FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Gunpowder Plot

Robert Catesby Guido Fawkes Thomas Winter Thomas Percy John Wright Christopher Wright Robert Winter Thomas Bates

A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. The Dutch artist, Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, probably never met any of the conspirators although it is known that he travelled to England around the time of the plot and may have met primary sources who could have informed his work. The sketch has become well known.
A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. The Dutch artist, Crispijn van de Passe the Elder, probably never met any of the conspirators although it is known that he travelled to England around the time of the plot and may have met primary sources who could have informed his work. The sketch has become well known.

The Gunpowder Plot of 1605, or the Powder Treason, as it was known at the time,[1] was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening on 5 November 1605. The conspirators had also planned to abduct the royal children, not present in Parliament, and incite a revolt in the Midlands. A contemporary sketch of the Gunpowder Plotters. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Gunpowder Plot was one of many unsuccessful assassination attempts against James I, and followed the Main Plot and Bye Plot of 1603. Some popular historians have put forward a debate about government involvement in the plot.[2] Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... The Main Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics, allegedly led by lay Catholic Lord Cobham, to remove King James I of England from the English throne, replacing him by aid of Spain with his cousin Arabella (or Arbella) Stuart. ... The Bye Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics to kidnap King James I of England and force him to repeal anti-Catholic legislation. ...


On 5 November each year, people in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and regions[3] celebrate the failure (or among some groups, the attempt) of the plot on what is known as Guy Fawkes Night, Bonfire Night, Fireworks Night, Cracker Night or Plot Night; although the political meaning of the festival has grown to be very much secondary today. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ...

Contents

Origins

Catholic conspirators plotted to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland
Catholic conspirators plotted to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland
Princess Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of King James, was supposed to inherit the crown and rule as a Catholic
Princess Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of King James, was supposed to inherit the crown and rule as a Catholic

Robert Catesby may have decided upon the plot when hopes of Catholic toleration under King James I receded, leaving many Catholics disappointed. However, it is likely Catesby simply envisaged a Catholic future for England brought about by his drastic scheme. The plot was intended to begin a rebellion during which James' nine-year-old daughter (Princess Elizabeth) could be installed as a Catholic head of state. Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... Robert Catesby (1573 – November 18, 1605), born in Lapworth, Warwickshire, or possibly in Northamptonshire, to a strongly Roman Catholic family, was the leader of a group of Roman Catholic conspirators (the most notable of whom was Guy Fawkes) who endeavoured to blow up the Houses of Parliament in England in... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... There were many people whose name was Elizabeth Stuart, including: Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth Stuart (died January 23, 1673 or 1674) was the mother of Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk, and married to Henry Frederick Howard, 25th Earl of Arundel. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


The plot was overseen from May 1604 by Robert Catesby. Other plotters included Thomas Winter (also spelled Wintour), Robert Winter, Christopher Wright, Thomas Percy (also spelled Percye), John Wright, Ambrose Rokewood, Robert Keyes, Sir Everard Digby, Francis Tresham, and Catesby's servant, Thomas Bates. The explosives were prepared by Guy Fawkes, an explosives expert with considerable military experience, who had been introduced to Catesby by a man named Hugh Owen. The well known image (top right) of the plotters was created by the Dutch artist Crispijn van de Passe, who may have had access to first hand descriptions.[4] Robert Catesby (1573 – November 18, 1605), born in Lapworth, Warwickshire, or possibly in Northamptonshire, to a strongly Roman Catholic family, was the leader of a group of Roman Catholic conspirators (the most notable of whom was Guy Fawkes) who endeavoured to blow up the Houses of Parliament in England in... Thomas Winter (also spelt Wintour) (1571 (although some accounts say 1572) - January 31, 1606), was one of the principal Catholic conspirators in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I of England and Members of Parliament. ... Robert Winter (1565 - January 30, 1606) was one of the leading members of the 1605 Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I of England and Members of Parliament. ... A contemporaneous sketch of the conspirators The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State... Thomas Percy (plotter) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... John Wright (1568-1605) was a swordsman who was part of the original Catholic group who tried and blow up parliament in 1605. ... Ambrose Rokewood (1578? - January 31, 1606) was one of the principal members of the abortive 1605 Gunpowder Plot conspiracy to assassinate James I of England and Members of Parliament. ... Robert Keyes was one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot , an unsuccessful attempt by a group of English Roman Catholics to blow-up Westminster Palace and kill King James I (James VI of Scotland) and members of both houses of the Parliament, during the opening session of Parliament on... Sir Everard Digby (May 16, 1578 - January 30, 1606) was one of those inculpated in the abortive 1605 Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I of England and Members of Parliament. ... Francis Tresham (c. ... Guy Fawkes (13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), was a member of a group of English Roman Catholics who attempted to carry out the Gunpowder Plot, an attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament and kill King James I of England, to destroy Protestant rule by killing the Protestant...


The details of the plot were well known to the principal Jesuit of England, Father Henry Garnet, as he had learned of the plot from Oswald Tesimond, a fellow Jesuit who, with the permission of his penitent Robert Catesby, had discussed the plot with him. As the details of the plot were known through confession, Garnet was bound not to reveal them to the authorities. Despite his admonitions and protestations, the plot went ahead, yet Garnet's opposition did not save him from being hanged, drawn and quartered for treason in 1606. Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... Oswald Tesimond (1563 – 23 August 1636), a Jesuit born in either Northumberland or York[1] who, while not a direct conspirator, had some involvement in the Gunpowder Plot. ... Robert Catesby (1573 – November 18, 1605), born in Lapworth, Warwickshire, or possibly in Northamptonshire, to a strongly Roman Catholic family, was the leader of a group of Roman Catholic conspirators (the most notable of whom was Guy Fawkes) who endeavoured to blow up the Houses of Parliament in England in... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ...


Planning

In May 1604 Percy leased lodgings adjacent to the House of Lords as the plotters' idea was to mine their way under the foundations of the House of Lords to lay the gunpowder. The main idea was to kill James, but many other important targets were to be present. Guy Fawkes as 'John Johnson' was put in charge of this building and he pretended to be Percy's servant while Catesby's house in Lambeth was used to store the gunpowder with the picks and implements for mining. However when the plague came again to London in the summer of 1604 and proved to be particularly severe, the opening of parliament was suspended to 1605. By Christmas Eve they had still not reached parliament and just as they recommenced work early in 1605 they learned that the opening had been further postponed to October 3. The plotters then took the opportunity to row the gunpowder up the Thames from Lambeth and to conceal it in their rented house. They learned by pure chance that a coal merchant called Ellen Bright had vacated a cellar under the Lords[citation needed], and Percy immediately took pains to secure the lease. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fawkes assisted in filling the room with gunpowder which was concealed beneath a wood store under the House of Lords building in a cellar leased from John Whynniard. By March 1605 they had filled the undercroft underneath the House of Lords with 36 barrels of gunpowder concealed under a store of winter fuel[5]. The barrels contained 1800 pounds of gunpowder [citation needed]. Had they been successfully ignited, the explosion could have reduced many of the buildings in the Old Palace of Westminster complex, including the Abbey, to rubble and would have blown out windows in the surrounding area of about a 1 kilometre radius. An undercroft is a cellar or underground room, often brick-lined and vaulted, and used for storage in buildings since medieval times. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... “km” redirects here. ...


The conspirators left London in May and went to their homes or to different areas of the country so that being seen together would not arouse suspicion. They arranged to meet again in September. However, the opening of Parliament was again postponed. The weakest part of the plot was the arrangements for the subsequent rebellion that would sweep the country and provide a Catholic monarch. Due to the requirement for money and arms Francis Tresham was eventually admitted to the plot and it was probably he who betrayed the plot by writing to his brother-in-law Lord Monteagle. An anonymous letter revealed some of the details of the plot. The letter read 'I advise you to devise some excuse not to attend this parliament, for they shall receive a terrible blow, and yet shall not see who hurts them'. William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle and 11th Baron Morley (1575 - July 1, 1622), was the eldest son of Edward Parker, 10th Baron Morley (d. ...


According to the confession made by Fawkes on 5 November 1605 (Tuesday)[6], he left Dover on about Easter 1605 for Calais. He then traveled to St Omer and on to Brussels, where he met with Hugh Owen, and Sir William Stanley. Next, he made a pilgrimage in Brabant. He returned to England at the end of August or early September, again by way of Calais. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Saint-Omer, a town and commune of Artois in northern France, sous-préfecture of the Pas-de-Calais département, 42 miles west-north-west of Lille on the railway to Calais. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Guy Fawkes was left in charge of executing the plot, while the other conspirators fled to Dunchurch in Warwickshire to await news. Once the parliament had been destroyed, the other conspirators planned to incite a revolt in the Midlands. In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of persons united in the goal of usurping or overthrowing an established political power. ... Guy Fawkes House Map sources for Dunchurch at grid reference SP485712 Dunchurch is a historic village and civil parish on the south-western outskirts of Rugby in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced // or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ...


Discovery

During the preparation, several of the conspirators had been concerned about fellow Catholics who would be present on the appointed day, and inevitably killed. One conspirator, possibly Francis Tresham, wrote a letter of warning to his brother-in-law Lord Monteagle, a prominent Catholic, which he received on Friday, October 26, at his house in Hoxton: William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle and 11th Baron Morley (1575 - July 1, 1622), was the eldest son of Edward Parker, 10th Baron Morley (d. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hoxton Square. ...

My lord out of the love i beare to some of youere frends i have a care of youer preseruasion therefor i would advise youe as youe tender youre life to devise some excuse to shift of youre attendance at this parliament for god and man hath concurred to punishe the wickedness of this time and think not slightly of this advertisement but retire youre self into youre contri where youe may expect the event in safti for thoughe there be no appearance of any stir yet i saye they shall receive a terrible blowe this parliament and yet they shall not see who hurts them this councel is not to be condemned because it may do youe good and can do youe no harme for the dangere is passed as soon as youe have burnt the letter and i hope god will give youe the grace to maketh good use of it to whose holy protection i commend youe.

Below is the same message, with modernized spelling and punctuation:

My lord, out of the love I bear to some of your friends, I have a care for your preservation. Therefore I would advise you, as you tender your life, to devise some excuse to shift of your attendance at this Parliament, for God and man hath concurred to punish the wickedness of this time. And think not slightly of this advertisement but retire yourself into your country, where you may expect the event in safety, for though there be no appearance of any stir, yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow, the Parliament, and yet they shall not see who hurts them. This counsel is not to be condemned, because it may do you good and can do you no harm, for the danger is past as soon as you have burnt the letter: and I hope God will give you the grace to make good use of it, to whose holy protection I commend you.

Monteagle had the note read aloud, possibly to warn the plotters the secret was out, and promptly handed it over to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, the Secretary of State.[7] The other conspirators learned of the letter the following day, but resolved to go ahead with their plan, especially after Fawkes inspected the undercroft and found that nothing had been touched. ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department (though not all departments are headed by a Secretary of State, e. ...


The tip-off led to a search of the vaults beneath the House of Lords, including the undercroft, during the night of November 4. At midnight on November 5 Thomas Knyvet, a Justice of the Peace, and a party of armed men, discovered Fawkes guarding a pile of faggots, not far from about twenty barrels of gunpowder, posing as "Mr. John Johnson". A watch, slow matches, and touchpaper were found in his possession. Fawkes was arrested. Far from denying his intentions during the arrest, Fawkes stated that it had been his purpose to destroy the King and the Parliament.[8] Later in the morning, before noon, he was again interrogated. He was questioned on the nature of his accomplices, the involvement of Thomas Percy, what letters he had received from overseas, and whether he had spoken with Hugh Owen. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Knyvett (1558-27 July 1622 was the 2nd son of Sir Henry Knyvet of Charlton, Wiltshire and Anne Pickering, daughter of Sir Christopher Pickering of Killington, Westmoreland, Westmoreland. ... A justice of the peace (JP) is a puisne judicial officer appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. ...


He was taken to the Tower of London and there interrogated under torture. Torture was forbidden except by the express instruction of the monarch or the Privy Council. In a letter of November 6, King James I stated: For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...

"The gentler tortours [tortures] are to be first used unto him, et sic per gradus ad maiora tenditur [and thus by steps extended to greater ones], and so God speed your good work."

The discovery of the Gunpowder Plot aroused a wave of national relief at the delivery of the king and his sons and inspired in the ensuing parliament a mood of loyalty and goodwill which Salisbury astutely exploited to extract higher subsidies for the king than any but one granted in Elizabeth's reign.[9] In his speech to both houses on 9 November, James expounded on two emerging preoccupations of his monarchy: the divine right of kings and the Catholic question. He insisted that the plot had been the work of a few Catholics and not of the English Catholics as a whole.[10] And he reminded the assembly to rejoice at his survival, since kings were divinely appointed and he owed his escape to a miracle.[11] The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ...


Trial and executions

On hearing of the failure of the plot, the conspirators fled towards Huddington Court. Heavy rain, however, slowed their travels. Many of them were caught by Richard Walsh, the Sheriff of Worcestershire, when they arrived in Stourbridge. , Stourbridge is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands of England. ...


The remaining men attempted a revolt in the Midlands. This failed, and came to an end at Holbeach House in Staffordshire, where there was a dramatic shoot-out ending with the death of Catesby and capture of several principal conspirators. Jesuits and others were then rounded up in other locations in Britain, with some being killed during interrogation. Robert Wintour managed to remain on the run for two months before he was captured at Hagley Park. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot Holbeach House, a mansion located on the borders of Staffordshire,[1] is known to have been a sanctuary for the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot on 7 November 1605, before they were surrounded by Richard Walsh (the sheriff of Worcester) and his men the... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ...


The conspirators were tried on January 27, 1606 in Westminster Hall. All of the plotters pleaded not guilty except for Sir Everard Digby who attempted to defend himself on the grounds that the King had gone back on promises of Catholic toleration. Sir Edward Coke, the attorney general, prosecuted, and the Earl of Northampton made a speech refuting the charges laid by Everard Digby. The trial lasted one day (English criminal trials generally did not exceed a single day's duration) and the verdict was never in doubt. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke (pronounced cook) (1 February 1552 - 3 September 1634) was an early English colonial entrepreneur and jurist whose writings on the English common law were the definitive legal texts for some 300 years. ... The title of Marquess of Northampton was created in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1812 for the Earl of Northampton. ...

Seventeenth century print of the members of the Gunpowder plot being hanged, drawn and quartered

The trial ranked highly as a public spectacle and there are records of up to 10 shillings being paid for entry. It is even reputed that the King and Queen attended in secret. Four of the plotters were executed in St. Paul's Churchyard on 30 January. On January 31, Fawkes, Winter, and a number of others implicated in the conspiracy were taken to Old Palace Yard in Westminster, in front of the scene of the intended crime, where they were to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ...


Fawkes, though weakened by torture, cheated the executioners. When he was to be hanged until almost dead, he jumped from the gallows, so his neck broke and he died, thus avoiding the gruesome later part of this form of execution. A co-conspirator, Robert Keyes, attempted the same trick, but unfortunately for him the rope broke, so he was drawn fully conscious.


Henry Garnet was executed on 3 May 1606 at St Paul's. His crime was to be the confessor of several members of the Gunpowder Plot, and as noted he had opposed the plot. Many spectators thought that his sentence was too severe. Antonia Fraser writes: Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ...

"With a loud cry of 'hold, hold' they stopped the hangman cutting down the body while Garnet was still alive. Others pulled the priest's legs ... which was traditionally done to ensure a speedy death".[12]

Historical impact

Greater freedom for Catholics to worship as they chose seemed unlikely in 1604 but after the plot in 1605 changing the law to afford Catholics leniency became unthinkable; Catholic Emancipation took another 200 years. Nevertheless, many important and loyal Catholics retained high office in the kingdom during King James's reign. Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ...


Interest in the demonic was heightened by the Gunpowder Plot. The king himself had become engaged in the great debate about other-worldly powers in writing his Daemonology in 1597, before he became King of England as well as Scotland. The apparent devilish nature of the gunpowder plot also partly inspired William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Demonic inversions such as the line fair is foul and foul is fair are frequently seen in the play. Another possible reference made in Macbeth was to equivocation, as Henry Garnett’s A Treatise of Equivocation was found on one of the plotters and a resultant fear that Jesuits could evade the truth through equivocation:[13] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Equivocation, also known as amphibology, is classified as both a formal and informal fallacy. ...

Faith, here's an equivocator, that could
Swear in both the scales against either scale;
Who committed treason enough for God's sake,
Yet could not equivocate to heaven
- Macbeth, Act 2 Scene 3

The Gunpowder Plot was commemorated for years after the plot by special sermons and other public acts such as the ringing of church bells. It added to an increasingly full calendar of Protestant celebrations that contributed to the national and religious life of seventeenth century England.[14] Through various permutations this has evolved into the bonfire night that occurs today.


Historians have considered the possible events that may have followed the successful implementation of the Gunpowder Plot, with the destruction of Parliament and the death of the king. Most have concluded that the violence of the act would have instead resulted in a more severe blacklash towards suspected Catholics. Without the involvement of some form of foreign aid, success would have been unlikely, as most Englishmen were loyal to the institution of the monarchy despite differing religious convictions. England could very well have become a more Puritan absolute monarchy, as existed in Sweden, Denmark, Saxony and Prussia in the seventeenth century, rather than the path of parliamentary and civil reform that occurred. It is, however, difficult to tell what would have emerged out of the resulting chaos, or to know which faction would have come to the fore ultimately. Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...


Commemoration

Bonfires are lit every 5th of November to commemorate the plot
Bonfires are lit every 5th of November to commemorate the plot

The fifth of November is variously called Fireworks Night, Bonfire Night or Guy Fawkes Night. An Act of Parliament (3 James I, cap 1) was passed to appoint 5 November in each year as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance". The Act remained in force until 1859. On 5 November 1605, it is said the populace of London celebrated the defeat of the plot by fires and street festivities. Similar celebrations must have taken place on the anniversary and, over the years, became a tradition — in many places a holiday was observed (it is not celebrated in Northern Ireland). Bonfire File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bonfire File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


It is still the custom in Britain on, or around, the 5th November to let off fireworks. Traditionally, in the weeks running up to the 5th, children would make "guys" — effigies supposedly of Fawkes — usually formed from old clothes stuffed with newspaper, and equipped with a grotesque mask, to be burnt on the November 5 bonfire. These effigies would be exhibited in the street to collect money for fireworks. This practice is, however, becoming increasingly rare. The word 'guy' came thus in the 19th century to mean a weirdly dressed person, and hence in the 20th and 21st centuries to mean any male person. For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up guy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Institutions and towns may hold firework displays and bonfire parties, and the same is done on a smaller scale in back gardens throughout the country. In some areas, particularly in Sussex, there are extensive processions, large bonfires and firework displays organised by local bonfire societies. The most extensive of this kind takes place in Lewes. Members of the Lewes Borough Bonfire Society parade behind their banner wearing blue and white smugglers colours, as part of the torchlit procession on Bonfire Night in Lewes, Sussex. ... This is about Lewes in England. ...


The Houses of Parliament are still searched by the Yeomen of the Guard before the State Opening, which, since 1928, has been held in November. Ostensibly to ensure no latter-day Guy Fawkes is concealed in the cellars, this is retained as a picturesque custom rather than a serious anti-terrorist precaution. It is said that for superstitious reasons no State Opening will be held on 5 November, but this is untrue: for instance, the State Opening was held on 5 November in 1957. Yeomen of the Guard in the procession to the annual service of the Order of the Garter at Windsor Castle Yeomen of the Guard during QEI reign For the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, see The Yeomen of the Guard The Queens Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The cellar in which Fawkes watched over his gunpowder was demolished in 1822. The area was further damaged in the 1834 fire and destroyed in the subsequent rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster. The lantern Guy Fawkes carried in 1605 is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. A key supposed to have been taken from him is in Speaker's House, Palace of Westminster. These two artifacts were exhibited in a major exhibition held in Westminster Hall from July to November 2005. The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons (1835) by J. M. W. Turner. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Ashmolean Museum main entrance. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


According to Esther Forbes, a biographer, the Guy Fawkes Day celebration in the pre-revolution American Colonies, was a very popular holiday. In Boston however, the revelry took on anti-authority overtones and often became so dangerous that many would not venture to leave home.[citation needed]


Conspiracy theories

Many at the time felt that Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury had been involved in the plot to curry favour with the king and enact more stridently anti-Catholic legislation. Such theories alleged that Cecil had either actively invented the plot or allowed it to continue when his agents had already infiltrated it, for the purposes of propaganda. These rumors were the start of a long lasting conspiracy theory about the plot. Yet while there was not the 'golden time' of 'toleration' for Catholics that Father Garnet had hoped for at the start of James' reign, the legislative backlash was not as a result of the plot. It had already happened by 1605, as recusancy fines were re-imposed and some priests expelled. There was no purge of Catholics from power and influence in the kingdom after the gunpowder plot despite puritan complaints. The reign of James I was, in fact, a time of relative leniency for Catholics, few being subject to prosecution.[15] ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... In the history of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with the established Church of England. ...


This did not dissuade some from continuing to claim Cecil's involvement in the plot. Father John Garrett, namesake of a Jesuit priest who had performed Mass to some of the plotters, wrote an account alleging Cecil's culpability in 1897. This prompted a swift refutation a year later by the eminent historian S.R Gardiner who argued that Garrett had gone too far in trying to 'wipe away the reproach' that the plot had exacted upon generations of English Catholics.[16]Gardiner portrayed Cecil as guilty of nothing more than opportunism. Subsequent attempts to prove Cecil's responsibility, such as Francis Edwards's 1969 work, have similarly foundered on the lack of positive proof of any government involvement in setting up the plot.[17]. There has been little support by historians for the conspiracy theory since this time, other than to acknowledge that Cecil may have known about the plot some days before it was uncovered. However with many Internet websites suggesting Cecil's full involvement and postulating a profusion of theories, the idea lives on. It is unlikely either side will ever produce the evidence needed to convince the other of the veracity of their argument.


Modern plot analysis

According to historian Lady Antonia Fraser, the gunpowder was taken to the Tower of London magazine. It would have been reissued or sold for recycling if in good condition. Ordnance records for the Tower state that 18 hundredweight of it was "decayed". This could imply that it was rendered harmless due to having separated into its component chemical parts, as happens with gunpowder when left to sit for too long Рif Fawkes had ignited the gunpowder, during the opening, it would only have resulted in a weak splutter. Alternatively, "decayed" may refer to the powder being damp and sticking together, making it unfit for use in firearms. In this case the explosive capabilities of the barrels would not be greatly affected. Lady Antonia Fraser, n̩e Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Magazine is the name for a item or place within which ammunition is stored. ... Hundred weight or hundredweight is a unit of measurement for mass in both the system of measurement used in the United Kingdom (and previously throughout the British Commonwealth), and in the system used in the United States. ...


A study on an ITV programme presented by Richard Hammond broadcast on 1 November 2005 re-enacted the plot, by blowing up an exact replica of the 17th century House of Lords filled with test dummies, using the exact amount of gunpowder in the underground of the building. The dramatic experiment, conducted on the Advantica Spadeadam test site, proved unambiguously that the explosion would have killed all those attending the State Opening of Parliament in the Lords chamber. Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... Richard Mark Hammond (born December 19, 1969 in Birmingham), nicknamed Hamster, is an English television and radio presenter best known for co-presenting the television programme Top Gear along with James May and Jeremy Clarkson from 2002 onwards, and co-hosting the live annual motoring show, MPH, in Earls Court... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


The power of the explosion, which surprised even gunpowder experts, was such that seven-foot deep solid concrete walls (made deliberately to replicate how archives suggest the walls in the old House of Lords were constructed) were reduced to rubble. Measuring devices placed in the chamber to calculate the force of the blast were themselves destroyed by the blast, while the skull of the dummy representing King James, which had been placed on a throne inside the chamber surrounded by courtiers, peers and bishops, was found a large distance away from the site. According to the findings of the program, no-one within 100 metres of the blast would have survived, while all the stained glass windows in Westminster Abbey would have been shattered, as would all windows within a large distance of the Palace. The power of the explosion would have been seen from miles away. Even if only half the gunpowder had gone off, everyone in the House of Lords and its environs would have been killed instantly. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


The programme also disproved claims that some deterioration in the quality of the gunpowder would have prevented the explosion. A portion of deliberately deteriorated gunpowder, at such a low quality as to make it unusable in firearms, when placed in a heap and detonated, still managed to create a large explosion. The impact of even deteriorated gunpowder would have been magnified by the impact of its compression in wooden barrels, with the compression overcoming any deterioration in the quality of the contents. The compression would have created a cannon effect, with the powder first blowing up from the top of the barrel before, a millisecond later, blowing out. In addition, mathematical calculations showed that Fawkes, who was skilled at the use of gunpowder, had used double the amount of gunpowder needed.


A sample of the gunpowder may have survived. In March 2002, workers investigating archives of John Evelyn at the British Library found a box containing various samples of gunpowder and several notes that suggested they were related to the Gunpowder Plot: John Evelyn. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ...

  1. "Gunpowder 1605 in a paper inscribed by John Evelyn. Powder with which that villain Faux would have blown up the parliament.",
  2. "Gunpowder. Large package is supposed to be Guy Fawkes' gunpowder".
  3. "But there was none left! WEH 1952

References in pop culture

The graphic novel V for Vendetta by Alan Moore and its 2006 film adaptation open with a description of the Gunpowder Plot and contain frequent references to November the 5th. This article is about the comic book series. ... V for Vendetta is a 2006 action-thriller film set in London, England in a near-future dystopian society. ...


Guy Fawkes day was used in an episode of The Avengers. In this episode entitled "November Five" the Avengers investigate the theft of a nuclear warhead. The thief plans to detonate it in the Houses of Parliament (London), on November the fifth. The Avengers is a British 1960s television series featuring secret agents in a fantasy 1960s Britain. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In John Lennon's song, "Remember", the date is referenced in the final line. The last verse is, "No, no, remember, remember the fifth of November," followed by the sound of an explosion. John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... Remember is a 1970 song appearing on John Lennons first official solo album release, John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band. ...


See also

The Popish Plot was an alleged Catholic conspiracy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Antonia Fraser, The Gunpowder Plot, Terror and Faith in 1605, London, 2002, Author's Note, pg. xv. ISBN 0-75381-401-3
  2. ^ Hugh Ross Williamson, The Gunpowder Plot, 1951
  3. ^ including New Zealand, South Africa, much of the independent and dependent British West Indies, the Canadian island of Newfoundland, and formerly Australia
  4. ^ Men. Paris, Left Bank. Geocities.
  5. ^ Houses of Parliament factsheet on event accessed 6 Mar 2007
  6. ^ 1605 in England. Time & Date.
  7. ^ Willson, p 224.
  8. ^ As King James put it, Fawkes intended the destruction "not only...of my person, nor of my wife and posterity also, but of the whole body of the State in general". Stewart, p 219.
  9. ^ Croft, p 64.
  10. ^ James said it did not follow "that all professing that Romish religion were guilty of the same". Quoted by Stewart, p 225.
  11. ^ Willson, p 226.
  12. ^ Antonia Fraser, Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot, Anchor, 1997. ISBN 0-385-47190-4
  13. ^ Frank L. Huntley Macbeth and the Background of Jesuitical Equivocation PMLA, Vol. 79, No. 4. (Sep, 1964), pp. 390–400.
  14. ^ David Cressy, Bonfires and bells : national memory and the Protestant calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (1989).
  15. ^ Peter Marshall, Reformation England 1480–1642, London, 2003, pp. 187–8.
  16. ^ S.R. Gardiner, What Gunpowder Plot Was, London, 1887 p. 1–4.
  17. ^ Francis Edwards, Guy Fawkes: The Real Story of the Gunpowder Plot, London, 1969

Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ...

Bibliography

  • Croft, Pauline (2003). King James. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-61395-3.
  • Stewart, Alan (2003). The Cradle King: A Life of James VI & 1. London: Chatto and Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6984-2.
  • Alan Sutton The Gunpowder Plot: Faith in Rebellion (Hayes and Sutton 1994)
  • Alan Wharam Treason: Famous English Treason Trials (Alan Sutton Publishing 1995)
  • Willson, David Harris ([1956] 1963 ed). King James VI & I. London: Jonathan Cape Ltd. ISBN 0-224-60572-0.
  • Esther Forbes, Paul Revere and the Times He Lived In pg. 89-94 (Houghton Mifflin,1942)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gunpowder Plot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3302 words)
The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening.
The Gunpowder Plot was one of a series of unsuccessful assassination attempts against James I, and followed the Main Plot and Bye Plot of 1603.
The Gunpowder Plot is also the topic of a several songs and ballads—of note, the song "Remember", from John Lennon's album Plastic Ono Band, ends with the phrase "the fifth of November" and an explosion.
Gunpowder Plot - LoveToKnow 1911 (2637 words)
It was aimed at the repeal of the whole Elizabethan legislation against the Roman Catholics and perhaps derived some impulse at first from the leniency lately shown by the administration, afterwards gaining support from the opposite cause, the return of the government to the policy of repression.
The opinion that the whole plot was the work of Salisbury, that he acted as an agent provocateur and lured on his victims to destruction, repeated by some contemporary and later writers and recently formulated and urged with great ability, has no solid foundation.
The success with which the conspirators concealed their plot from Salisbury's spies is indeed astonishing, but is probably explained by its very audacity and by the absence of incriminating correspondence, the medium through which the minister chiefly obtained his knowledge of the plans of his enemies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m