Prévost. ... Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. ... Gluck redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Fidelio (Op. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ...


In Mahler's day Vienna was one of the world’s biggest cities and the capital of a great empire in Central Europe. It was home to a lively artistic and intellectual scene. It was home to famous painters such as Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele. Mahler knew many of these intellectuals and artists. Gustav Klimt (July 14, 1862 – February 6, 1918) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau (Vienna Secession) movement. ... Photograph by Anton Josef Trčka Egon Schiele (June 12, 1890 – October 31, 1918) (pronounced approximately SHEE-luh) was an Austrian painter, a protege of Gustav Klimt, and a major figurative painter of the early 20th century. ...


Mahler worked at the Opera for nine months of each year, with only his summers free for composing; these summers he spent mainly at Maiernigg, on the Wörthersee. In that idyllic setting he composed his fifth through eighth symphonies, the Rückert Lieder and Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children), both based on poems by Friedrich Rückert, and Der Tamboursg'sell, the last of his 'Des Knaben Wunderhorn' settings. Lake Wörth (German: Wörther See, Slovenian: Vrbsko jezero) is an alpine lake in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia. ... Mahlers Rückert-Lieder are 5 songs, based on poems written by Friedrich Rückert. ... Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Friedrich Rückert (May 16, 1788 - January 31, 1866) was a German poet, translator and professor of Oriental languages. ...


Later years

Gustav Mahler in 1909
Gustav Mahler in 1909

In June 1901, he moved into a new villa on the lake in Maiernigg, Carinthia ([3]). On March 9, 1902, Mahler married Alma Schindler (18791964), twenty years his junior and the stepdaughter of the noted Viennese painter Carl Moll. Alma was a musician and composer, but Mahler forbade her to engage in creative work, although she did make clean manuscript copies of his hand-written scores. Mahler did interact creatively with some women, such as viola-player Natalie Bauer-Lechner, two years his senior, whom he had met while studying in Vienna. But he told Alma that her role should only be to tend to his needs. Alma and Gustav had two daughters, Maria Anna ('Putzi'; 19021907), who died of diphtheria at the age of only four, and Anna ('Gucki'; 19041988), who later became a sculptor. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (455x640, 32 KB) Gustav Mahler, 3/4, seated, facing left. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (455x640, 32 KB) Gustav Mahler, 3/4, seated, facing left. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Alma Mahler Alma Mahler (August 31, 1879 - December 11, 1964), noted in her native Vienna for her beauty and intelligence, was the wife, successively, of one of the centurys leading composers (Gustav Mahler), architects (Walter Gropius), and novelists (Franz Werfel). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Carl Julius Rudolf Moll (1861 – 1945) was a prominent painter active in Vienna at the start of the 20th century. ... Natalie Bauer-Lechner (1858--1921) was a viola-player who is best known to musicology for having been a close and devoted friend of Gustav Mahler in the period between the break-up of her marriage in 1890 and the start of his to Alma Schindler in 1902. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Sculptor redirects here. ...


The death of their first daughter left Mahler grief-stricken; but further blows were to come. That same year he discovered he had a heart disease (infective endocarditis), and was forced to limit his exercising and count his steps with a pedometer. At the Opera, his obstinacy in artistic matters had created enemies, and he was also increasingly subject to attacks in anti-Semitic portions of the press. His resignation from the Opera, in 1907, was hardly unexpected. Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ...


Mahler's own music aroused considerable opposition from music critics, who tended to hear his symphonies as 'potpourris' in which themes from "disparate" periods and traditions were indiscriminately mingled. Mahler's juxtaposition of material from both "high" and "low" cultures, as well as his mixing of different ethnic traditions, often outraged conservative critics at a time when workers' mass organizations were growing rapidly, and clashes between Germans, Czechs, Hungarians and Jews in Austro-Hungary were creating anxiety and instability. However, he always had vociferous admirers on his side. In his last years, Mahler began to score major successes with a wider public, notably with a Munich performance of the Second Symphony in 1900, with the first complete performance of the Third in Krefeld in 1902, with a valedictory Viennese performance of the Second in 1907, and, above all, with the Munich premiere of the gargantuan Eighth in 1910. The music he wrote after that, however, was not performed during his lifetime. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Krefeld is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The final impetus for Mahler's departure from the Vienna Opera was a generous offer from the Metropolitan Opera in New York. He conducted a season there in 1908, only to be set aside in favor of Arturo Toscanini; while he had been enormously popular with public and critics alike, he had fallen out of favor with the trustees of the board of the Met. Back in Europe, with his marriage in crisis and Alma's infidelity having been revealed, Mahler, in 1910, had a single (and apparently helpful) consultation with Sigmund Freud. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


Having now signed a contract to conduct the long-established New York Philharmonic Orchestra, Mahler and his family travelled again to America. At this time, he completed his Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth), and his Symphony No. 9, which would be his last completed work. In February 1911, during a long and demanding concert season in New York, Mahler fell seriously ill with a streptococcal blood infection, and conducted his last concert in a fever (the programme included the world premiere of Ferruccio Busoni's Berceuse élégiaque). Returning to Europe, he was taken to Paris, where a new serum had recently been developed. He did not respond, however, and was taken back to Vienna at his request. He died there from his infection on May 18, 1911 at the age of 50, leaving his Symphony No. 10 unfinished. The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Mahler's widow reported that his last word was "Mozartl" (a diminutive, corresponding to 'dear little Mozart'). He was buried, at his request, beside his daughter, in Grinzing Cemetery outside Vienna. In obedience to his last wishes, he was buried in silence, with the gravestone bearing only the name "Gustav Mahler." Mahler's good friend Bruno Walter describes the funeral: "On May 18, 1911, he died. Next evening we laid the coffin in the cemetery at Grinzing, a storm broke and such torrents of rain fell that it was almost impossible to proceed. An immense crowd, dead silent, followed the hearse. At the moment when the coffin was lowered, the sun broke through the clouds" (Walter 1957, 73). Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ...


Alma Mahler quotes Gustav as saying "I am thrice homeless, as a native of Bohemia in Austria, as an Austrian among Germans, and as a Jew throughout the world. Everywhere an intruder, never welcomed." However, this is astonishingly close to a remark written by Anton Rubinstein in the 1860s or 1870s, and may therefore have been adapted, for its appositeness, by Mahler (or indeed Alma). Anton Rubinstein. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


Alma outlived Gustav by more than 50 years, and in their course, she was active in publishing material about his life and music. However, her accounts have been attacked as unreliable, false, and misleading.[3]This constitutes the Alma Problem. For example, she tampered with the couple's correspondence and, in her publications, Gustav is often portrayed more negatively than some historians might like. Alma Mahler Alma Maria Mahler-Werfel (née Schindler) (August 31, 1879 – December 11, 1964) was noted in her native Vienna for her beauty and intelligence. ... The Alma Problem is an issue of concern to musicologists, historians and biographers who deal with the lives and works of Gustav Mahler and his wife Alma. ...


Music

Mahler was the last in a line of Viennese symphonists extending from the First Viennese School of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert to the Romantics Bruckner and Brahms; he also incorporated the ideas of non-Viennese Romantic composers like Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn. The major influence on his work, however, was that of Wagner, who was, according to Mahler, the only composer after Beethoven truly to have "development" (see Sonata form and History of sonata form) in his music. The First Viennese School is a name sometimes given to a collection of classical music composers who wrote in the classical music era in the late eighteenth century in Vienna. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Schubert redirects here. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article treats the history of sonata form through the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Modern eras. ...


Mahler and genre

With the exceptions of an early piano quartet, Das Klagende Lied, an early cantata, and Totenfeier, the original tone-poem version of the first movement of the second symphony, Mahler's entire output consists of only two genres: symphony and song. Besides the nine completed numbered symphonies, his principal works are the song cycles Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (usually rendered as 'Songs of a Wayfarer', but very literally, 'Songs of a Travelling Comrade, Companion, or Journeyman') and Kindertotenlieder ('Songs on the Death of Children'), and the synthesis of symphony and song cycle that is Das Lied von der Erde ('The Song of the Earth'). The Piano Quartet in A minor by Gustav Mahler was written around 1876. ... Das klagende Lied (Song of Lamentation) is a cantata by Gustav Mahler, composed between 1878 and 1880 and greatly revised over the next two decades. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, often mistranslated as Songs of a Wayfarer) is Gustav Mahlers first song cycle. ... For other uses, see Journeyman (disambiguation). ... Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ...


Style of writing

The spirit of the Lied (German for song) constantly rests in his work. He followed Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann in developing the song cycle, but rather than write piano accompaniment, he orchestrated it instead. Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman) is a set of four songs written as a rejected lover wandering alone along the earth; Mahler wrote the text himself, inspired by his unhappy love affair with a singer while conducting at Kassel. Lied (plural Lieder) is a German word, literally meaning song; among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music songs, also known as art songs. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, often mistranslated as Songs of a Wayfarer) is Gustav Mahlers first song cycle. ...


Keenly aware of the colourations of the orchestra, the composer filled his symphonies with flowing melodies and expressive harmonies, achieving bright tonal qualities using the clarity of his melodic lines. Among his other innovations are expressive use of combinations of instruments in both large and small scale, increased use of percussion, as well as combining voice and chorus to symphony form, and extreme voice leading in his counterpoint. His orchestral style was based on counterpoint; two melodies would each start off the other seemingly simultaneously, choosing clarity over a mass orgy of sound. For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... In music, voice leading is the continuity between pitches or notes played successively in time. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


Often, his works involved the spirit of Austrian peasant song and dance. The Ländler – the Austrian folk-dance, which developed first into the minuet and then into the waltz – figures in several symphonies, as indeed do the minuet and the waltz. (All three historical stages – Ländler, minuet, and waltz – are represented in the 'dance movement' of the Ninth Symphony). The ländler is a folk dance in 3/4 time which was popular in Austria, south Germany and German Switzerland at the end of the 18th century. ... A minuet, sometimes spelled menuet, is a social dance of French origin for two persons, usually in 3/4 time. ... For other uses, see Waltz (disambiguation). ...


Mahler combined the ideas of Romanticism, including the use of program music, and the use of song melodies in symphonic works, with the resources that the development of the symphony orchestra had made possible. The result was to extend, and eventually break, the understanding of symphonic form, as he searched for ways to expand his music. He stated that a symphony should be an "entire world". As a result, he met with difficulties in presenting his works, and would continually revise the details of his orchestration until he was satisfied with the effect. Romantics redirects here. ... Program music is music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood [1]. By contrast, absolute music stands for itself and is intended to be appreciated without any particular reference to the outside world. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ...


He was deeply spiritual and described his music in terms of nature very often. This resulted in his music being viewed as extremely emotional for a long time after his death. In addition to restlessly searching for ways of extending symphonic expression, he was also an ardent craftsman, which shows both in his meticulous working methods and careful planning, and in his studies of previous composers.


Tonality

Mahler's harmonic writing was at times highly innovative, stretching the limits of conventional tonality. Still, tonality, as an expressive and constructional principle, was clearly of great importance to Mahler. This is shown most clearly by his approach to the issue of so-called 'progressive tonality'. While his First Symphony is clearly a D major work, his Second 'progresses' from a C minor first movement to an E-flat major conclusion; his Third moves from a first movement which begins in D minor and ends in F major to a finale which ends in D major – while his Fourth dies away in a serene E major that seemingly has no awareness of its distance from the work's basic G major. The Fifth moves from a C-sharp minor funeral march, through a desperately conflict-ridden A minor movement, a vigorous dance movement in D major, and a lyrical F major 'Adagietto', to a triumphant finale in D major – while the Sixth, very much by contrast, starts in A minor, ends in A minor, and juxtaposes a slow movement in E-flat major with a scherzo in A minor. The Seventh is tonally highly 'progressive', with a first movement that moves from a (possible) B minor start to an E major conclusion, and a finale that defines a celebratory C major. In the Eighth Symphony, the composer's expressive intentions led him to construct a work that both starts and ends in E-flat – whereas the 'valedictory' Ninth moves from a D major first movement to a D-flat major finale. The Tenth, insofar as we can be sure that Mahler's ultimate tonal intentions are discernible, was to start and end in F-sharp major. Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... Progressive tonality is the name given to the compositional practice whereby a piece of music does not finish in the key in which it began, but instead progresses to an ending in a different key. ... Also see: D minor, or D-flat major. ... Also see: C major, or C-sharp minor. ... E-flat major is a major scale based on E-flat, consisting of the pitches E-flat, F, G, A-flat, B-flat, C, D, and E-flat. ... D minor is a minor scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B-flat, C, and D (natural minor scale). ... Also see: F minor, or F-sharp minor. ... Also see: E minor, or E flat major. ... Also see: G minor, or G-sharp minor. ... C-sharp minor is a minor scale based on C-sharp, consisting of the pitches C-sharp, D-sharp, E, F-sharp, G-sharp, A, B-sharp and C-sharp (harmonic minor scale). ... Also see: A major, or A-sharp minor. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... Also see: B major, or B-flat minor. ... C major (often just C or key of C) is a musical major scale based on C, with pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. Its key signature has no flats/sharps (see below: Diatonic Scales and Keys). ... D-flat major is a major scale based on D-flat, consisting of the pitches D-flat, E-flat, F, G-flat, A-flat, B-flat, C, and D-flat. ... F# major is a major scale based on F#, consisting of the pitches F#, G#, A#, B, C#, D#, E# (enharmonic to F natural) and F#. Its key signature consists of six sharps. ...


Symphonies

First period

His symphonic output is generally divided into three 'periods'. The 'first period', dominated by his reading of the Wunderhorn poems, comprises his Symphonies Nos. 1 to 4. Within this group, the cross-fertilization from the world of Mahlerian song is in fact considerable. The Symphony No. 1 uses a melodic idea from one of the Gesellen songs in its first movement, and employs a section of another in the central part of its third. The Symphony No. 2's third movement is a voice-less orchestral amplification and extension of a Wunderhorn song, and is followed by a Wunderhorn setting incorporated completely. The Symphony No. 3's third movement is another orchestral fantasia on a Wunderhorn song, while its fifth is a Wunderhorn setting made especially for the symphony. In the Symphony No. 4, the finale is a pre-existing Wunderhorn setting (earlier considered as a possible finale for the Symphony No. 3), elements of which are prefiguratively inserted into the first three movements. Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Young Boys Magic Horn) is a collection of German folk poems collected by Achim von Arnim and Clemens von Brentano and published in the 1800s. ...


Second period

The symphonies of the 'second period', Nos. 5 to 7, manifest an increased severity of expression and reveal a growing interest in non-standard instrumentation (a whip in the Symphony No. 5; cowbells, 'deep bells' and a 'hammer' in the Symphony No. 6; and cowbells, cornet, 'tenor horn', mandolin and guitar in the Symphony No. 7), although non-standard instruments are present in earlier symphonies, like a post horn in the Symphony No. 3. Though the symphonies in this group have no vocal component, the world of Mahlerian song is hinted at in the first movement of the Symphony No. 5 and the slow movement of the Symphony No. 6, where phrases from one of the Kindertotenlieder are briefly heard, and in No.5's finale, which incorporates material from the 1896 Wunderhorn song 'Lob des hohen Verstandes'. A whip being used in a marching band pit ensemble The whip or slapstick is a percussion instrument consisting of two wooden boards joined by a hinge at one end. ... The cowbell is a percussion instrument. ... Tubular bells (also known as chimes) are musical instruments in the percussion family. ... The cowbell is a percussion instrument. ... Bâ™­ cornet The cornet is a brass instrument very similar to the trumpet, distinguished by its conical bore, compact shape, and mellower tone quality. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... The Post horn (also posthorn or post-horn) is a valveless brass instrument used to signal the arrival or departure of a mounted courier or mail coach. ...


Third period

Mahler's symphonic 'third period' is marked by increasing polyphony and embraces Nos. 8, 9, and 10 (unfinished), as well as Das Lied von der Erde. Credible connections with freestanding songs are difficult to demonstrate in these works – perhaps unsurprisingly, as Mahler's last non-symphonic songs were the Kindertotenlieder, completed in 1904. A striking example does come, however, with the intervallically exact reminiscence, on the 9th's final page, of the line 'The day is fine on yonder heights' from Kindertotenlieder no.4. Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Few composers are felt to have freely intermixed their work so completely as Mahler; the impression is only strengthened by the musical connections that can be heard to exist between symphonies and symphonies, and symphonies and songs, seeming to bind them together into a larger 'narrative'. For example, material heard in No. 3 recurs in the finale of No. 4; an idea from the first movement of No. 4 is heard to open No. 5; and a 'tragic' harmonic gesture that is repeatedly heard in No. 6 (a major chord declining into a minor) makes a striking reappearance in No. 7. Furthermore, a theme heard in No. 1 is restated in the first movement of No. 9, the last complete work he wrote. Generally speaking, a major chord is any chord which has a major third above its root, as opposed to a minor chord which has a minor third. ... Generally speaking, a minor chord is any chord which has a minor third above its root, as opposed to a major chord which has a major third. ...


Curse of the ninth

Mahler was obsessed with Beethoven's legacy; he declared that all of his symphonies were "ninths", having the same impact and scale as Beethoven's famous Choral symphony. Mahler was also apparently a firm believer in the curse of the ninth and thus terrified of writing a ninth numbered symphony. This is held to be the reason why he did not give a number to the symphonic work - Das Lied von der Erde - which followed his Eighth, but instead described it merely as Eine Symphonie für eine Tenor- und eine Alt- (oder Bariton-) Stimme und Orchester (nach Hans Bethges "Die chinesische Flöte") (A symphony for one tenor and one alto (or baritone) voice and orchestra, after Hans Bethge's "The Chinese Flute"). The work can be considered a combination of song cycle and symphony. This article is about the composition. ... The curse of the ninth is the superstition that any composer of symphonies, from Beethoven onwards, will die soon after writing his or her own Ninth Symphony. ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ...


Leonard Bernstein, who was instrumental in championing Mahler's music after his lifetime, portrayed the Symphony as the prophetic musical statement of the 20th century crisis in classical music. Not only did Mahler know he would not live long after the work was completed in 1908, but (according to Bernstein) he also "prophesized" through the music that the death of major/minor tonality was soon at hand. A further extension of that idea also implied the death of Faustian culture and perhaps the entire human race (the rumblings of World War I were already apparent) were soon at hand. Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Mahler's unfinished tenth symphony was later orchestrated by Deryck Cooke, with the apparent blessings of Alma Mahler. While Leonard Bernstein never performed or recorded this "realization," other conductors appreciated the work, both performing and recording it. Deryck Cooke (September 14, 1919 - October 27, 1975) was a British musicologist who was born in Leicester. ...


Legacy

Critics are no longer to be found who will insist that Mahler's popularity is a fad or a craze that will shortly pass; but while his place in musical history and in the repertoire seems secure, sober assessment of his specific legacy is inhibited by several factors. For example, little common ground can be found between those who revere Mahler for his 'emotional frankness' and 'spiritual honesty', and his equally vociferous detractors for whom the same music displays 'mawkishness', 'tastelessness' and 'sentimentality' (Franz Schmidt clearly spoke for the latter camp when he described Mahler's symphonies as "cheap novels"). A similar divide separates those who appreciate and analyze the symphonies as conscientiously orchestrated and rigorously organised large-scale forms, and those who see merely the lavish, sprawling outpourings of a 'self-indulgent egotist'. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ... Herd behaviour is the term used to describe situations in which the individuals of any particular group react coherently. ... For the academic study of history of music, see Music history. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Franz Schmidt (December 22, 1874 – February 11, 1939) was an Austrian composer, cellist and pianist. ...


Passionate admirers of Mahler, too, have sometimes muddied the waters by seeing the composer through the prism of their own preoccupations; thus the critical literature boasts manic-depressives who have insisted that Mahler's contrast-rich work betrays a manic-depressive psychology, and Jews who have claimed that his music exposes the cultural and social tensions that led to the Holocaust.[citation needed] Composer-conductor Leonard Bernstein, who felt a strong affinity with Mahler, expressed the view that Mahler's music "foretold" the many cataclysms of the twentieth century—from world wars to Black Power.[4] Vehement resistance to Mahler's expressive message sometimes has additional racial and nationalistic overtones; devoted Mahlerian Hans Keller used to quote an influential British critic as declaring: "The truth is, we just don't want Mahler over here." Manic depression, with its two principal sub-types, bipolar disorder and major depression, was first clinically described near the end of the 19th century by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, who published his account of the disease in his Textbook of Psychiatry. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Hans Keller (1919-1985) was an Austrian-born British musician and writer who made significant contributions to musicology and music criticism, and invented the method of Wordless Functional Analysis (in which a work is analysed in musical sound alone, without any words being heard or read). ...


With Mahler thus to some extent still critically embattled, a situation has developed in which his detractors attempt to minimize his legacy, and his admirers tend to respond by exaggerating it. A cautious middle ground might be pursued by noting that a combination of factors (World War I, economic depression, relentless Austrian Antisemitism [so fierce that it had caused Mahler himself to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1897 to improve his prospects] and World War II) worked greatly to inhibit performance and understanding of Mahler's music after 1911, and undoubtedly made his posthumous influence less than it could have been. As a result, it was principally among composers who had known Mahler or been part of his circle that his influence was first felt – even if such personal relationships often brought extra-musical factors into play. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


During a concert tour to Finland in November 1907 Mahler told fellow composer Jean Sibelius that "the symphony should be like the world: it must embrace everything" ("die Symphonie muss sein wie die Welt. Sie muss alles umfassen");[5] putting this philosophy into practice, he brought the genre to a new level of artistic development. Increasing the range of contrasts within and between movements necessitated an expansion of scale and scope (at around 95 minutes, his six-movement Symphony No. 3 is the longest in the general symphonic repertoire; his Symphony No. 8 premiered with some one thousand performers) – while the admission of vocal and choral elements (with texts drawn from folk-poetry, Nietzsche, Goethe, Chinese literature, and Medieval Roman Catholic mysticism) made manifest a philosophical as well as autobiographical content. Neglected for several decades after his death, Mahler's symphonies and orchestral songs are now part of the core repertoire of major symphony orchestras worldwide. Johan Julius Christian Jean / Janne Sibelius ( ; December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Influence

Schoenberg, for example, almost a full generation younger than Mahler, came to venerate the older man as a "saint": an exemplary figure, selflessly devoted to art, generous to younger composers, and badly treated in the same way he himself was badly treated; Schoenberg could still, however, display a complicated attitude to the music and even speak of having had an "aversion" to it. This ambivalence did not, however, prevent him from becoming a penetrating analyst of Mahler's irregular melodic structures, or defending the Seventh Symphony against an American critic, nor did it inhibit his adoption and even refinement of massive Mahlerian effects in his Gurrelieder or Pelleas und Melisande, or, in those same works and elsewhere, the pursuit of Mahlerian clarity through soloistic or chamber-style orchestral scoring. Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... The Gurre-Lieder form a massive oratorio for 5 soloists, reciter, chorus and orchestra, composed by Arnold Schoenberg, on poem texts by Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsen (translated from Danish to German by Robert Franz Arnold). ... Pelleas und Melisande, Symphonic Poem for orchestra, is dodecaphonic composer Arnold Schoenbergs first orchestral work. ...


For Alban Berg, younger still, Mahler was a musical influence rather than a personal one (the tragic Symphony No. 6 was "the only Sixth, despite the Pastoral"), and Mahlerian elements can be heard in many of his works. For example, the two hammer blows (three in the original edition) in the finale of the Mahler Sixth find their echo in Berg's Three Orchestral Pieces, which features seven hammer blows in its final movement as well as thematic material of a decisively Mahlerian cut. Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Symphony No. ...


In the case of Anton Webern, who, in his early professional life, had conducted performances of Mahler symphonies, one may detect a Mahlerian concern with total textural clarity, although the small scale and rhetorical sparseness of Webern's mature pieces means that overt 'Mahlerisms' are hard to find outside his juvenilia. Parallels have also been drawn between Webern's and Mahler's love of nature, particularly the Carinthian countryside.[6] Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer and conductor. ... Juvenilia is an EP released by Liz Phair. ...


The earliest significant non-contemporaries to register the impact of Mahler were perhaps Benjamin Britten and Dmitri Shostakovich, both of whom identified with elements of Mahler's personal and creative character as well as with aspects of his musical style. Britten, who had first come to know Mahler's Symphony No. 4 while still a student, produced a 'reduced orchestra' version of the second movement of Symphony No. 3 and during his life performed Mahler's music as both a piano-accompanist and conductor. Both Britten and Shostakovich came to hold Das Lied von der Erde in special regard, and undeniable references to it are found in such works as the former's Phaedra and the latter's Fourth and Tenth symphonies. In the United States, Aaron Copland's development of an authentically 'American' sound was influenced by Mahler, most notably in his Clarinet Concerto, written for Benny Goodman. Britten redirects here. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... The Symphony No. ... This article might not be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... Benny Goodman, born Benjamin David Goodman[1] , (May 30, 1909 – June 13, 1986) was an American jazz musician and virtuoso clarinetist, known as King of Swing, Patriarch of the Clarinet, The Professor, and Swings Senior Statesman. // Goodman was born in Chicago, the ninth of twelve children of poor Jewish...


Among other leading composers, an aversion to Mahler can often be attributed to radically incompatible creative goals rather than to any failure to recognise his technical skill: to Stravinsky, Mahler was "malheur" (French for "misfortune"), while Vaughan Williams described him as a "tolerable imitation of a composer". By the late 20th century, however, Mahler's kaleidoscopic scoring and motivically independent lines in intense contrapuntal combination had become staples of modernism, and formerly shocking features of his music such as his radical discontinuities, his penchant for parody and quotation (including self-quotation) and his blunt juxtaposition of 'high' and 'low' styles were prominent features of postmodernism. Igor Stravinsky. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Counterpoint is a very general feature of music (especially prominent in much Western music) whereby two or more melodic strands occur simultaneously - in separate voices, either literally or metaphorically (if the music is instrumental). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


As well as Shostakovich, Britten and Copland, Mahler's music also influenced Richard Strauss, the early symphonies of Havergal Brian, the music of Kurt Weill, Leonard Bernstein, Sir Malcolm Arnold, Luciano Berio and Alfred Schnittke. Alexander von Zemlinsky's Lyric Symphony seems to have been inspired by Das Lied von der Erde. Living composers influenced by Mahler include Uri Caine. This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... William (Havergal) Brian (January 29, 1876 – November 28, 1972), was a British composer. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Sir Malcolm Arnold Sir Malcolm Henry Arnold, CBE (21 October 1921 – 23 September 2006) was an English composer. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 – March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, conductor, and teacher. ... The Lyric Symphony, op. ... Uri Caine (born June 8, 1956 in Philadelphia) is an American classical and jazz pianist and composer. ...


Mid and late 20th century

Mahler's difficulties in getting his works accepted led him to say, "My time will come". That time came in the mid 20th century, at a point when the development of the LP was allowing repeated hearings of the long and complex symphonies in competent and well-recorded performances. By 1956, every one of Mahler's symphonies (including Das Lied von der Erde and the opening Adagio movement of the unfinished Tenth Symphony) had been issued on LP – as had Des Knaben Wunderhorn, Das Klagende Lied, the song cycles, and many individual songs. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Advocated by both those who had known him (prominently among them the composers Alexander von Zemlinsky and Arnold Schoenberg), and by a generation of conductors including the American composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein, his works won over an audience hungry for the next wave of musical exploration. In the late twentieth century, new musicological methods led to the extensive editing of his scores, leading to various attempts to complete the tenth symphony, such as by Deryck Cooke, and improved versions of the others. Alexander von Zemlinsky Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 – March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, conductor, and teacher. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Deryck Cooke (September 14, 1919 - October 27, 1975) was a British musicologist who was born in Leicester. ...


Mahler in popular culture

Representations of Mahler

Although Mahler was once regarded as writing 'difficult' music, he has since the 1960s had a considerable profile in popular culture. Mahler's persona was strongly associated with that of Thomas Mann's character Gustav von Aschenbach in the 1971 film version of Death in Venice, which recast Aschenbach (an author in Mann's novella) as a conductor whose compositions were derided. The music also used extracts from Mahler's Third and Fifth Symphonies, particularly the Adagietto which became famous as a result. The Adagietto had frequently been performed on its own, notably at the memorial service for Robert Kennedy in 1968. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... For other persons named Thomas Mann, see Thomas Mann (disambiguation). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... For other uses, see Death in Venice (disambiguation). ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1974 Ken Russell made a biographical film entitled Mahler, very loosely based on the composer's life, with Robert Powell in the title role. The English playwright Ronald Harwood wrote a play in 2001 entiteld Mahler's Conversion about the composer's emotional crisis on changing religion. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Kenneth Alfred Russell, known as Ken Russell (born July 3, 1927), is an English film director, particularly well-known for his films about famous composers and his controversial, often outrageous pioneering work in film. ... Mahler is a 1974 film based on the life of Gustav Mahler. ... Robert Powell (born June 1, 1944), is a well-known English television and film actor, known for the title role in Jesus of Nazareth and as the fictional secret agent Richard Hannay. ... Ronald Harwood (born November 9, 1934 in Cape Town, South Africa) is a playwright and writer. ...


Mahler's music

Mahler's music has often featured in films and other media to suggest a character in turmoil, or one with a bohemian personality. In the film version of Educating Rita, Rita's (Julie Walters) new roommate Trish (Maureen Lipman), who is playing the last movement of Mahler's Sixth Symphony at full volume on her turntable, says "Wouldn't you just die without Mahler?" as she opens the door to Rita for the first time. The character subsequently takes a drug overdose. In the book Requiem for a Dream by Hubert Selby (but not the film), Marion enjoys listening to Mahler's Second Symphony after shooting heroin. Excerpts from Mahler's Seventh Symphony appear in the soundtrack to the film Parting Glances, and his First Symphony is used as incidental music in the film Rubin and Ed. The final movement of Mahler's Third Symphony was used on an episode of the BBC's 'Coast' programme, during a description of the history of HMS Temeraire. The complete movement was used at the conclusion of one episode of the 1984 television series, "Call to Glory". For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ... Educating Rita is a 1983 film of Willy Russells play of the same name. ... Julia Mary Walters, OBE (born February 22, 1950) is an English Golden Globe-winning actress. ... Maureen Lipman CBE (born Hull, 10 May 1946), is a British film, theatre and television actress, columnist, and comedienne. ... Requiem for a Dream is a 2000 film adaptation of a 1978 novel of the same name. ... Hubert Selby, Jr. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Parting Glances is an American film released in 1986. ... Rubin & Ed is an American independent comedy-buddy film written and directed by Trent Harris and released in 1991. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... Call to Glory is an American television series which aired from 1984 to 1985. ...


In Britain, the opening notes of the Nachtmusik second movement of Mahler's Seventh Symphony were for many years familiar as the theme for Castrol GTX motor oil in television commercials. Mahler is also referenced in the song "Ladies Who Lunch" from the musical Company by Stephen Sondheim.[4]. Castrol is a brand of industrial and automotive lubricants which is applied to a large range of oil products for most lubrication applications. ... Company is a musical with a book by George Furth and music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ...


Movement II of Symphony No. 1 was used prominently in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Counterpoint". As the title suggests, Mahler's use of counterpoint is discussed. The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


In the Japanese TV series Kekkon Dekinai Otoko, the main character Shinsuke Kuwano, a classical music and opera buff, plays the finale of Symphony No. 5 in his apartment frequently. Kekkon Dekinai Otoko (結婚できない男 Kekkon dekinai otoko), known in English as The Man Who Cant Get Married or He Who Cant Marry, is a 2006 Japanese drama broadcast by Fuji TV on Tuesdays at 10:00 pm. ...


Media

  • Trombone solo from the Symphony No. 3, first movement
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Gustav_Mahler_-_Trombone_Solo_from_3rd_Symphony,_1st_movement. ...

Works

Symphonies

  • Symphony No. 1 in D major (?18841888; rev. 18931896; 2nd rev. 1906).
    • Note: This was first called "Symphonic Poem", later "Titan" (presumably after Jean Paul, a suggestion however rejected by Mahler). Originally in 5 movements, the second movement, Blumine, was discarded in final revision.
  • Symphony No. 2 in C minor (18881894; rev. 1903)
    • Note: The title "Resurrection", while popular with listeners, does not appear on the score and is not used in works of reference (e.g. the New Grove).
  • Symphony No. 3 in D minor (18931896; rev. 1906)
  • Symphony No. 4 in G major (1892, 18991900; rev. 19011910)
  • Symphony No. 5 (19011902; scoring repeatedly rev.)
    • Note: While the symphony begins in the advertised C-sharp minor, it should be noted that the composer, himself, wrote in a letter to his publisher, "it is difficult to speak of a key for the whole symphony, and to avoid misunderstandings the key should best be omitted."[cite this quote]
  • Symphony No. 6 in A minor (19031904; rev. 1906; scoring repeatedly rev.)
    • Note: At a performance in Vienna in 1907, the title "Tragic" was attached to the symphony on posters and programs, but the word does not appear on the score and is not used in works of reference.
  • Symphony No. 7 in E minor (19041905; scoring repeatedly rev.)
    • Note: The title "Song of the Night", while popular with listeners, did not originate with Mahler, does not appear on the score, and is not used in works of reference.
American premiere of Mahler's Symphony No. 8
American premiere of Mahler's Symphony No. 8
Note: Several prominent Mahler conductors – notably Bruno Walter, Leonard Bernstein, Bernard Haitink, and Sir Georg Solti – have, for various reasons (for instance, the lack of counterpoint) refused to perform any of the various "completions" of the Tenth that were available to them. This rejection extended even to the Cooke version – even though Cooke and his collaborators were well aware that no one but Mahler could ever "complete" the Tenth Symphony, and thus described their score (which by now has been through several revisions) as merely "A Performing Version of the Draft", rather than as a true completion.

The Symphony No. ... Also see: D minor, or D-flat major. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Jean Paul Jean Paul (March 21, 1763 – November 14, 1825), born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a famous German humorist. ... The Symphony No. ... Also see: C major, or C-sharp minor. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Second Edition, shelved The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians and is regarded as the most authoritative reference source on the subject in the English language. ... The Symphony No. ... D minor is a minor scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B-flat, C, and D (natural minor scale). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Symphony No. ... Also see: G minor, or G-sharp minor. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Symphony No. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... The Symphony No. ... Also see: A major, or A-sharp minor. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Symphony No. ... Also see: E major, or E flat minor. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links 8th. ... Image File history File links 8th. ... The Symphony No. ... E-flat major is a major scale based on E-flat, consisting of the pitches E-flat, F, G, A-flat, B-flat, C, D, and E-flat. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Symphony No. ... Also see: D minor, or D-flat major. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Symphony No. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ernst Krenek Ernst Krenek (August 23, 1900 – December 22, 1991) was an Austrian-born composer of Czech ancestry; throughout his life he insisted that his name be written Krenek rather than Křenek, and that it should be pronounced as a German word. ... Franz Schalk (born 27 May 1863 in Vienna, died 3 September 1931 in Edlach, Austria) was an Austrian conductor. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky or Alexander Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 - March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, a conductor and a teacher. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Joseph Hugh Wheeler (1927-1977) was a British musician and musicologist. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Deryck Cooke (September 14, 1919 - October 27, 1975) was a British musicologist who was born in Leicester. ... Berthold Goldschmidt (b. ... The current version of the article or section is written like an essay. ... David Matthews (born March 9, 1943 is an English composer of mainly orchestral, chamber music, vocal and piano works. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Rudolf Barshai born on September 28, 1924 in Stanitsa Lobinskaya, Russia. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Nicola Samale (born 14 September 1941 in Castelnuovo D’Istria, Italy), is a composer and conductor. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... ... Sir Georg Solti (October 21, 1912 - September 5, 1997) was a well-known orchestral and operatic conductor, who was still actively engaged in performing right up until his death. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...

Vocal works

(literally Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, usually translated as Songs of a Wayfarer.)

Das klagende Lied (Song of Lamentation) is a cantata by Gustav Mahler, composed between 1878 and 1880 and greatly revised over the next two decades. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lieder und Gesänge is a collection of fourteen songs with piano accompaniment by Gustav Mahler. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, often mistranslated as Songs of a Wayfarer) is Gustav Mahlers first song cycle. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The boys magic horn) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mahlers Rückert-Lieder are 5 songs, based on poems written by Friedrich Rückert. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Kindertotenlieder (Songs on the Death of Children) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth) is particularly interesting among Gustav Mahlers symphonic works. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A song cycle is a group of songs designed to be performed in sequence as a single entity. ... The curse of the ninth is the superstition that any composer of symphonies, from Beethoven onwards, will die soon after writing his or her own Ninth Symphony. ...

Other works

The Piano Quartet in A minor by Gustav Mahler was written around 1876. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Recordings

On 9 November 1905 Mahler recorded four of his own compositions for the Welte-Mignon reproducing piano: is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... M. Welte & Sons, Freiburg and New York From 1832 until 1932, the firm produced mechanical musical Instruments of highest quality. ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ...

  • "Ging heut' morgen übers Feld", from Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (piano accompaniment only).
  • "Ich ging mit Lust durch einen grünen Wald", from Lieder aus "Des Knaben Wunderhorn" (piano accompaniment only).
  • "Das himmlische Leben", Wunderhorn setting used as fourth movement of Symphony No. 4 (piano accompaniment only).
  • First movement (Trauermarsch) from Symphony No. 5 (in arrangement for solo piano).

Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (Songs of a Travelling Journeyman, often mistranslated as Songs of a Wayfarer) is Gustav Mahlers first song cycle. ... Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The boys magic horn) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ... Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The boys magic horn) is a song cycle for voice and orchestra by Gustav Mahler. ...

Arrangements of the symphonies

In view of the relative infrequency of the symphonies' early performances (partly a result of their instrumental demands), consideration of the various piano, 2-piano and piano duet arrangements that were current during Mahler's lifetime (or shortly after) is not without interest – especially where these were produced by outstanding musicians:

  • Symphony No. 1: arranged for piano duet by Bruno Walter (1906)
  • Symphony No. 2: arranged for 2 pianos by Hermann Behn (Leipzig, 1895); for piano duet by Bruno Walter (1899); for 2 pianos (8 hands) by Heinrich von Bocklet (1899; publ. U.E., Vienna, 1914)
  • Symphony No. 5: arranged for 2 pianos by August Stradal (Leipzig, n.d.); for piano (2 hands) by Otto Singer (Leipzig, n.d. [1920?])
  • Symphony No. 6: arranged for piano duet by Alexander Zemlinsky (Leipzig, 1906)
  • Symphony No. 7: arranged for piano duet by Alfredo Casella (Berlin, 1910)

Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky or Alexander Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 - March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, a conductor and a teacher. ... Alfredo Casella (Turin, July 25, 1883, Rome, March 5, 1947) was an Italian composer. ...

See also

The Alma Problem is an issue of concern to musicologists, historians and biographers who deal with the lives and works of Gustav Mahler and his wife Alma. ... The curse of the ninth is the superstition that any composer of symphonies, from Beethoven onwards, will die soon after writing his or her own Ninth Symphony. ... Neoromanticism in music was a trend in European classical music started in second half of 19th century in Germany. ...

Sources

  • Bernstein, Leonard (1967). "Mahler: His Time Has Come." High Fidelity Magazine. September 1967. 51-54. (reprinted in Bernstein (1982). Findings. ISBN 0671429191. also in various other media, and on the web, here. )
  • Burnett-James, David. 1989. Sibelius. The Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers Series. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711916837
  • Carr, Jonathan. 1999. The Real Mahler. Constable and Robinson. ISBN 0-09-479500-2.
  • James, Burnett D. 1985. The Music of Gustav Mahler. Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London: Associated University Press. ISBN 0-8386-3167-3
  • Walter, Bruno. 1957. Gustav Mahler. Translation from the German supervised by Lotte Walter Lindt. New York: Knopf
  • Franklin, Peter: "Gustav Mahler", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed November 29, 2007), (subscription access)

Further reading

  • Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund. (1996). Mahler: A Musical Physiognomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-00769-3.
  • Blaukopf, Kurt. (1973). Gustav Mahler. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0464-X.
  • De La Grange, Henry-Louis. (1995). Gustav Mahler: Vienna: The Years of Challenge (1897-1904) (Vol. 2). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315159-6.
  • De La Grange, Henry-Louis. (2000). Gustav Mahler: Vienna: Triumph and Disillusion (1904-1907) (Vol. 3). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315160-X.
  • Franklin, Peter (1997). The Life of Mahler. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-46761-6
  • Greco, Antonio. (2006). Gustav Mahler:"Il mio tempo verrà - Meine Zeit wird kommen" - Viaggio tra le 10 Sinfonie. - Giuseppe Laterza Editore. Bari (Italia). ISBN 88-8231-370-0
  • Machlis, J. and Forney, K. (1999). The Enjoyment of Music: An Introduction to Perceptive Listening (Chronological Version) (8th ed.). New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-97299-2.
  • Pfohl, Ferdinand. 1973. Gustav Mahler, Eindrücke und Erinnerungen aus den Hamburger Jahren. Schriftenreihe zur Musik 4, edited by Knud Martner. Hamburg: Verlag der Musikalienhandlung K. D. Wagner.
  • Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1988). The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-333-43236-3.

Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ...

References

  1. ^ Franklin, Grove online
  2. ^ These revised versions of the Schumann symphonies have now been recorded by the Gewandhaus Orchestra, Leipzig, under Riccardo Chailly.
  3. ^ Carr 1999
  4. ^ Bernstein, 1967.
  5. ^ Burnett-James 1989, 41.
  6. ^ See Julian Johnson, Webern and the Transformation of Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
  7. ^ James 1985, 137.

The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Leipzig. ... Riccardo Chailly (born February 20, 1953) is an Italian conductor. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Gustav Mahler
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Gustav Mahler
  • Obituaries
    • [5] Mahler's obituary in the Musical Times of June 1911
  • Biographies and essays
    • Discovering Mahler The fourth and final volume of Donald Mitchell's study of the composer and his music (The Boydell Press 2007)
    • Gustav Mahler Profile on BBC
    • Gustav Mahler Profile on the Classical Composers Database
    • An survey of Mahler Symphonies recordings
    • Lewis Thomas: Late Night Thoughts on Listening to Mahler's Ninth Symphony
    • Gustav Mahler and the Crisis of Jewish Identity
    • Andante Mahler page
    • Gustav Mahler: Symphony # 4, written by Peter Gutmann, music journalist.
  • Mahler organizations, archives...
    • The Gustav Mahler Society (UK)
    • The Gustav Mahler Society of New York
    • The International Gustav Mahler Society
    • The Mahler Archives
    • Médiathèque Musicale Mahler
    • gustav-mahler.es (Spain)
    • (Czech) The Gustav Mahler Society (Czech Republic) - maintains Mahler's Birthplace
  • Variae
    • Reviews of Mahler Symphonies by Jens F. Laurson, Ionarts
    • (Russian) Elena Chernova Gustav Mahler Fanpage
    • Colorado MahlerFest (Boulder, Colorado)
    • (German) Gustav Mahler in Hamburg
    • (Hebrew) Gustav Mahler's maximum card from Israel
Persondata
NAME Mahler, Gustav
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor
DATE OF BIRTH July 7, 1860
PLACE OF BIRTH Kaliště in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
DATE OF DEATH May 18, 1911
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A conductor conducting at a ceremony A conductors score and batons Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Kaliště (German Kalischt) is a village and municipality near Humpolec in Vysočina Region, Czech Republic. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gustav Mahler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4157 words)
Gustav Mahler was born into a Jewish family in Kalischt, Bohemia, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the second of twelve children.
Mahler's harmonic writing was at times highly innovative, and only long familiarity can have blunted the effect of the chords constructed in 'perfect fourths' which lead to the 'first subject' of the Seventh Symphony, or the remarkable (and unclassifiable!) 9-note 'crisis' sonority that erupts into the first movement of the Tenth.
Mahler's difficulties in getting his works accepted led him to say "My time will come"; that time came in the mid 20th century, at a point when the development of the LP was allowing repeated hearings of the long and complex symphonies in competent and well-recorded performances.
Gustav Mahler - definition of Gustav Mahler in Encyclopedia (1606 words)
Gustav Mahler began from the German tradition of music, which was rooted in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach and the "Vienna School" of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, and incorporated the Romantic generation of composers, such as Schumann and Mendelssohn.
Mahler combined the ideas of Romanticism — including having titles for symphonies, or combinations of movements (see Program music), and the use of song melodies in symphonic works — with the huge orchestral resources which the development of symphony orchestras had made possible.
Mahler was obsessed by Beethoven's legacy, and, on one hand, was terrified of writing a ninth numbered symphony, while on the other he declared that all of his symphonies were "ninths", meaning symphonies which had the same impact and scale as the famous D minor.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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