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Encyclopedia > Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh

A painting of Guru Gobind Singh
Born Gobind Rai[1]
December 22, 1666
Patna, Bihar, India
Died October 7, 1708 (aged 42)
Assassinated, Nanded, Maharashtra, India
Title Guru of Sikhs
Predecessor His father, Guru Tegh Bahadur
Successor Guru Granth Sahib
Children Ajit Singh
Jujhar Singh
Zorawar Singh
Fateh Singh
Parents Guru Teg Bahadur, Mata Gujri

Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ) (22 December 16667 October 1708) He was born in Patna in India in 1666 and became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on 11 November 1675, succeeding his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur who was killed by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. He was a leader of a faith, a warrior, and a poet. His establishment of the military order Khalsa is considered as one of the most important events in the history of Sikhism. He fought 14 battles with the Mughals and their alliances, such as Rajas of Shivalik Hills. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the last human Sikh Guru; he finished the Sikh holy book, the Dasam Granth, and also declared that the Guru Granth Sahib as the next permanent Sikh Guru. Image File history File links Guru_Gobind_Singh_1. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... This is an incomplete list of persons that were assassinated for political and other reasons, and who have individual entries. ... , Nanded (Marathi: नांदेड) is a the second largest city in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state of India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan Ji. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Sahibzada Ajit Singh (1687 - 1705), was the eldest of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... Sahibzada Jujhar Singh (1691-1705), the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, was born to Mata Jito(also known as Mata Sundari) at Anandpur Sahib on March 14, 1691. ... Sahibzada Zorawar Singh was the third of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... Sahibzada Fateh Singh was the youngest of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mata Gujri Mata Gujri, was the wife of Guru Teg Bahadur and also the mother of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Guru Teg Bahadur Ji (April 1, 1621 - November 11, 1675) was the ninth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on March 20, 1665 following in the footsteps of his grand-nephew, Guru Har Krishan Ji. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ... The Siwalik Hills (sometimes spelled Shiwalik, Shivalik, or Sivalik) are a sub-Himalayan mountain range running 1,600 km long from the Tista River, Sikkim, through Nepal and India, into northern Pakistan. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ...


Bichitra Natak, considered to be his autobiography, is one of the major sources for the information about his life. It is a part of the Dasam Granth, literary collection attributed to Guru Gobind Singh, and was compiled by Bhai Mani Singh. Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ...

Contents

Biography

Early days

Guru Gobind Singh was born as Gobind Rai in Patna to the ninth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur and his wife Mata Gujri. He was born while Guru Tegh Bahadur was touring Assam to spread his teachings. According to a legend, the birth of Gobind Rai was prophesized by Pir Bhikan Shah, a fakir from Thaksa village (now in Karnal District of Haryana). For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... A fakir or faqir (Arabic: فقیر poor) is a Sufi, especially one who performs feats of endurance or apparent magic. ... Karnal is a district of Haryana. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ...

A painting depicts visit of Pir Bhikhan Shah to see child Gobind Rai
A painting depicts visit of Pir Bhikhan Shah to see child Gobind Rai

One day, Bhikan Shah bowed towards the east during his prayers, contrary to the standard Islamic practice of bowing in the direction of Qibla. When the villagers questioned his strange act, he stated that a special child, the savior chosen by the God, would be born in Patna, which lay to the East. He then traveled to Patna with a group of his followers to see the child. He placed two bowls of sweets before the newborn; one bowl was purchased from a Hindu's shop, and the second from a Muslim's shop, thus signifying the two major contemporary religions in India. The baby placed his hands on both the bowls, thus indicating that both Hindus and Muslims will be treated equally by him. According to another legend, the fakir Araf Din of Lakhnaur (now in Ambala District) also bowed to the boy, and proclaimed him as divine. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Facing the Qibla at a prayer in Damascus The geometrical calculation of Qibla Qibla () is an Arabic word for the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Ambala District is located in Haryana. ...


Gobind Rai spent the first five years of his life in Patna. As a child, he used to play war games with other children, leading mock battles. He had many admirers, including a learned Brahmin called Pandit Shiv Dutt (or Shiv Das). Once, Raja Fateh Chand of Patna and his Rani, a childless couple, visited Shiv Dutt, and asked him to bless them with a child. Shiv Dutt suggested that if an innocent child like Gobind Rai prayed to God, their desire would be fulfilled. The couple then asked young Gobind Rai to visit their palace, where the Rani asked Gobind Rai to pray to God to bless her with a son like him. Gobind Rai smiled and said that there can be nobody like him, so the Rani should call him her son. From that day, the Rani started calling him Bala Pritam ("child god"), a name that is used even today to refer to the Guru. The royal couple allowed Gobind Rai and his friends to freely play in their palace, and also built a big dining hall for the children. Glory, an American Civil War game by GMT This article is about the civilian hobby. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... A pandit or pundit(पन्दित् in Devanagari) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the proper rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ... For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ...


Other admirers of the boy included two Nawabs, Rahim Baksh and Karim Baksh. Nawab Karim Baksh had gifted a village and gardens to the child. Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire, but became a high title for Muslim nobles. ...


Stay in Anandpur

Harmandir Sahib, Patna City

Guru Tegh Bahadur had founded the city of Anandpur in the year 1665, on the land purchased from the ruler of Bilaspur (Kahlur). After his tour of eastern parts of India ended, he asked his family to come to Anandpur. Gobind Rai reached Anandpur (then known as Chakk Nanaki), on the foothills of the Sivalik Hills, in March 1672. Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ... Year 1665 (MDCLXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kahlur (also known as Bilaspur), covering an area of 1173 sq km, and currently a part of Himachal Pradesh state, was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. ... Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Siwalik Hills. ...


Gobind Rai's early education included study of Punjabi, Braj, Sanskrit and Persian languages, and training as a soldier. He had started studying Hindi and Sanskrit while at Patna. In Anandpur, he started studying Punjabi under Sahib Chand, and Persian under Qazi Pir Mohammad. A Rajput warrior was employed to train him in military skills and horse riding. Punjabi redirects here. ... Braj Bhasha is language spoken in India by more than 42,000 people. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rajput constitute one of the major Hindu Kshatriya groups from India. ...


In 1675, some Kashmiri Pandits led by Pandit Kirpa Ram of Matton visited Anandpur to seek Guru Tegh Bahadur's assistance against persecution from the Islamic Mughal rulers. Guru Tegh Bahadur proceeded to the Mughal capital Delhi, to discuss the emperor Aurangzeb's policty towards the non-Muslims. However, he was beheaded on 11 November 1675 at Chandani Chowk, after refusing to convert to Islam. His head was put on the public square to deter the public from objecting to Aurangzeb's policies. The beheading of Guru Teg Bahadur frightened many of his disciples, some of whom even refused to acknowledge themselves as his followers, in order to avoid persecution. A disciple called Bhai Jaita (later Bhai Jivan Singh) brought Guru Tegh Bahadur's head to Anandpur, and narrated the story of fear among the Guru's followers in Delhi. Original Kashmiri Pandit (Hindi: ) refers to a person who belongs to a sect of Hindu Pandits who originate from the Kashmir region. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


After hearing of what had happened in Delhi, Guru Gobind decided to inculcate the martial spirit among his followers. Guru Tegh Bahadur had ordained his son as the next guru, before his departure to Delhi. Gobind Rai was formally installed as the Guru on the Baisakhi, on 11 November 1675.[2] is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Guru Gobind engaged 52 poets to translate the heroic Sanskrit epics into contemporary languages. He selected the warlike theme in many of his compositions to infuse martial spirit among his followers. He also wrote several compositions preaching love, equality and the worship of one God, deprecating idolatry and superstition. This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ...


Guru's increasing influence and power worried Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur (Kahlur), in whose territory Anandpur was located. Meanwhile, the Guru ordered construction of a war drum (nagara) called Ranjit Nagara to enthuse his soldiers. The use of such a war drum was limited to the chieftains, within their territory, and the Raja considered the use of Ranjit Nagara a hostile act. On his Prime Minister's advice, he arranged a meeting with the Guru in Anandpur. He was received with honor in the Guru's court, where his eyes fell at the valuable gifts presented to the Guru by the devotees. Later, Bhim Chand sent a message to the Guru, asking him to lend an elephant called Prasadi (a gift from a devotee) to him. The Guru suspected that Bhim Chand wanted to gain permanent possession of the elephant, and declined his demand. He stated that the devotee who had presented the elephant, didn't want it to be given away to anybody else. The Raja was perturbed by the Guru's refusal to give away the elephant, his growing influence, and his interest in military exercises. An atmosphere of confrontation developed between the two on small issues.[3] Kahlur (also known as Bilaspur), covering an area of 1173 sq km, and currently a part of Himachal Pradesh state, was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. ... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Naqareh The Naqareh is a drum with a rounded back and a hide head. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea...


Stay at Paonta

Guru Gobind Singh (with bird) encounters Guru Nanak Dev. An 18th century painting of an imaginary meeting.
Guru Gobind Singh (with bird) encounters Guru Nanak Dev. An 18th century painting of an imaginary meeting.

In April 1685, Guru Gobind Rai shifted his residence to Paonta in Sirmur state at the invitation of Raja Mat Prakash of Sirmur. The reasons for the shift are not clear.[3] The author of Bichitra Natak doesn't mention any reason for shifting his residence to Paonta.[4] According to the Gazetteer of the Sirmur state, the Guru was compelled to quit Anadpur due to differences with Bhim Chand, and went to Toka. From Toka, he was brought to Nahan (the capital of Sirmur) by Mat Prakash. From Nahan, he proceeded to Paonta.[5] Mat Prakash invited the Guru to his kingdom in order to strengthen his position against Raja Fateh Shah of Garhwal.[3] At the request of Raja Mat Prakash, the Guru constructed a fort at Paonta with help of his followers, in a short time. He continued to increase his army. Raja Fateh Shah also paid a visit to the Guru, and was received with honor in his court. The Guru established a peace treaty between the two Rajas. The Guru remained at Paonta for around three years, and composed several texts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1737x1181, 690 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1737x1181, 690 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sikhism Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Paonta Sahib is a small town in the south of Sirmour district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... Sirmaur is one of the districts of Himachal Pradesh. ... Nahan is the headquarters of Sirmaur district in Himachal Pradesh in India. ... Fateh Shah was the king of Garhwal, a small kingdom in North India, from 1684 to 1716. ... Garhwal Kingdom was a kingdom in the region of Uttarakhand, India. ...


The hostility between Bhim Chand and the Guru continued to increase during the latter's stay at Paonta, ultimately resulting in the Battle of Bhangani near Paonta. Bhim Chand was supported by other hill Rajas, including Fateh Shah of Garhwal, Kirpal of Katoch, Gopal of Guler (or Guleria), Hari Chand of Hadur and the Raja of Jaswal. Bhim Chand was also aided by some defected Pathans employed by the Guru. The Guru's army cosnsisted of his disciples, some Udasis, some Pathans, and around 700 followers of Pir Budhu Shah of Sadhaura. According to Bichitra Natak, the Battle of Bhangani resulted in the Guru's victory. Combatants • Guru Gobind Singhs disciples (Sikhs), • Pir Budhu Shahs disciples, • Udasis, • Pathans Combined armies of Rajas: • Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, • Fateh Shah of Garhwal, • Kirpal of Katoch, • Gopal of Guler, • Hari Chand of Hindur, • Kesari Chand of Jaswal, • defected Pathans Commanders • Guru Gobind Singh, • Pir Budhu Shah, • Mahant... Fateh Shah was the king of Garhwal, a small kingdom in North India, from 1684 to 1716. ... Garhwal Kingdom was a kingdom in the region of Uttarakhand, India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Udasi is a sect within Sikhism. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... Sadhaura is a small town in Yamunanagar district that lies in Haryana state of India. ... Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ...

See also: Battle of Bhangani

Combatants • Guru Gobind Singhs disciples (Sikhs), • Pir Budhu Shahs disciples, • Udasis, • Pathans Combined armies of Rajas: • Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, • Fateh Shah of Garhwal, • Kirpal of Katoch, • Gopal of Guler, • Hari Chand of Hindur, • Kesari Chand of Jaswal, • defected Pathans Commanders • Guru Gobind Singh, • Pir Budhu Shah, • Mahant...

Return to Anandpur

Guru Gobind Singh Cannon

Sometime after the Battle of Bhangani, the Guru decided to return to Anandpur. On his way back to Anandpur, he camped at Sadhaura and Laharpur for a few days. After leaving the Sirmur state, he entered Ramgarh state and stayed at Tabra for more than a week. He then visited Raipur at the invitation of the local Rani. After leaving Raipur, he continued his journey to Anandpur, passing through Toda, Nada, Dhakoli, Kotla, Ghanaula, Bunga, and Kiratpur. He reached Anandpur, and established peace with Raja Bhim Chand. Sadhaura is a small town in Yamunanagar district that lies in Haryana state of India. ... Laharpur is a city and a municipal board in Sitapur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... , Raipur is a census town in Dehradun district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. ... Also see: Ranee Rani (Ranee) means Queen in Hindi, and is the female equivalent of Raja (or Rajah). ... Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ...


In the 1680s, to meet the expenses of his campaigns in Deccan, the Mughal emperor Aurangazeb ordered recovery of annual tributes from the rulers of hill states, who had been defaulting on the payment for three consecutive years.[6] The duty of collecting tributes from Kangra and adjoining principalities was assigned to Alif Khan (or Alaf Khan).[2] Two of the hill Rajas, Raja Kirpal Chand of Kangra and Raja Dayal of Bijarwal, agreed to meet Alif Khan's demands. However, Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur (Kahlur) refused to pay the tribute, and formed an alliance of the local rulers opposed to the Mughals. Guru Gobind Singh also agreed to support him. In the Battle of Nadaun, the armies of Alif Khan and his aides were defeated by the allied forces of Bhim Chand, Guru Gobind Singh and other hill Rajas. Different authors give the date of the battle variously as 1687[7][8], 1689[9][10], 1690[11] 20 March 1691.[6], and 4 April 1691.[12] The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Kangra is a town in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh state in northern India, and lends its name to the district of the same name. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6...


According to Bichitra Natak, Guru Gobind Singh remained at Nadaun, on the banks of the River Beas, for eight days, and visited the places of all the chiefs.[13] Later, both the parties made an agreement and peace was established.[14] The Beas River (Punjabi: ) runs through the Northwestern Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. ...


In 1694, Dilawar Khan, the Mughal chief of Punjab, sent his son with an army of one thousand men to Anandpur, to check the rising power of the Guru. As Khanzada crossed the Satluj river, Guru's scout Alam Chand (aka Alam Singh) alerted the Guru's forces. The Ranjit Nagara was beaten, and the Guru's men quickly marched to the river, forcing the Mughal army to retreat back. This article is about the geographical region. ...


The failure of Khanzada to check Guru's power provoked Dilawar Khan to plan a bigger attack on the Guru and other hill Rajas. He sent two thousand men under his slave Hussain to subdue them. Hussain defeated the Raja of Dadhwal and plundered Doon. Raja Kirpal (Katoch) of Kangra and Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur accepted his suzerainty. Raja Gopal of Guler and Raja Ram Singh tried to negotiate with Hussain, but the talks failed. Hussain besieged Guler, and demanded ten thousand rupees from Raja Gopal. Gopal sent his envoy to Guru Gobind Singh, asking him to negotiate a peace treaty between Hussain and the Raja. The Guru sent his agent, Sangtia, with an escort of seven troopers. However, an agreement could not be reached, resulting in a battle (dated between 1695 to 1698). Kirpal and Bhim Chand fought on Hussain's side, while Raja Ram Singh and the Guru's men fought on Raja Gopal's side. The battle resulted in the deaths of Hussain, Kirpal and all of the Guru's men. Raja Bhim Chand's forces fled from the battlefield, thus resulting in the victory of Raja Gopal. Raja Gopal went to the Guru, thanked him, and offered him gifts. The battle is described in the Chapter 11 of Bichitra Natak.[15] Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ...


After Hussain's death, Dilawar Khan sent his men Jujhar Singh and Chandel Rai to Sivalik Hills. However, they were defeated by Gaj Singh of Jaswal. The developments in the hill area caused anxiety to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, who sent forces under the command of his son, to restore Mughal authority in the region.


Foundation of Khalsa

Main article: Khalsa

In 1699, the Guru sent hukmanamas (letters of authority) to his followers, requesting them to congregate at Anandpur on 13 April 1699, the day of Baisakhi (the annual harvest festival).[16] He addressed the congregation from the entryway of a small tent pitched on a small hill (now called Kesgarh Sahib). He first asked everyone who He was for them? Everyone answered - "You are our Guru." He then asked as to who were they, to which everyone replied - "We are your Sikhs." Having reminded them of this relationship, He then said that today the Guru needs something from His Sikhs. Everyone said, "Hukum Karo, Sache Patshah" (Just give us the order, O Lord). Then drawing His sword He asked for a volunteer who was willing to sacrifice his head. No one answered his first call, nor the second call, but on the third invitation, a person called Daya Ram (later known as Bhai Daya Singh) came forward and offered his head to the Guru. Guru Gobind Rai took the volunteer inside the tent, and emerged shortly, with blood dripping from his sword. He then demanded another head. One more volunteer came forward, and entered the tent with him. Guru again emerged with blood on his sword. This happened three more times. Then the five volunteers came out of the tent unharmed. These five, who were willing to sacrifice their lives for their Guru, were called Panj Piare ("the five beloved ones").[16] These five volunteers were the first Khalsa (baptized) Sikhs: Daya Ram (Bhai Daya Singh), Dharam Das (Bhai Dharam Singh), Himmat Rai (Bhai Himmat Singh), Mohkam Chand (Bhai Mohkam Singh), and Sahib Chand (Bhai Sahib Singh). Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... Bhai Daya Singh (1661-1708) was one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved celebrated in the Sikh tradition, was the son of Bhai Suddha, a Sobti Khatri of Lahore, now in Pakistan, and Mai Diali. ... The Panj Piare (Punjabi: , , literally the five beloved ones), name given to the five Sikhs, Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mohkam Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh, who were so designated by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Bhai Daya Singh (1661-1708) was one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved celebrated in the Sikh tradition, was the son of Bhai Suddha, a Sobti Khatri of Lahore, now in Pakistan, and Mai Diali. ... DHARAM SINGH, BHAI (1666-1708), one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved, the forerunners of Khalsa, came of farming stock. ... Bhai Himmat Singh (1661-1705), one of the Panj Pyare, or the Five Beloved, celebrated in Sikh history, was born in 1661 at Jagannathpuri in a low-caste family of water suppliers. ... Bhai Mohkam Singh (1663-1705). ... Bhai Sahib Singh was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved of revered memory in the Sikh tradition, was born the son of Bhai Guru Narayana, a barber of Bidar in Karnataka, and his wife Ankamma. ...


Guru Gobind Rai then baptized these five Sikhs with a liquid mixture named Amrit ("nectar"). He gave them all the name "Singh" (lion), and designated them collectively as Khalsa, the body of baptized Sikhs. The members of the Khalsa consider Guru Gobind as their father, and Mata Sahib Kaur as their mother.[16] The Panj Piare were thus the first baptised Sikhs, and became the first members of the Khalsa brotherhood. Women were also initiated into the Khalsa, and the initiates were called kaur ("princess").[16] The Guru, like other members of the Khalsa, changed his name to Gobind Singh from Gobind Rai. Look up Amrita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the fictional global crime syndicate, see Singh Brotherhood. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ...


In 1699, Guru Gobind Singh also issued directions to the Sikh sangats (communities) not to acknowledge the masands (local administrative deputies acting on the Guru's behalf). He had received several complaints of corruption and abuse of powers, against the masands. He asked his followers to send their offerings directly to Anandpur. For the Philippine island see Sangat Island Sangat, the Punjabi form of the Sanskrit term sangti, means company, fellowship and association. ...


Conflicts with the Rajas of Sivalik Hills

The formation of the military order Khalsa alerted the Rajas of the Sivalik Hills. They united to evict the Guru from the region, but their expeditions during 1700-04 proved futile. For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Siwalik Hills. ...


Balia Chand and Alim Chand, two hill chiefs, made a surprise attack on the Guru, while he was on a hunting expedition.[17] In the ensuing combat, Alim Chand managed to escape, while Balia Chand was killed by Guru's aide Ude Singh.


After several failed attempts to check the rising power of the Guru, the hill chiefs petitioned the Mughal rulers to help them subdue the Guru. In response, the Mughal viceroy of Delhi sent his generals Din Beg and Painda Khan, each with an army of five thousand men.[18] The Mughal forces were joined by the armies of the hill chiefs. However, they failed to defeat the Guru's forces, and Painda Khan was killed in the First Battle of Anandpur (1701). , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


Alarmed at the Guru's rising influence, the Rajas of several hill states assembled at Bilaspur to discuss the situation. The son of Bhim Chand, Raja Ajmer Chand of Kahlur, suggested forming an alliance to curb the Guru's rising power. Accordingly, the Rajas formed an alliance, and marched towards Anandpur. They sent a letter to the Guru, asking him to pay the arrears of rent for Anandpur (which lied in Ajmer Chand's territory), and leave the place. The Guru insisted that the land was bought by his father, and is therefore, his own property. A battle, dated from 1701 to 1704, followed. The hill Rajas were joined by a large number of Ranghars and Gujjars, under the command of Jagatullah. Duni Chand led five hundred men from Majha region to assist the Guru. Reinforcements from other areas also arrived to help the Guru. The conflict, known as the Second Battle of Anandpur, resulted in retreat of the hill Rajas.[19] Bilaspur is a location in the state of himachal Pradesh, India. ... Kahlur (also known as Bilaspur), covering an area of 1173 sq km, and currently a part of Himachal Pradesh state, was one of the Princely states of India during the period of the British Raj. ... Arrears, or arrearages is a legal term for a type of debt which is overdue after missing an expected payment. ... The Gujjar or Gurjar are an ethnic group and caste of the Indian subcontinent. ... Majha is name of the region of Punjab (India) comprising of the districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran Sahib. ...


Later, the hill Rajas negotiated a peace agreement with the Guru, asking him to leave Anandpur temporarily. Accordingly, the Guru left for Nirmoh village.[20] Seeing that Nirmoh was not fortified, Raja Ajmer Chand and the Raja of Kangra launched an attack on the Guru's camp. However, they were not able to defeat the Guru. Meanwhile, Raja Ajmer Chand had sent his envoys to the Mughal viceroys in Sirhind and Delhi, seeking their help against the Guru. The army of Sirhind viceroy Wazir Khan arrived to assist the hill Rajas. The assault by Wazir Khan's army forced the Guru to retreat to Basoli, whose Raja was on good terms with the Guru. Kangra is a town in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh state in northern India, and lends its name to the district of the same name. ... Sirhind means head of Hindus. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


After staying for a few days at Basoli, the Guru marched back to Anandpur, and the hill Rajas decided to make peace with the him. However, after two years of peace, the hostilities between the Rajas and the Guru reappeared due to Guru's rising power, and clashes between the Rajas' men and the Sikhs. Raja Ajmer Chand allied with the Rajas of Hindur, Chamba and Fatehpur, and attacked Anandpur in 1703-04. They failed to oust the Guru in the Third Battle of Anandpur, and retreated back. Nawalgarh (also known as Hindur or Nalagarh) is a town of Jhunjhunu district in Rajasthan, India. ... Chamba, the northwestern district of Himachal Pradesh, has a common border with Jammu. ... Fatehpur is a town of Sikar district in Rajasthan, India. ...


After repeated pleas for assistance from the hill Rajas, the Mughal emperor sent a large army under Saiyad Khan's command, to check the Guru's power. Saiyad Khan was a brother-in-law of Pir Budhu Shah, and defected to the Guru's side, after the Pir spoke highly of him. Ramzan Khan then took the command of the imperial army, and allied with the hill Rajas to attack Anandpur in March 1704. It was the crop-cutting time of the year, and the majority of the Guru's followers had dispersed to their homes. Although the Guru was assisted by two of his Muslim admirers, Maimun Khan and Saiyad Beg, his men were outnumbered and he decided to vacate Anandpur.[2] The Mughal army plundered the city, and then proceeded to Sirhind. On their way back, they were caught in a surprise attack by the Guru's forces, who recovered the booty captured from Anandpur. The Guru then returned to Anandpur. This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...

See also: First Battle of Anandpur and Second Battle of Anandpur

Evacuation from Anandpur

At the plea of Raja Ajmer Chand, the Mughal emperor ordered the viceroys of Sirhind, Lahore and Kashmir to proceed against the Guru. The Mughal forces were joined by the armies of the hill Rajas, the Ranghars and the Gurjars of the area. The Guru also made preparations for the battle, and his followers from Majha, Malwa, Doaba and other areas assembled at Anandpur. Sirhind means head of Hindus. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Majha is name of the region of Punjab (India) comprising of the districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran Sahib. ... This page refers to the Malwa region of Punjab. ... Doaba is name of the region in Punjab (India) between the Satluj and Jhelum rivers. ...


The imperial forces attacked Anandpur in 1705, and laid a siege around the city. After a few days of the commencement of the siege, Raja Ajmer Chand sent his envoy to the Guru, offering withdrawal of the siege, in return for Guru's evacuation from Anandpur. The Guru refused to accept the offer, but many of his followers, suffering from lack of food and other supplies, asked him to accept the proposal. Forty of the disciples threatened to desert the Guru, and leave Anandpur. The Guru asked them sign a disclaimer saying that they were not his disciples. The forty men signed the disclaimer and left Anandpur. As more and more followers pressurized the Guru to accept Ajmer Chand's offer, he sent a message to Ajmer Chand offering to evacuate Anandpur, if the allied forces would first allow his treasury and other property to be taken outside the city. The allied forces accepted the proposal. The Guru, in order to test their sincerity, sent a caravan of loaded bullocks outside the fort. However, the allied forces attacked the caravan to loot the treasure. To their disappointment, they found out that the caravan had no treasure, just some rubbish articles. The Guru then decided not to vacate Anandpur, and refused to accept any further proposals from the allied forces. The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... Look up caravan and Caravan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Bullock is a castrated bull. ...


Finally, the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb sent a signed letter to the Guru, swearing in name of Quran, that the Guru and his followers would be allowed a safe passage if he decided to evacuate Anandpur. The Guru, hard pressed by his followers and his family, accepted the offer, and evacuated Anandpur on 20-21 December, 1705. Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


On the first night after they left Anandpur, the Guru's contingent was attacked by the imperial forces. Following a few skirmishes, the Guru and his followers reached the banks of Sirsa river. The group could not keep together while crossing the flooded Sirsa (or Sarsa) river. The Guru's mother, and his two younger sons, Fateh Singh and Zorawar Singh, strayed away from the main group. Guru's old servant, Gangu, escorted them to his village, Kheri. His wife Mata Jito, was in another group that also included Mata Sahib Kaur; this group was escorted to Delhi by Jawahar Singh. The flood in the river resulted in several of the Guru's followers getting drowned, and there was heavy loss of property and literature. Sahibzada Fateh Singh was the youngest of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... Sahibzada Zorawar Singh was the third of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... Mata Sahib Kaur is known as the Mother of the Khalsa. She earned the distinction by instilling the first Amrit with the sweetness that balances its fierceness. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ...


The Guru, with his two sons, and some other Sikhs, managed to cross the river and reached the Ghanaula village on the other side of the river. He instructed a band of hundred followers under Bachitar Singh to march to Rupar. The Guru, with the remaining followers, marched towards Kotla Nihang near Rupar, to stay with his trusted acquaintance Pathan Nihang Khan. From there, he proceeded to Machhiwara and Raikot, halting at Bur Majra. He was informed that a large body of troops from Sirhind was chasing him. He decided to face the enemy troops at the fortress of Chamkaur. Rupnagar is a town in Punjab, India. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun (Persian: پختون) (Urdu: پشتون ), or Pathan) or ethnic Afghans[4] are an ethno-linguistic group living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Machhiwara (Punjabi: ) is a town and a nagar panchayat in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. ... Raikot is a city and a municipal council in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. ...

A painting shows Sahibzada Ajit Singh before going in the battlefield at Chamkaur as Sahibzada Jujhar Singh looks on
A painting shows Sahibzada Ajit Singh before going in the battlefield at Chamkaur as Sahibzada Jujhar Singh looks on

The imperial troops besieged the fortress at Chamkaur in December 1705, leading to the battle of Chamkaur. The two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh, fell in the battle. The Guru asked the remaining disciples to get ready for the final charge, and die fighting. However, his disciples insisted that the his survival was necessary for the survival of the Khalsa, and planned his escape from Chamkaur. It was decided that Sant Singh and Sangat Singh will stay in the fortress, while Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, and Man Singh will accompany the Guru out of Chamkaur. The Guru gave his kalghi (plume used to decorate headgear) and his armor to Bhai Sant Singh, a Sikh who resembled him. Sant Singh was seated in the upper room where Guru was stationed. The Guru marched out of Chamkaur in the night, along with some followers. Next day, the Mughal army, which still believed that the Guru was inside the fortress, attacked the fortress, and killed all the Sikhs inside the fortress. Sahibzada Ajit Singh (1687 - 1705), was the eldest of Guru Gobind Singhs four sons. ... Sahibzada Jujhar Singh (1691-1705), the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, was born to Mata Jito(also known as Mata Sundari) at Anandpur Sahib on March 14, 1691. ... Plume may refer to any of the following: A geologic process associated with upwelling rock, see mantle plume. ... Iraqi wearing a keffiyeh. ...


The Guru separated from his companions, and reached Machhiwara, after passing through Jandsar and Behlolpur. There, his three companions, Daya Singh, Dharam Singh and Man Singh rejoined him. Gulaba, an old masand of Machhiwara, gave them shelter, but feared for his own safety. Two Pathan horse merchants, Nabi Khan and Ghani Khan, decided to help him. The Khans, who were old acquaintances of the Guru, disguised him as the Pir (Sufi saint) of Uchh village, and carried him to safety, in a palanquin. At Alam Gir, Nand Lal, a zamindar decided to help the Guru. From Alam Gir, the Guru proceeded to Raikot. At Silaoni, Rai Kalla, the chief of Raikot, received him warmly. The Guru stayed there for some time. A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Japanese Palanquin Indian Palanquin A palanquin aka palkhi is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. ... Zamindar, also known as Zemindar, Zamindari, or the Zamindari System (Persian: زمیندار) were employed by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... Raikot is a city and a municipal council in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Meanwhile, Guru's mother Mata Gujri and the his two younger sons were captured by Wazir Khan, the governor of Sirhind. The two boys were killed after refusing to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri died soon after hearing of her grandsons' death.

See also: Battle of Chamkaur

Stay at Dina

Realizing that Rai Kot was not a suitable place to stage resistance against the Mughals, Guru Gobind Singh left Raikot, and spent two days at Hehar with Mahant Kirpal Das (who had earlier participated in the Battle of Bhangani). He then marched to Lamma Jatpura, where his companion Rai Kalla took leave. The Guru moved southwards, accompanied by three Sikhs. On the way he passed through the villages of Manuke, Mehdiana Chakkar, Takhatpur and Madhen, and finally reached Dina (now in Ferozepur district) in Malwa (Punjab). The people had heard that the Guru had been killed at Chamkaur, but the truth began to be known when he reached Dina. He was received warmly at Dina by Shamira, Lakhmira and Takht Mal, the three grandsons of Rai Jodh, a devotee of Guru Har Gobind.[21] Combatants • Guru Gobind Singhs disciples (Sikhs), • Pir Budhu Shahs disciples, • Udasis, • Pathans Combined armies of Rajas: • Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, • Fateh Shah of Garhwal, • Kirpal of Katoch, • Gopal of Guler, • Hari Chand of Hindur, • Kesari Chand of Jaswal, • defected Pathans Commanders • Guru Gobind Singh, • Pir Budhu Shah, • Mahant... This page refers to the Malwa region of Punjab. ... Mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Hargobind. ...


While at Dina, the Guru received a concilatory letter from Aurangzeb, asking him to come to Deccan to discuss the situation. The Guru was wary of Aurangzeb, who had beheaded his father, and whose army attacked him at Anandpur in spite of an oath in the name of Quran. The Guru rejected the emperor's offer, and wrote a long letter in Persian, titled Zafarnamah ("the Epistle of Victory"). In the letter, the Guru reminded Aurangzeb of his misdeeds, and condemened the treacherous acts of the Mughals. He sent a group of Sikhs, consisting of Daya Singh, Dharam Singh, and some guards, to despatch the letter to Aurangzeb, who was camping in Ahmednagar. Zafarnāmah (Punjabi: or , Persian: ) means the Notification of Victory and is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to the Mughal Emperor of India, Aurangzeb. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ...


While staying at Dina, the Guru visited several places in the neighborhood, and enlisted support from a few hundred warriors of the Brar clan. Sidhu (Punjabi: , ) is a prominent Jat/Jatt gotra or clan of the state of Punjab in India. ...


Wazir Khan, the governor of Sirhind, had asked the village chiefs of Dina to hand over the Guru to him. However, the chiefs refused, provoking Wazir Khan to mobilize his forces. The Guru did not consider Dina a suitable place for battle, and moved to Khidrana Ki Dhab (now Muktsar in Ferozepur district). The Khidrana lake was the only source of water in the area, and the Guru planned his defence in such a way that the imperial forces could not have access to the lake. Meanwhile, a large number of followers had rallied around the Guru. The forty Sikhs, who had deserted him at Anandpur, were condemened by their family members, and decided to return to the Guru. A lady called Mai Bhago brought these forty Sikhs to assist the Guru, along with a large contingent of other Sikhs from Majha. Muktsar is a city and a municipal council in Muktsar district in the Indian state of Punjab. ...


The Mughal army advanced towards the Guru's camp in 1706, but before they could attack him, they encountered a contingent of Mai Bhago and Jathedar Mahan Singh (the leader of the forty Sikhs, who had earlier deserted the Guru). As the tank at Khidrana was dry, the Mughal army suffered from lack of drinking water, and decided to retreat.[22] The forty Sikhs, who had deserted the Guru at Anandpur, died in the battle. They were called Chali Mukte (the forty liberated ones), and the place came to be known as Muktsar ("the tank of salvation"). This article is about a religious term. ... Muktsar is a city and a municipal council in Muktsar district in the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Stay at Talwandi Sabo

Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh
Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh

From Mukatsar, the Guru moved to Rupana, Bhander, Gurusar, Thehri Bambiha, Rohila, Jangiana and Bhai Ka Kot. At Chatiana, the Brars who had fought for him at Muktsar, threatened to block his march as the Guru had failed to disburse pay arrears to them. A Sikh from the neighborhood area brought enough money, which enabled the Guru to pay off all the arrears. However, the leader of the Brars, Chaudhri Dana apologized the Guru on behalf of his people, and refused to accept any payment for himself. At his request, the Guru visited his native place Mehma Swai. The Guru continued his travel, passing through Lakhi Jungle (Lakhisar). From Lakhi, he visited nearby areas and initiated large number of people into Khalsa. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1059x1510, 412 KB) Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1059x1510, 412 KB) Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Chowdhury (variously spelt in different areas: Choudhury, Chaudhri, Chaudhari, Chaudhury, Chaudhary) a Sanskrit and Hindi term literally meaning a holder of four, the explanation of which is obscure. ... Lakhi Jungle is situated 15 km from Bathinda, on the way to Muktsar. ...


A landowner called Chaudhari Dalla welcomed the Guru to his estate, and took him to Talwandi Sabo (aka Talwandi Sabo Ki). On his way he passed through Chatiana, Kot Sahib Chand, Kot Bhai, Giddarbaha, Rohila, Jangirana, Bambiha, Bajak, Kaljhirani, Jassi Bagwali, Pakka Kalan and Chak Hira Singh. Guru Gobind Singh arrived at Talwandi Sabo on 20 January 1706, and stayed there for several months. The place is now called Damdama Sahib (the resting place). The Guru made a tour of the neighbouring villages, and initiated several people into the Khalsa. Talwandi Sabo, also known as Takht Sri Damdama Sahib is located in district Bathinda , Punjab, India. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and...


When Wazir Khan learned that the Guru was at Sabo Ki Talwandi, he sent a letter to Chaudhri Dalla asking him to hand over Guru Gobind Singh to him. However, the Chaudhari refused to hand over the Guru, in spite of Wazir Khan's threats and promises of reward. Wazir Khan complained to the Emperor, who was in the Deccan. The Emperor received Dalla's letter written to Wazir Khan and also the Guru's Zafarnamah at about the same time. He ordered Wazir Khan to remove all restrictions imposed on the Guru and stop harassing him. Zafarnāmah (Punjabi: or , Persian: ) means the Notification of Victory and is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to the Mughal Emperor of India, Aurangzeb. ...


The Guru's literature had been destroyed as he crossed the river after evacuating Anandpur. He dictated the Guru Granth Sahib to Bhai Mani Singh. A number of poets and scholars gathered around the Guru at Talwandi Sabo, and the place came to be known as Guru's Kashi (Varanasi). The Guru's wife, who had separated from him at Anandpur, also reunited with him at Damdama Sahib. The Guru also reorganized his forces at this place, and took many Dogras and Brars into his service. The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... , Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी VārāṇasÄ«, IPA:  ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Dogras are a Northern Indo-Aryan ethnic group in South Asia. ... Sidhu (Punjabi: , ) is a prominent Jat/Jatt gotra or clan of the state of Punjab in India. ...


After Aurganzeb's death

In response to the Guru's Zafarnamah, Aurangzeb expressed his wish for a personal meeting with the Guru. The Guru left for Deccan in October 1706 to meet Aurangzeb. He passed through what is now Rajasthan, on his way to Ahmednagar, where the Emperor was encamped. At Baghaur (or Baghor), he received the news of Aurangzeb's death in March 1707, and decided to return to Punjab, via Shahjahanabad. The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... For other uses, see Ahmednagar (disambiguation). ... Shahjahanabad was a city on the present site of Delhi, India, established by Shah Jahan from 1638 to 1649, containing the Lal Qila and the Chandni Chowk. ...


After the emperor's death, a war of succession broke out between his sons. The third son, Mohammad Azam (or Azim), declared himself the Emperor. The second son Muazzam (later Emperor Bahadur Shah) set out from Peshawar to claim the throne. The Guru's follower Bhai Nand Lal (who had earlier served in the Muazzam 's court) brought him a letter written by Muazzam. Muazzam had sought Guru's help in securing the throne, and had promised to pursue a policy of religious tolerance towards the non-Muslims. The Guru sent a band of his followers under the command of Bhai Dharam Singh, to help Muazzam. Muazzam's forces defeated Azam Shah's forces in the Battle of Jajau on 12 June 1707. A war of succession is a civil war prompted by two or more individuals claim as successor to the monarch. ... Muazzam Bahadur Shah (Persian: Bahādur Shāh; his name Bahādur means brave)(October 14, 1643 – February 1712), also known as Shah Alam I was the Mughal emperor of India from 1707 to 1712. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


Muazzam ascended the throne as Bahadur Shah. He invited Guru Gobind Singh for a meeting which took place at Agra on 23 July 1707. The Guru was received with honour and was given the title of Hind Ka Pir (the Pir of India). The Guru stayed with the Emperor in Agra till November 1707. He made Dholpur a center of his missionary activities, and toured nearby areas for many days, before proceeding to Deccan. In November 1707, the Emperor had to march into Rajputana against the rebel Kachwahas. He requested the Guru to accompany him. From Rajputana, the emperor marched to the Deccan to suppress the rebellion of his brother Kam Bakhsh, and the Guru accompanied him. Muazzam Bahadur Shah (Persian: Bahādur Shāh; his name Bahādur means brave)(October 14, 1643 – February 1712), also known as Shah Alam I was the Mughal emperor of India from 1707 to 1712. ... For other uses, see Agra (disambiguation). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... A Pir (Persian: پیر) meaning Old Man. ... Dholpur (also Dhaulpur) is a city in eastern Rajasthan state of India. ... Rajputana (or Raj(prut)tana), which means Land of the Rajputs rajput love old rotten cheese wanna see whitch cheese we like go to this web page http://home. ... The Kachwaha (also spelled as Kacchavahas, Kachhawa, Kuchhwaha , Kushwaha, and includes Kacchapghata, Kakutstha, and Kurma) are a Suryavanshi Rajput clan which was ruling a number of kingdoms and princely states, including Jaipur, Alwar, Jammu and Kashmir, Amethi and Maihar, before Indias independence in 1947. ...


Guru Gobind Singh was not happy with Bahadur Shah's friendly attitude towards Wazir Khan of Sirhind. He parted ways with the Emperor at Hingoli, and reached Nanded in July 1708. At Nanded, the Guru camped on the banks of the river Godavari. Saiyad Khan, the former general of the imperial forces, resigned from his post and came to Nanded from Kangra, to see the Guru. Hingoli is an administrative district in the state of $STATE in India. ... , Nanded (Marathi: नांदेड) is a the second largest city in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state of India. ... The Godavari River is a major waterway in India, next to the Ganges and Indus rivers. ...


During a trip, the Guru met a bairagi (hermit) called Madho Das, whom he initiated into Khalsa as Gurbakhsh Singh. Gurbakhsh Singh, popularly known as "Banda Singh" or "Banda Bahadur", soon became his most trusted general. Portrait of Banda Singh Bahadur Lachhman Dev alias Madho dass Bairagi alias Baba Banda Singh Bahadur (pronounce like this: Banda- Bun-tha, Bahadur- Bah-Ha-thur {th pronounced as th in the}), of Jammu region, is revered as one of greatest warriors as well as one of its most...


While in Nanded, the Guru received in a letter from Saiyad Khan's sister Nasiran, the wife of Pir Budhu Shah of Sadhaura. The letter informed him that the Emperor's army had ransacked Sadhaura and hanged Pir Budhu Shah as a rebel, for having faith in Guru Gobind Singh, whom they considered as a Kaffir ("infidel"). The term Kaffir applies to various black nationalities inhabitting Southern Africa, and is today used as a derogatory term in South Africa. ...


The Guru assumed that the Emperor had fallen prey to Wazir Khan's propaganda, and was plotting to kill all of his supporters. He sent a letter to the emperor, demanding an explanation for Pir Budhu Shah's death. There was no reply from the emperor. Instead, the Guru heard rumors that the emperor was planning to wage a battle against him. The Guru appointed Banda Singh as the commander of the Khalsa, and asked him to march towards Punjab.


Death

Guru Gobind Singh died on October 7, 1708 at Nanded. According to the most accepted version of how he died, a Pathan[23], Jamshed Khan entered his tent, while he was resting.[24] Another Pathan remained outside the tent and the assailant stabbed the Guru, mortally wounding him. The Pathans were either connected with Wazir Khan, Mughal Governor of Punjab, or the Islamic Imperial Officer.[23]The Guru killed the assailant, while the other Pathan was caught and killed by the Sikhs. The Guru died soon afterwards. Guru Gobind Singh nominated Adi Granth as his successor shortly before his death.[25] is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... , Nanded (Marathi: नांदेड) is a the second largest city in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state of India. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ...


Known literary works

All the works in the Dasam Granth were written by Guru Gobind Singh in areas like Anandpur and Paonta, Internal dates within the Dasam Granth proves this to be the case. However, many of the literary works of him were lost during the evacuation of Anandpur Sahib. The collection of writings attributed to Guru Gobind Singh is known as Dasven Padshah Da Granth meaning Book of the Tenth Emperor.[26] It is popularly referred to as the Dasam Granth. It is a compilation of hymns, Philosophical writings, Hindu mythological tales, autobiography of the Guru and many fables.[26] Dasam granth is accorded the same spiritual reverence shown to [[Guru Granth Sahib|Adi Granth] in Takhts Hazur Sahib and Patna Sahib. All samprayadas incluidng the Akali Nihangs, Nirmalas, Udasis, Damdami Taksal venerate the Granth in totality.]. Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ...


The authorship debate on the works started recently in the 20th Century with the Bashaur School of thought followed by some sikh scholars from the Institute of Sikh Studies.


The following works are included in it:

Jaap Sahib is the morning prayer of the Sikhs. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... Akal Ustat is the name given to the second Bani in the second holy scriptures of the Sikhs called the Dasam Granth. ... Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ... Deh Shiva Var Mohe A celebrated and widely quoted hymn be written by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru. ... Chandi di Var (the Ode to Chandi), also known as Var Sri Bhagauti Ji (the ode to Goddess) is a composition by Guru Gobind Singh included in 5th Chapter of Dasam Granth. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Arda (Bulgarian: Арда, Greek: Αρδας Ardas) is a river whose source lies in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains near the town of Smolyan, flowing 290 kilometres eastward past Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad and through Greece in the northern portion of the Evros prefecture including Kastanies. ... Shabad Hazaray is the Bani of longing for the beloved. ... Zafarnama means the Notification of Victory and is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji in 1705 to the Emperor of India, Aurangzeb. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: (full title: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi) (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707), also known by his chosen Imperial title Alamgir I (Conqueror of the Universe) (Persian: ), was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from...

References

  1. ^ Johar, Surinder Singh (1979). Guru Gobind Singh: A Study. Marwah Publications, 23. 
  2. ^ a b c Singh, Prithi Pal (2007). The History of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Books, 128-147. ISBN 978-8183820752. 
  3. ^ a b c Rawat, Ajay Singh (2002). Garhwal Himalaya : a study in historical perspective. Indus Publishing, 50-54. ISBN 8173871361. OCLC 52088426. 
  4. ^ Bichitra Natak. Chapter 8, Chaupai 1. "Then I left my home and went to place named Paonta.".
  5. ^ (1996) Gazetteer of the Sirmur State. New Delhi: Indus Publishing, 16. ISBN 978-8173870569. OCLC 41357468. 
  6. ^ a b Avinash Dani. "Little-known gurdwara of Nadaun", Sunday Reading, The Tribune, 7 November 1999. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. 
  7. ^ Malik, Arjan Dass (1975). An Indian guerilla war : the Sikh peoples war, 1699-1768. New York: Wiley, 22. ISBN 978-0470565766. OCLC 1339733. 
  8. ^ Johar, Srinder Singh (1976). The Sikh gurus and their shrines. Vivek Pub. Co., 87. OCLC 164789879. “A fierce battle was fought at Nadaun in 1687.” 
  9. ^ Mansukhani, Gobind Singh (1965). The Quintessence of Sikhism. Amritsar: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, 46. OCLC 2654849. 
  10. ^ Seetal, Sohan Singh (1968). Prophet of Man, Guru Gobind Singh. Ludhiana: Seetal Pustak Bhandar, 179. OCLC 115772. “This battle of Nadaun was fought in November, 1689.” 
  11. ^ Singh, Gopal (1979). A History of the Sikh People, 1469-1978. New Delhi: World Sikh University Press, 275. OCLC 6330455. “This is known as the battle of Nadaun and was fought probably late in 1690” 
  12. ^ Temples in the District: Gurudwara sahib Nadaun. NIC Hamirpur. Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  13. ^ Bichitra Natak. Chapter 9, Chaupai 22
  14. ^ Bichitra Natak. Chapter 9, Chaupai 23
  15. ^ Bichitra Natak. Chapter 11
  16. ^ a b c d Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for faith and nation dialogues with Sikh militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 43-45. ISBN 978-0812215922. OCLC 44966032. 
  17. ^ Williams, Rosetta [2004]. Sikh Gurus. Educa Books/Har-Anand Publications, 103. ISBN 978-8124107164. 
  18. ^ Banerjee, Indubhusan [1963]. Evolution of the Khalsa. Calcutta: A. Mukerjee, 25. OCLC 5880923. 
  19. ^ Macauliffe, Max Arthur [1909] (1996). The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings, and Authors. Low Price Publications, 130. ISBN 978-8186142318. OCLC 1888987. 
  20. ^ Singh, Dalip (1992). Guru Gobind Singh and Khalsa Discipline. Amritsar: Singh Bros., 256. ISBN 978-8172050719. OCLC 28583123. 
  21. ^ Johar, Surinder Singh (1998). Holy Sikh shrines. New Delhi: M D Publications, 63. ISBN 9788175330733. OCLC 44703461. 
  22. ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal [1979] (1983). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. New Delhi: Sterling, 79. OCLC 6921013. 
  23. ^ a b Grewal, J.S (1998). The Sikhs of The Punjab. Cambridge University Press, 79. ISBN 0521637643. 
  24. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal. The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press, 158. ISBN 8183820751. 
  25. ^ Soundar, Chitra. Gateway to Indian Culture. Asiapac Books (p) Ltd., 59. ISBN 9812293272. 
  26. ^ a b Hoiberg, Dale; Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India. India: Popular Prakashan, 23-24. ISBN 0852297602. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh and Delhi, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ... Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ... Bichitra Natak (Resplendent Drama) is the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Max Arthur Macauliffe was a translator of Sikh religious writings. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article is about the capital city of India. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

Further reading

  • Singh, Gobind; Jasbir Kaur Ahuja (1996). The Zafarnama of guru Gobind Singh. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 42966940. 
  • Deora, Man Singh (1989). Guru Gobind Singh : a literary survey. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-8170411604. OCLC 21280295. 

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

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Guru Gobind Singh
  • Sri Dasam Granth ,The definitive writings on the Sri Dasam Granth
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Preceded by:
Guru Teg Bahadur
(1 April 1621 - 11 November 1675)
Guru Gobind Singh Followed by:
Guru Granth Sahib
(Eternal Guru of the Sikhs)
 
The Eleven Gurus of Sikhism

Guru Nanak Dev | Guru Angad Dev | Guru Amar Das | Guru Ram Das | Guru Arjun Dev | Guru Har Gobind | Guru Har Rai | Guru Har Krishan | Guru Teg Bahadur | Guru Gobind Singh | (Followed by Guru Granth Sahib, Perpetual Guru of the Sikhs) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1621 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 15th April 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the eleven Sikh Gurus. ... Period in office   1539 - 1552 Predecessor   Guru Nanak Dev Founder of Sikhism Successor   Amar Das 3nd of the Eleven Gurus of Sikhism Religious career Ordination   07 September 1539 Previous post   Guru Personal Date of birth   31 March 1504 Place of birth   Muktsar, Punjab, (now India) Date of death   March 28... Guru Amar Das Guru Amar Das (Punjabi: ) (Born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 5 May 1479 – 14 May 1574 Amritsar, Punjab, India) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... Mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Hargobind. ... Guru Har Rai ji. ... Guru Har Krishan (Punjabi: ) (Born in Rupnagar, Punjab, India on 7 July 1656 as – 30 March 1664, Delhi, India) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ...


Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ... This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ), founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak Dev and nine successive gurus in fifteenth century Northern India, is the fifth-largest religion in the world. ... Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ... Sikhism was established by ten Gurus, teachers or masters, over the period 1469 to 1708. ... Guru Nanak Dev[1] (Punjabi: , ) (Born in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, (now Pakistan) on 15th April 1469 – 7 May 1539, Kartarpur, Punjab, India), was the founder of Sikhism, and the first of the eleven Sikh Gurus. ... Period in office   1539 - 1552 Predecessor   Guru Nanak Dev Founder of Sikhism Successor   Amar Das 3nd of the Eleven Gurus of Sikhism Religious career Ordination   07 September 1539 Previous post   Guru Personal Date of birth   31 March 1504 Place of birth   Muktsar, Punjab, (now India) Date of death   March 28... Guru Amar Das Guru Amar Das (Punjabi: ) (Born in Amritsar, Punjab, India on 5 May 1479 – 14 May 1574 Amritsar, Punjab, India) was the third of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 26 March 1552 following in the footsteps of Guru Angad Dev, who died 29... Sri Guru Ram Das Ji (Punjabi: ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮ ਦਾਸ ਜੀ) (24 September 1534 – 1 September 1581) was the fourth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 30 August 1574 following in the footsteps of Guru Amar Das. ... Guru Arjan, right, dictating the Adi Granth to Bhai Gurdas. ... Mid-nineteenth century miniature of Guru Hargobind. ... Guru Har Rai ji. ... Guru Har Krishan (Punjabi: ) (Born in Rupnagar, Punjab, India on 7 July 1656 as – 30 March 1664, Delhi, India) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Sikh Bhagats refers to the Saints and holy men of various faiths whose teachings are included in the Sikh holy book the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. ... The Sikh religious philosophy is covered in great detail in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy text. ... // There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... The Sikhs must believe in the following values: Equality: All humans are equal before God – No discrimination is allowed on the basis of caste, race, sex, creed, origin, color, education, status, wealth, etc. ... There are a number of religious prohibitions in Sikhism and by the SGPC: Cutting Hair: Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. ... Naam: Or Naam Japo. ... The Golden Temple is the most important sacred shrine for Sikhs Sikhism comes from the word Sikh, which means a strong and able disciple. ... The Ardās (Punjabi: ) are the Sikh daily prayers. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... Chardi Kala is an important expression used in Sikhism for a mind frame that a Sikh has to accept and practise. ... Dasvand means to donate 10% percent of ones harvest to the Gurdwara. ... The Five Ks, or kakaars, are five items that baptised Orthodox Sikhs wear at all times either out of respect for the tenth teacher, Guru Gobind Singh, or out of a sense of religious devotion. ... Kirat Karō is one of three primary pillars of Sikhism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Sufi practice of Langar, see Langar (Sufism). ... Nām Japō (Punjabi: ), refers to the meditation, vocal singing of Hymns from the Sri Guru Granth Sahib or of the various Names of God, specially the chanting of the word Waheguru, which means Wonderful Lord. ... The term Simran refers to the vocal repetition or recital of the God Names - Naam or of the Holy Text from the Two Granths of the Sikhs - the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth. ... The Three Pillars of Sikhism Guru Nanak formalised the three important pillars of Sikhism: 1. ... In Sikhism Vaṇḍ Chakkō (Punjabi: ) is a technique and method which means share it as you consume it. ... The Shri Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the holy book of Sikhism, which is revered as a living Guru by the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... The Dasam Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a scripture of Sikhism, containing texts composed by 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh and his assembly of scholars. ... The Sarbloh Granth (Punjabi: , ) is a collection of the tenth masters writings that recites the story of gods and demons. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... Chaupai is the short name for the Sikh prayer or Gurbani whose full name is Kabiobach Bainti Chaupai. ... Jaap Sahib is the morning prayer of the Sikhs. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra as the beginning followed by 38 hymns and a final Salok at the end of this composition. ... Illuminated Adi Granth folio with nisan (Mool Mantar) of Guru Gobind Singh. ... Evening prayer of the Sikhs. ... Sukhmani Sahib is the name given to the set of hymns divided into 24 sections which appear in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Holy Scriptures on page 262. ... This is a short hymn of 10 stanzas. ... The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... Stylised Ek Onkar Simple Ek Onkar Ek Onkar (also , , Ä’k ÅŒaá¹…kār, Ek Omkar, Ik Onkar and other variants) means one God and is a central tenet of Sikh religious philosophy. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see Kinkaku-ji. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... The Khanda Sikh Khanda on Stamp designed by Stacey Zabolotney Issued By Canada Post in November 2000 . ... This section of Sikh Names and the Sikh Names List is material copyright of www. ... Satguru or Sadguru means true guru (Sanskrit सदगुरू sat=true), literally: true teacher. ... Waheguru (Punjabi: , or , ) means The Wonderful Lord in the Punjabi language. ... Sheikh Farid (Farid-ul-Din Masaud Shakar Ganj) c. ... Kabir (कबीर) (1440 - Indian Mystic who preached an ideal of seeing all of humanity as one. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... For other uses, see Sardar (disambiguation). ... The word Takhat literally means seat of power or throne of authority and refers to one of the five bodies of authority for the Sikhs. ... Dastar Corp. ... Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ... Image File history File links Sikh emblem. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guru Gobind Singh Ji (354 words)
Guru Gobind Singh (1666 - 1708) was installed as the Tenth Guru at the age of nine, soon after the martyrdom of his father.
Guru Gobind Singh has four-fold achievement to his credit: (a) the crushing blow dealt to the Mughal power, (b) the creation of the Khalsa Panth, (c) the production of creative and martial literature, (d) the installation of the Adi Granth as the Guru Granth Sahib and the perpetual Guru for the Sikhs.
Guru Gobind Singh exposed the evil deeds of the emperor in a poetic letter to Aurangazeb, entitled Zafarnama.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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