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Encyclopedia > Gupta Empire
The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415)
The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415)
History of South Asia and History of India

Stone Age 70,000–3300 BC
Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BC
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The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. It was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 600 CE and covered most of Northern India, the region presently in the nation of Pakistan and what is now western India and Bangladesh. The time of the Gupta Empire is referred to as Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India during the reign of the Guptas. Historians did not place the Gupta dynasty alongside with the Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Roman Empire as a model of a classical civilization. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links IndiaGuptaEmpire. ... Image File history File links IndiaGuptaEmpire. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... Map of early Iron Age Vedic India after Witzel (1989). ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cholas. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... 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Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ... The Sikh Confederacy (from 1716-1799) was a collection of small to medium sized independent sovereign, punjabi Sikh states, which were governed by barons, in Punjab[1]. They were loosely politically linked but strongly bound in the cultural and religious spheres. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... This article is under construction. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... 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The history of Indian coinage stretches back at least 2600 years. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The period between the 3rd century and 6th century CE is known as the Golden Age of India because of the large achievements Indians made in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, science, religion and philosophy during the Gupta Empire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is under construction. ... Hindu Astronomy is one of the ancient astronomical systems of the world. ... The term Indian philosophy may refer to any of several traditions of philosophical thought, including: Hindu philosophy Buddhist philosophy Jain philosophy Sikh philosophy Carvaka atheist philosophy Lokayata materialist philosophy Tantric religious philosophy Bhakti religious philosophy Sufi religious philosophy Ahmadi religious philosophy Political and military philosophy such as that of Chanakya... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. The Chinese traveller I-tsing provides the first evidence of the Gupta kingdom in Magadha. He came to India in 672 CE and heard of 'Maharaja Sri-Gupta' who built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mrigasikhavana. I-tsing gives the date for this event merely as '500 years before'. This does not match with other sources and hence we can assume that I-tsing's computation was a mere guess. Very recently few scholars have linked Guptas with rulers mentioned in Bhagwatam, however, these things are largely disputed and idea seems politically motivated and to promote sell of books written and promoted by some entities.[1] I Ching (monk) or Yi Jing (Yijing, Yiqing, I-Tsing or YiChing) (義淨, 三藏法師義淨 635-713) is Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk, original name was Zhang Wen Ming (张文明). He contributed to the world the information of ancient Srivijaya (written in Chinese), large numbers of Buddhist scriptures, his adventure stories en route to Nalanda... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... The Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta describes Sri Gupta (240 - 280) as the Adhiraja of the Gupta dynasty. ...


The most likely date for the reign of Sri-Gupta is c. 240-280 CE. His successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. 280-319 CE. In contrast to his successor, he is also referred to in inscriptions as 'Maharaja'. For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... Ghatotkacha (c. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ...


The most accepted theory about the origins of the Guptas is that the Guptas originated from Bengal. The mention of "Varendra Mrigashihavan Stupa" on a mound in Nepal is a strong evidence that the Guptas originated from Bengal. Maharaja Sri-Gupta probably ruled a portion of Northern/Southern Bengal. Later Chandragupta I established his dominion over Magadha through marital policy with the Licchavis. However the origins of the Guptas is still hotly debated. For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta describes Sri Gupta (240 - 280) as the Adhiraja of the Gupta dynasty. ... While his two ancestors were given the title of Maharaja, Chandra Gupta I is described in his inscriptions as Maharajadhiraj. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ...


At the beginning of the 4th century the Guptas established and ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Uttar Pradesh. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...

Contents

The Guptas ascendant

Asia in 400 AD, showing the Gupta Empire and other powers.
Asia in 400 AD, showing the Gupta Empire and other powers.

The Gupta dynasty ruled India north of the Vindhya Range during the 4th and 5th centuries. Though not as vast as Mauryan empire, The Gupta era left a deep and wide cultural impact not only in the subcontinent but on the adjacent Asian countries as well. We get plenty of information about this illustrious dynasty through coins, inscriptions, monuments and Sanskrit classics. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixelsFull resolution (1964 × 1185 pixels, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 483 pixelsFull resolution (1964 × 1185 pixels, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates The Indian subcontinent into northern India and Southern India. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


The Gupta rulers were great conquerors and good administrators. They checked the infiltration of foreign tribes like Sakas and Hunas and established political stability. This brought on economic prosperity which led to cultural expansion. Gupta society was ordered to increase frating mass with Hindu beliefs. This included a strict caste system, or class system. The peace and prosperity created under Gupta leadership enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ...


The Gupta Dynasty decreased due to weak rulers and a series of invasions, but many of their cultural and intellectual achievements were saved and transmitted to other cultures and live on today. The Gupta period is considered something of a golden age, marked by great achievements in literature, music, art, architecture, and philosophy. Lui Kang wrote of beautiful cities, fine hospitals and universities, and described a content and prosperous people.

Buddha of the Gupta period, 5th century, Mathura.
Buddha of the Gupta period, 5th century, Mathura.

Download high resolution version (411x781, 68 KB)Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Download high resolution version (411x781, 68 KB)Musee Guimet, Paris. ... Gupta (Hindi: गुप्ता) is a surname of Indian origin. ...

Main Gupta rulers

Chandragupta

Ghatotkacha (c. 280319) CE, had a son named Chandragupta. (Not to be confused with Chandragupta Maurya (340-293 BCE), founder of the Mauryan Empire.) In a breakthrough deal, Chandragupta was married to a Lichchhavi—the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga and Saketa. He established a realm stretching from the Ganga River (Ganges River) to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 320. Chandragupta was the first of the Ghatotkacha (c. ... Events The Chinese Jin Dynasty under Emperor Wu of Jin China unifies China by conquering the Kingdom of Wu, ending the Period of the Three Kingdoms. ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... While his two ancestors were given the title of Maharaja, Chandra Gupta I is described in his inscriptions as Maharajadhiraj. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Lion Capital of Asoka, erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley from approximately 400 to 750. ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ... Map of India. ... Ayodhya (अयोध्या) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ... This article is about the river. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ...


Samudragupta

Samudragupta took the kingdoms of Shichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign. He then attacked the tribes in Malwas, the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the Abhiras. By his death in 380, he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm, his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He is considered the Napoleon of India. He performed Ashwamedha yajna (horse sacrifice) to underline the importance of his conquest. Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. ... The goddess Padmavati is a popular Jain goddess. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Coin of the Yaudheyas. ... The Arjunayanas, also Arjunakas and Prarjunas were a tribe of northern India around the area of Mathura. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Sudra and Abhira were mentioned as two kingdoms where the river Saraswati existed only as a dried up river bed during the time of Kurukshetra War. ... This article is about the year 380 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A380. ... For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... The Narmada River in central India The Narmada (Gujarati: નર્મદા Devanagri: नर्मदा or Nerbudda (Narbada) is a river in central India in Indian subcontinent. ... Brahmaputra A dugout with pilot in Chitwan. ... The river Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ...


Samudragupta was not only a talented military leader but also a great patron of art and literature. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena, Vasubandhu and Asanga. He was a poet and musician himself. He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's buddhist king to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. Asanga (also called Aryasanga), born around 300 C.E., was a great exponent of the Yogacara. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Vihara at Kanheri Caves Wall carvings Vihara is an Indian Buddhist monastery. ... , Bodh Gaya or Bodhgaya(24° 41 60N, 84° 58 60E) is a city in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar. ...


He was succeeded by his son Ramagupta, who was captured by the Saka Western Satraps ("Kshatrapas") and was soon succeeded by his brother Chandragupta II. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ...


Chandragupta II

Gold coins of Chandragupta II.
Gold coins of Chandragupta II.
Silver coin of Chandragupta II, minted in his Western territories, in the style of the Western Satraps.Obv: Bust of king, with corrupted Greek legend "OOIHU".Rev: Legend in Brahmi, "Chandragupta Vikramaditya, King of Kings, and a devotee of Vishnu" , around a peacock. 15mm, 2.1 grams. Mitchiner 4821-4823.
Silver coin of Chandragupta II, minted in his Western territories, in the style of the Western Satraps.
Obv: Bust of king, with corrupted Greek legend "OOIHU".[1]
Rev: Legend in Brahmi, "Chandragupta Vikramaditya, King of Kings, and a devotee of Vishnu" , around a peacock.
15mm, 2.1 grams. Mitchiner 4821-4823.

Chandragupta II, the Sun of Power (Vikramaditya), ruled until 413. He married his daughter Prabhavatigupta to Rudrasena II, the Vakataka king of Deccan, and gained a valuable ally. Only marginally less war-like than his father, he expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second (trading) capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire. Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata ChandraguptaII.JPG‎ Coin of Chandragupta II. Guimet Museum. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... Events May 8 - Honorius signs an edict providing tax relief for the provinces of Italy that have been plundered by the Visigoths. ... The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... For the cleaning product 409®, see butoxyethanol. ... Rudrasimha III was the last ruler of the Western Satraps in India, in the 4th century CE. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps in Gujarat. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ...


Despite the creation of the empire through war, the reign is remembered for its very influential style of Hindu art, literature, culture and science, especially during the reign of Chandra Gupta II. Some excellent works of Hindu art such as the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the magnificence of Gupta art. Above all it was the synthesis of the sacred and sensual elements that gave Gupta art its distinctive flavour. During this period, the Guptas were supportive of thriving Buddhist and Jain cultures as well, and for this reason there is also a long history of non-Hindu Gupta period art. In particular, Gupta period Buddhist art was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Much of advances was recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian (Fa-hien) in his diary and published afterwords. The lineage of the Chandra Guptas' can be traced down for generations to the present day, to one Ashok Chandra Gupta. Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Deogarh is a temple city in Lalitpur District of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Footprint of the Buddha. ... Faxian(Chinese: ; pinyin: ; also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ...


The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the navaratna, a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. Amongst these men was the immortal Kalidasa whose works dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses, not only in his own age but in the ages to come. Kalidasa was particularly known for his fine exploitation of the sringara (erotic) element in his verse.


Chandragupta II's campaigns against Foreign Tribes

  • Fourth century AD Sanskrit poet Kalidasa, credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya (aka Raghu) with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms, both in and outside India. After finishing his campaign in the East, South and West India, Raghu aka Vikramaditya (Chandragupta II) proceeded northwards, subjugated the Parasikas (Persians), then the Hunas and the Kambojas tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys respectively. Thereafter, the glorious king proceeds across the Himalaya and reduced the Kinnaras, Kiratas etc and lands into India proper [2].

Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Hindu mythology, Raghu was a valorous king of the Ikshavaku dynasty. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Kinnaras were a group of gods, demons and demi-gods, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Rakshasas, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... The Kiratas are one of the earliest inahbitants of Nepal. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shaka (disambiguation). ... Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ , meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ... Kamboja (Sanskrit: कम्बोज) was the ancient name of a Hindu country, and the Indo-Iranian Kshatriya tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... Huna is a Hawaiian word first used by Max Freedom Long in 1936 to describe what he called “the secret science behind the miracles” that ancient Hawaiian kahuna (experts) performed. ... Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ , meaning non-Aryan, barbarian) is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with conventional Hindu beliefs and practices. ...

Kumaragupta I

Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455) CE (Coin of his Western territories, design derived from the Western Satraps). Obv: Bust of king with crescents and corrupted Greek legend "HOHO". Rev: Garuda standing facing with spread wings. Brahmi legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya.
Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455) CE (Coin of his Western territories, design derived from the Western Satraps).
Obv: Bust of king with crescents and corrupted Greek legend "HOHO".[6]
Rev: Garuda standing facing with spread wings. Brahmi legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya.

Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta I. Known as the Mahendraditya, he ruled until 455. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire. Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... King of Kings or some literal parallel in various languages is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) troughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ...


Skandagupta

Skandagupta is generally considered the last of the great rulers. He defeated the Pushyamitra threat, but then was faced with invading Hephthalites or "White Huns", known in India as the Huna, from the northwest. He repulsed a Huna attack c. 455, But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. Skandagupta died in 467 and was succeeded by his son Narasimhagupta Baladitya. Skandagupta was a ruler of northern India under the Gupta dynasty. ... Common Era (CE)  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Hephthalites (425 - 557 CE) (Persian: ‎ or هپتالیان) were a people of obscure origin who at certain periods played an important role in the history of Persia and India. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... Events April 12 - Anthemius elevated to Western Roman Emperor Births Leo II, Byzantine emperor Cerdic of Wessex (approximate date). ...


Military organization

Indo-Sassanian trade routes
Indo-Sassanian trade routes

The Imperial Guptas could not have achieved their successes through force of arms without an efficient martial system. Historically, the best accounts of this comes not from the Hindus themselves but from Chinese and Western observers. However, a contemporary Indian document, regarded as a military classic of the time, the Siva-Dhanur-veda, offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas. Like Indian kings before them, and The Guptas seem to have relied heavily on infantry archers, and the bow was one of the dominant weapons of their army. The Hindu version of the longbow was composed of metal, or more typically bamboo, and fired a long bamboo cane arrow with a metal head. Unlike the composite bows of Western and Central Asian foes, bows of this design would be less prone to warping in the damp and moist conditions often prevalent to the region. The Indian longbow was reputedly a powerful weapon capable of great range and penetration and provided an effective counter to invading horse archers. Iron shafts were used against armored elephants, and fire arrows were also part of the bowmen's arsenal. India historically has had a prominent reputation for its steel weapons. One of these was the steel bow. Due to its high tensility, the steel bow was capable of long range and penetration of exceptionally thick armor. These were less common weapons than the bamboo design and found in the hands of noblemen rather than in the ranks. Archers were frequently protected by infantry equipped with shields, javelins, and longswords. Image File history File links Indo-Sassanid. ... Image File history File links Indo-Sassanid. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Wootz is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...


The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft, catapults, and other sophisticated war machines.


The Guptas apparently showed little predilection for using horse archers, despite the fact these warriors were a main component in the ranks of their Scythian, Parthian, and Hepthalite (Huna) enemies. However, the Gupta armies were probably better disciplined. Able commanders like Samudragupta and Chandragupta II would have likely understood the need for combined armed tactics and proper logistical organization. Gupta military success likely stemmed from the concerted use elephants, armored cavalry, and foot archers in tandem against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. The Guptas also maintained a navy, allowing them to control regional waters.


The collapse of the Gupta Empire in the face of the Huna onslaught was due not directly to the inherent defects of the Gupta army, which after all had initially defeated these people under Skandagupta. More likely, internal dissolution sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion, as was simultenously occurring in Western Europe and China.


Huna invasions and the end of empire

Narasimhagupta (467-473) was followed by Kumaragupta II (473-476) and Buddhagupta (476-495?). In the 480's the Hephthalite king Toramana broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest, and much of the empire was overrun by the Huna by 500. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor, Mihirakula; the Huna conquered several provinces of the empire, including Malwa, Gujarat, and Thanesar, broke away under the rule of local dynasties. It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas, although their power was much diminished, continued to resist the Huna, and allied with the independent kingdoms to drive the Huna from most of northern India by the 530's. The succession of the sixth-century Guptas is not entirely clear, but the last recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550. Events Glycerius is named Western Roman Emperor. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Events Cerdic of Wessex raids Hampshire. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Mihirkula was the most important ruler of the Hun era in Indian history. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Thanesar is an old and historic town on the banks of the Ghaggar river in North India, located approximately 160 km northwest of Delhi. ... Vishnugupta was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta Dynasty. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ...


Gupta arts

The Ajanta paintings were made during the Gupta period

Some of India's most magnificent works of art were produced during the Gupta era. The famous cave paintings at Ajanta, the Sarnath Buddha, the Deogarh Dashavatara Temple panels and the Udaygiri Varaha Cave are some marvellous products of the Gupta age. The traditional Buddha iconography from the Gupta empire includes the following: sting-fold style drapery; thicker garments; elongated, idealized bodies; "lotus" eyes; thick, "bee stung" lips; scooped, smooth eyebrows; snail shell curls; and distant, meditative gazes. Also, during the Gupta Empire, metal work and various sculptures were made. The Gupta architecture helped in the construction of Ajanta and Ellora Caves though this may not be confirmed. The most well-known work from the Ajanta caves is the "Bodhisattva Padmapani." This colorful fresco, made with chaff, white plaster, and pigments, portrays a bodisattva holding a lotus flower. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1651, 1636 KB) Description: Title: de: Liebespaar Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: Country of origin: de: Indien Current location (city): de: Ajantâ (Nord-Dekhan, Indien) Current location (gallery): de: Höhlentempel Other notes: Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM, 2002. ... Ajanta takes the name after the village AjinÅ£hā in Aurangabad district in the state of Maharashtra(N. lat. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... In Mahayana Buddhism, Avalokitesvara or Avalokiteshvara is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas. ...


Another example of Gupta Arts are their clothing. The clothing included colorful silks, rayon, and cotton. The clothing would usually be worn as a sarong or a toga. Many of the Gupta clothing and art were adapted from the Greeks.


Legacy of the Gupta Empire

The Gupta Empire is considered by many scholars to be the "classical age" of Hindu and Buddhist art and literature. The Rulers of the Gupta Empire were strong supporters of developments in the arts, architecture, science, and literature. The Guptas circulated a large number of gold coins, called dinars, with their inscriptions. This period is also very rich in Sanskrit literature. Several important works were composed by well-known writers, such as Mrichchakatika or The Little Clay Cart by Shudraka, along with ones by Kalidasa and others. Panchatantra, the animal fables by Vishnu Sharma, and 13 plays by Bhasa, were also written in this period. The Gupta Dynasty also left behind an effective administrative system. During times of peace, the Gupta system was decentralized, with only taxation flowing to the capital at Pataliputra. During times of war however, the government realigned and fought its invaders. The system was soon extinguished in fighting off the Hunnic Invasions. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Literature stubs ...


The most significant achievements of this period, however, were in religion, education, mathematics, art, Sanskrit literature and drama, and Kama Sutra, the principles of pleasure including the art of sex. Hinduism witnessed a crystallization of its components: major sectarian deities, image worship, devotionalism, and the importance of the temple. Education included grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy. These subjects became highly specialized and reached an advanced level. The Indian numeral system—sometimes erroneously attributed to the Arabs, who took it from India to Europe where it replaced the Roman system—and the decimal system are Indian inventions of this period. Aryabhatta's expositions on astronomy in 499, moreover, gave calculations of the solar year and the shape and movement of astral bodies with remarkable accuracy. For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...


In medicine, the Guptas were notable for their establishment and patronage of free hospitals. And although progress in physiology and biology was hindered by religious injunctions against contact with dead bodies, which discouraged dissection and anatomy, Indian physicians excelled in pharmacopoeia, cesarean section, bone setting, and skin grafting. Indeed Hindu medical advances were soon adopted in the Arab and Western worlds.


The great universities in central and eastern India received an influx of students from many parts of the world. Most notable were the universities of Nalanda and Vikramasila.


Contributions to the world and achievements

The Gupta golden age period contributed much to the world. Two of India's earliest mathematicians, Aryabhatta and Varahamihira, also appeared during this period. Their intellectual advances helped to shape many future breakthroughs in technology. The brilliant minds behind the Gupta Empire made major advances in Algebra and also devised the concept of zero and infinity. One of their most important gifts to the world were symbols of the numbers from 1 to 9. These numerals were later adopted by the Arabs through trade and became known as the arabic numerals in the west. And these were eventually adopted by the west. Aryabhatta also estimated the number pi to the fourth decimal place. Aryabhata (आर्यभट) (Āryabhaṭa) is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. ... Varahamihira (505 – 587) was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer born in Ujjain. ... This article is about the branch of mathematics. ... For other senses of this word, see zero or 0. ... For other uses, see Infinity (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... Aryabhata (आर्यभट) (Āryabhaṭa) is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. ...


Gupta astronomers also made advances in astronomy by using their mathematical breakthroughs. It was during this empire that philosophers in India first proposed that the earth was not flat but was instead round and rotated on an axis by viewing a lunar eclipses. They also made discoveries about gravity and the planets of the solar system, which they used to tell the horoscopes. Doctors also invented several medical instruments, and even performed operations. These ideas spread throughout the world through trade. The Gupta reign was certainly the "Golden Age" of India.(See also Golden Age Of India)


Gupta dynasty

The Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire of India, from around 320 to 550 CE. This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ...


Some of its main rulers were:

Preceded by
Kanva dynasty
Magadha dynasties
240-550 CE
Succeeded by
possibly Pala dynasty



While his two ancestors were given the title of Maharaja, Chandra Gupta I is described in his inscriptions as Maharajadhiraj. ... Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Skandagupta was a ruler of northern India under the Gupta dynasty. ... Vishnugupta was one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta Dynasty. ... The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty, and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BCE to 26 BCE. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ...

Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...

  • Gupta Empire







Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. ... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[2]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic and Hellenistic kings,[3] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



References and notes

  1. ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli
  2. ^ (Raghu Vamsa v 4.60-75.
  3. ^
    ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah|:
    Mlechchana Kamboja. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran||
    Tushara. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan|
    hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate||
    (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86, Kshmendra).
  4. ^ Kathasritsagara 18.1.76-78.
  5. ^ Cf:"In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara, king Vikarmaditya is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Tokharas and the Persians "(See: Ref: Reappraising the Gupta History, 1992, p 169, B. C. Chhabra, Sri Ram; Cf also: Vikrama Volume, 1948, p xxv, Vikramāditya Śakāri; cf: Anatomii͡a i fiziologii͡a selʹskokhozi͡a ĭstvennykh zhivotnykh, 1946, p 264, Arthur John Arberry, Louis Renou, B. K. Hindse, A. V. Leontovich, National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading - Sanskrit language.
  6. ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli

Saurashtra in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ... Coins of Chandragupta II. The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... A chaitya-griha (stupa hall) is a meeting or assembly often used for purposes similar to a stupa. ...

Further reading

  • Karls, Farah. World History The Human Experience.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gupta Empire - Indian History (1091 words)
In spite of heroic efforts of SkandaGupta, Gupta empire did not survive long the shock it received from invasion of the Huns and internal uprising of Pushyamitras.
Poetry in the Gupta age tended towards a few genres: religious and meditative poetry, lyric poetry, narrative histories (the most popular of the secular literatures), and drama.
Examples of Gupta architecture are found in the Vaishnavite Tigawa temple at Jabalpur (in Madhya Pradesh state) built in 415 AD and another temple at Deogarhnear Jhansi built in 510 AD.
Sculpture in Gupta Empire (795 words)
The Gupta Empire was known for one of the largest political and military empires in the history of ancient India.
Gupta style of art featuring a finished mastery in execution and a majestic serenity in expression was spread to other countries and mainly responsible for influencing Buddhist art in all over Asia.
The cave temples of Elephanta and structural temples of Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu are enduring legacy Gupta rulers.
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