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Encyclopedia > Gunpowder
A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size
A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size

Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. A black powder substitute is a replacement for black powder used in muzzleloading and cartridge firearms. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ... A pyrotechnic composition is a substance or mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas or smoke or a combination of these, as a result of non detonative self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... A propellant is a material that is used to move an object by applying a motive force. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ...


Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its slow decomposition rate and consequently low brisance. Low explosives produce a subsonic deflagration wave rather than the supersonic detonation wave produced by brisants, or high explosives. The gases produced by burning gunpowder generate enough pressure to propel a bullet, but not enough to destroy the barrel of a firearm. This makes gunpowder less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications, where high explosives such as TNT are preferred. A low explosive is a combustible substance that decomposes rapidly (deflagration), but doesnt explode under normal conditions. ... Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an explosive develops its maximum pressure. ... A log in a fire place. ... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ...

Contents

Gunpowder (black powder)

The term "black powder" was coined in the late 19th century to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders. (Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder in terms of chamber pressure when used in firearms, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products; they ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white. Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the 1920's.)[1][2][3] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


Black powder is a granular mixture of

  • a nitrate—typically potassium nitrate (KNO3)—which supplies oxygen for the reaction;
  • charcoal, which provides fuel for the reaction in the form of carbon (C);
  • sulfur (S), which, while also a fuel, lowers the temperature of ignition and increases the speed of combustion.

Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate; promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.[4] To reduce the likelihood of accidental ignition by static electricity, the granules of modern black powder are typically coated with graphite, which prevents the build-up of electrostatic charge. Trinitrate redirects here. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ... For other uses, see Graphite (disambiguation). ...


The current standard composition for black powder manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as 1780. It is 75% potassium nitrate, 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur.[5] These ratios have varied over the centuries, and by country, but can be altered somewhat depending on the purpose of the powder. Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ...


The burn rate of black powder can be changed by corning. Corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density (1.7 g/cm³). The blocks are then broken up into granules. These granules are then sorted by size to give the various grades of black powder. In the USA, standard grades of black powder run from the coarse Fg grade used in large bore rifles and small cannon though FFg (medium and smallbore rifles), FFFg (pistols), and FFFFg (smallbore, short pistols and priming flintlocks). In the United Kingdom, the gunpowder grains are categorised by mesh size: the BSS sieve mesh size, being the smallest mesh size on which no grains were retained. Recognised grain sizes are Gunpowder 'G 7', 'G 20', 'G 40', and 'G 90'. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Flintlock of an 18th Century hunting rifle, with piece of flint missing. ... Sieving or screening is a method of categorizing a powder’s particle size by running the powder through a specific sized screen. ...


A simple, commonly cited, chemical equation for the combustion of black powder is A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ...

2 KNO3 + S + 3 CK2S + N2 + 3 CO2.

A more accurate, but still simplified, equation is[6] R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Potassium sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula K2S. It is an inorganic polymer with the so-called antifluorite structure, which means that the small K+ ions occupy the tetrahedral (F-) site in fluorite, and the large S2- centers occupy the eight-coordinate (Ca2+) sites. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

10 KNO3 + 3 S + 8 C → 2 K2CO3 + 3 K2SO4 + 6 CO2 + 5 N2.

The products of burning do not follow any simple equation. One study's results showed that it produced (in order of descending quantities): 55.91% solid products: potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, potassium sulfide, sulfur, potassium nitrate, potassium thiocyanate, carbon, ammonium carbonate. 42.98% gaseous products: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, methane, 1.11% water. R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (also known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ...


Black powder formulations where the nitrate used is sodium nitrate tend to be hygroscopic, unlike black powders where the nitrate used is saltpetre. Because of this, black powder which uses saltpetre can be stored unsealed and remain viable for centuries provided no liquid water is ever introduced; muzzleloaders have been known to fire after hanging on a wall for decades in a loaded state, provided they remained dry. By contrast, powder that uses sodium nitrate, which is typically intended for blasting, must be sealed from moisture in the air to remain stable for long times. A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A US soldier drops a shell into the muzzle of an M224 60-mm mortar. ...


Advantages

Smokeless powder requires precise loading of the charge to prevent damage due to overloading. With black powder, though such damage is still possible, loading can generally be carried out using volumetric measures rather than precise weight.


Generally, high explosives are preferred for shattering rock; however, because of its low brisance, black powder causes fewer fractures and results in more usable stone compared to other explosives, making black powder useful for blasting monumental stone such as granite and marble. Brisance is a measure of the rapidity with which an explosive develops its maximum pressure. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ...


Black powder is well suited for blank rounds, signal flares, burst charges, and rescue-line launches. Blank cartridges, as used in nail guns Yugoslavian 7. ... A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ... In fireworks, a burst charge is an amount of energetic pyrotechnic mixture placed in a shell which is ignited when the shell reaches the desired height in order to pass fire to and spread the stars. ...


Gunpowder can be used to make fireworks by mixing with chemical compounds that produce the desired color. Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ...


Disadvantages

Black powder has relatively low energy density compared to modern smokeless powders and produces a thick smoke that can impair aiming or reveal a shooter's position. Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass, depending on the context. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Combustion converts less than half the mass of black powder to gas; the rest ends up as a thick layer of soot inside the barrel. In addition to being a nuisance, the residue from burnt black powder is hygroscopic and an anhydrous caustic substance. When moisture from the air is absorbed, the potassium oxide or sodium oxide turns into hydroxide, which will corrode wrought iron or steel gun barrels. Black powder arms must be well cleaned both inside and out to remove the residue. Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Look up caustic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Potassium oxide is a compound of potassium and oxygen used mainly as a intermediate in inorganic synthesis. ... Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Transportation

The UN Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods and national transportation authorities, such as United States Department of Transportation, have classified Gunpowder (black powder) as a Group A: Primary explosive substance for shipment because it ignites so easily. Complete manufactured devices containing black powder are usually classified as Group D: Secondary detonating substance, or black powder, or article containing secondary detonating substance, such as "Firework", "Class D Model Rocket Engine", etc, for shipment because they are harder to ignite than loose powder. As explosives, they all fall into the category of Class 1. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... A dangerous good is any solid, liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. ...


Sulfur-free gunpowder

The development of smokeless powders, such as Cordite, in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge, such as gunpowder. However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes.[7] They typically contain 70.5 parts of saltpetre and 29.5 parts of charcoal.[7] Like black powder, they were produced in different grain sizes. In United Kingdom, the finest grain was known as sulfur-free mealed powder (SMP). Coarser grains were numbered as sulfur-free gunpowder (SFG n): 'SFG 12', 'SFG 20', 'SFG 40' and 'SFG 90', for example, where the number was a BSS sieve mesh size, being the smallest mesh size on which no grains were retained. Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... Class B blasting caps A blasting cap is a small explosive device generally used to detonate a larger, more powerful explosive such as dynamite. ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... Sieving or screening is a method of categorizing a powder’s particle size by running the powder through a specific sized screen. ...


History

Main article: History of gunpowder

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Chinese Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD. Gunpowder was the first and only known chemical explosive until the invention of others—nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder and TNT—in the 19th century. ...

Origin

As Norman Gardner Johnson reports in Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 2008:[8]

It may never be known with certainty who invented the first explosive, black powder, which is a mixture of saltpetre (potassium nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal (carbon). The consensus is that it originated in China in the 10th century, but that its use there was almost exclusively in fireworks and signals. It is possible that the Chinese also used black powder in bombs for military purposes, and there is written record that in the mid-13th century they put it in bamboo tubes to propel stone projectiles. Saltpeter is variously: potassium nitrate (niter); or sodium nitrate (soda niter) ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Fourth of July fireworks in San Diego, California New Years Day fireworks at Seaport Village, California Preparing fireworks at Sayn Castle 4th of July fireworks in Portland, Oregon Fireworks at Epcot Center, Florida, USA. See the Video. ...

There is, however, some evidence that the Arabs invented black powder. By about 1300, certainly, they had developed the first real gun, a bamboo tube reinforced with iron, which used a charge of black powder to fire an arrow. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ...

A strong case can also be made that black powder was discovered by the English medieval scholar Roger Bacon, who wrote explicit instructions for its preparation in 1242, in the strange form of a Latin anagram, difficult to decipher. But Bacon read Arabic, and it is possible that he got his knowledge from Arabic sources. For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...

China

A Mongol bomb thrown against a charging Japanese samurai during the Mongol invasions of Japan, 1281.
A Mongol bomb thrown against a charging Japanese samurai during the Mongol invasions of Japan, 1281.

Most sources credit the discovery of gunpowder to Chinese alchemists in the 9th century searching for an elixir of immortality.[9] The discovery of gunpowder was probably the product of centuries of alchemical experimentation.[10] Saltpetre was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpetre and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations.[11] A Chinese alchemical text from 492 noted that saltpeter gave off a purple flame when ignited, providing for the first time a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, making it possible to evaluate and compare purification techniques.[10] By most accounts, the earliest Arabic and Latin descriptions of the purification of saltpeter do not appear until the 1200s.[10][12] Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Events Pope Gelasius I succeeds Pope Felix III Longinus, brother of the deceased Eastern Roman emperor Zeno I, revolts against Anastasius I in Isauria. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


The first reference to gunpowder is probably a passage in the Zhenyuan miaodao yaolüe, a Taoism text tentatively dated to the mid-800s:[10] For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...

Some have heated together sulfur, realgar and saltpeter with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down.[13] This article is about the chemical element. ... Orpiment and Realgar Realgar is an arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: As4S4. ... R-phrases   S-phrases   Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...

Contrary to popular belief, the Chinese did not use gunpowder only for fireworks. In fact, the earliest surviving recipes for gunpowder can be found in the Chinese military treatise Wujing zongyao[10] of 1044 AD, which contains three: two for use in incendiary bombs to be thrown by siege engines and one intended as fuel for poison smoke bombs.[14] The formulas in the Wujing zongyao range from 27 to 50 percent nitrate.[15] Experimenting with different levels of saltpetre content eventually produced bombs, grenades, and land mines, in addition to giving fire arrows a new lease on life.[10] By the end of the 12th century, there were cast iron grenades filled with gunpowder formulations capable of bursting through their metal containers.[16] The 14th century Huolongjing contains gunpowder recipes with nitrate levels ranging from 12 to 91 percent, six of which approach the theoretical composition for maximal explosive force.[15] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... The Matchlock was the first mechanism or lock invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm. ... A Chinese Song Dynasty naval river ship with a Xuanfeng traction-trebuchet catapult on its top deck, taken from an illustration of the Wujing Zongyao. ... Events King Anawrahta seizes the throne of Pagan, Myanmar Births Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, known as The Cid (d. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... Home made smoke powder burning Smoke bombs are a firework designed to produce colored smoke upon ignition. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A hand grenade is a hand-held bomb, made to be thrown by a soldier. ... Ming Dynasty musketeers in drill formation. ...


In China, the 13th century saw the beginnings of rocketry[17][18] and the manufacture of the oldest gun still in existence,[10][19] a descendant of the earlier fire-lance, a gunpowder-fueled flamethrower that could shoot shrapnel along with fire. The Huolongjing text of the 14th century also describes hollow, gunpowder-packed exploding cannonballs.[20] A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ... The fire lance (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: huǒ qiāng) or fire spear is one of the first gunpowder weapons in the world. ... Riverboat of the U.S. Brownwater Navy shooting ignited napalm from its mounted flamethrower during the Vietnam war. ... Different types of cannon balls recovered from the Vasa, sunk in 1628 Round shot is a type of projectile fired from guns or cannons. ...


Islamic world

Main article: Inventions in the Islamic world
Further information: Alchemy (Islam) and Great Turkish Bombard
The Great Turkish Bombard, a very heavy bronze muzzle-loading cannon of type used by Turks in the siege of Constantinople, 1453 AD, showing ornate decoration.
The Great Turkish Bombard, a very heavy bronze muzzle-loading cannon of type used by Turks in the siege of Constantinople, 1453 AD, showing ornate decoration.

Between the 11th and 13th centuries, contemporary documentation shows gunpowder beginning to spread from China to the rest of the world, beginning with the Islamic world[21] and then medieval Europe.[12] Arabic chemists and engineers acquired knowledge of saltpetre—which they called "Chinese snow" (thalj al-Sīn)—and, soon afterward, of gunpowder; they also learned of fireworks ("Chinese flowers") and rockets ("Chinese arrows").[22][21] The Arabs were purifying saltpetre by the 11th century, and the earliest complete purification process was described by Hasan al-Rammah in 1270, who used potassium carbonate to remove calcium and magnesium salts from the saltpetre.[23] Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 442 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 474 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/png) Dardanelles Gun. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 442 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 474 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/png) Dardanelles Gun. ... The Great Turkish Bombard is a siege gun dating from soon after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun (open end of the gun barrel). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Flash point Not flammable Related Compounds Other cations Lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, caesium carbonate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


Hasan al-Rammah, in The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, also described the earliest known recipes for an explosive gunpowder effect, some of which were almost identical to the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder used in modern times (75% saltpetre (KNO3), 10% sulfur, 15% carbon), such as the tayyar "rocket" (75 parts saltpetre, 8 sulfur, and 15 carbon, by weight) and the tayyar buruq "lightning rocket" (74 parts saltpetre, 10 sulfur, 15 carbon). He states in his book that many of these recipes were known to his father and grandfather, hence dating back to at least the late 12th century. The earliest known military applications of these explosive gunpowder compositions were the explosive hand cannons first used by the Egyptians to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. There were four different gunpowder compositions used for the cannons at the battle, with the most explosive cannon having a gunpowder composition (74% saltpetre, 11% sulfur, 15% carbon) again almost identical to the ideal composition for explosive gunpowder.[24][25] This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Baibars C * Kitbuqa + Strength About 20,000-30,000 About 10,000-20,000 The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the...


India

A 17th century forge-welded iron cannon, at Thanjavur's eastern entrance (India).
A 17th century forge-welded iron cannon, at Thanjavur's eastern entrance (India).

Incendiary mixtures, inflammable explosives and toxic smoke were known in ancient India, and were mentioned in early foreign accounts as well as Indian sources, including the Athashastra.[26] However, no clear cut evidence of black powder usage has been recovered from ancient Indian texts.[26] Chase 2003 puts the arrival of gunpowder in India by the mid-1300s, but also notes that it could have been introduced by the Mongols perhaps as early as the mid-1200s.[27] Image File history File links RajaGopalaCannon. ... Image File history File links RajaGopalaCannon. ... , Tanjore redirects here. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BCE. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


It was written in the Tarikh-i Firishta (1606-1607) that the envoy of the Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan was presented with a dazzling pyrotechnics display upon his arrival in Delhi in 1258 AD.[28] Firearms known as top-o-tufak also existed in the Vijayanagara Empire of India by as early as 1366 AD.[28] From then on the employment of gunpowder warfare in India was prevalent, with events such as the siege of Belgaum in 1473 AD by the Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani.[29] Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, and Hulegu) (1217–8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Pyrotechnics is a field of study often thought synonymous with the manufacture of fireworks, but more accurately it has a wider scope that includes items for military and industrial uses. ... , For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... , Belgaum (proposed to be renamed Belagaavi) (Kannada: ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ, Marathi: बेळगांव;  ), also known as Belgaon, is a city and a municipal corporation in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka, India. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ...


By the 16th century, Indians were manufacturing a diverse variety of firearms; large guns in particular, became visible in Tanjore, Dacca, Bijapur and Murshidabad.[30] Guns made of bronze were recovered from Calicut (1504) and Diu (1533).[31] Gujarāt supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century.[32] Bengal and Mālwa participated in saltpeter production.[32] The Dutch, French, Portuguese, and English used Chāpra as a center of saltpeter refining.[33] Thanjavur, also known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Sadarghat, one of the main ports of Dhaka Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা), population 9,000,022 (2001), is the capital of Bangladesh. ... Bijapur (Kannada: ವಿಜಾಪುರ) is a district headquarters of the Bijapur district in the state of Karnataka. ... Murshidabad is a city in West Bengal, India as well as a district in the state. ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... Diu is a city in Diu district in the state of Daman & Diu, India. ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , Hindi: ,, IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath). ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... It has been suggested that Chhapra be merged into this article or section. ...


War rockets, mines and counter mines using gunpowder were used in India by the time of Akbar and Jahangir.[34] Both Hyder Ali, and his son, Tippu Sultan used black powder technology in war rockets with considerable effect against the British.[35] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... n ... Hyder Ali or Haidar Ali (c. ... Sultan Fateh Ali Tipu, also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ...


Europe

The earliest extant written references to gunpowder in Europe are from the works of Roger Bacon. In Bacon's Epistola, "De Secretis Operibus Artis et Naturae et de Nullitate Magiae," dated variously between 1248[36] and 1257[37], he states:[36]

We can, with saltpeter and other substances, compose artificially a fire that can be launched over long distances... By only using a very small quantity of this material much light can be created accompanied by a horrible fracas. It is possible with it to destroy a town or an army ... In order to produce this artificial lightning and thunder it is necessary to take saltpeter, sulfur, and Luru Vopo Vir Can Utriet.

Cannons forged in 1667 AD at the Fortín de La Galera, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela.
Cannons forged in 1667 AD at the Fortín de La Galera, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela.

The last part has been interpreted as an elaborate coded anagram for the quantities needed, but it may also be simply a garbled transcription of an illegible passage.[38] [39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1044x767, 943 KB) Fortín de La Galera, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Isla Margarita Juan Griego Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1044x767, 943 KB) Fortín de La Galera, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Isla Margarita Juan Griego Metadata This file contains additional information... Nueva Esparta State Anthem Motto: none Location within Venezuela Created (given current status) 1909 State capital La Asunción Area    â€¢% 1,150 km² 0,12   (Ranked 23rd) Population    â€¢% 436,900 hab. ...


In the Opus Maior of 1267, Bacon describes firecrackers:[38] For other uses, see Firecracker (disambiguation). ...

a child’s toy of sound and fire made in various parts of the world with powder of saltpeter, sulfur and charcoal of hazelwood.[40]

The Liber Ignium, or Book of Fires, attributed to Marcus Graecus, is a collection of incendiary recipes, including some gunpowder recipes. Partington dates the gunpowder recipes to approximately 1300.[41] One recipe for "flying fire" (ingis volatilis) involves saltpeter, sulfur, and colophonium, which, when inserted into a reed or hollow wood, "flies away suddenly and burns up everything." Another recipe, for artificial "thunder", specifies a mixture of one pound native sulfur, two pounds linden or willow charcoal, and six pounds of saltpeter.[42] Another specifies a 1:3:9 ratio.[42] Rosin is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vapourise the volatile liquid terpene components. ...


Some of the gunpowder recipes in the De Mirabilibus Mundi of Albertus Magnus are identical to the recipes of the Liber Ignium, and according to Partington, "may have been taken from that work, rather than conversely."[43] Partington suggests that some of the book may have been compiled by Albert's students, "but since it is found in thirteenth century manuscripts, it may well be by Albert."[43] Albertus Magnus died in 1280 AD. Albertus Magnus (b. ...


Shot and gunpowder for military purposes were made by skilled military tradesmen, who later were called firemakers, and who also were required to make fireworks for celebrations of victory or peace. During the Renaissance, two European schools of pyrotechnic thought emerged, one in Italy and the other at Nürnberg, Germany. The Italian school of pyrotechnics emphasized elaborate fireworks, and the German school stressed scientific advancement. Both schools added significantly to further development of pyrotechnics, and by the mid-17th century fireworks were used for entertainment on an unprecedented scale in Europe, being popular even at resorts and public gardens.[44] This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


By 1788, as a result of the reforms for which Lavoisier was mainly responsible, France had become self-sufficient in saltpeter, and its gunpowder had become both the best in Europe and inexpensive.[45] Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 - May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ...


The introduction of smokeless powder in the late 19th century led to a contraction of the gunpowder industry. Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ...


Britain

Gunpowder production in the British Isles appears to have started in the mid 13th century with the aim of supplying The Crown.[46] Records show that gunpowder was being made, in England, in 1346, at the Tower of London; a powder house existed at the Tower in 1461; and in 1515 three King's gunpowder makers worked there.[46] Gunpowder was also being made or stored at other Royal castles, such as Portchester Castle and Edinburgh castle. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Portchester Castle (Latin name: Portus Adurni) is a Roman Channel Fort, considered by many as one of the finest Roman fortifications remaining in Europe. ... The castle dominates the Edinburgh skyline as seen here from Princes Street Gardens Edinburgh Castle is an ancient fortress which, from its position atop Castle Rock, dominates the sky-line of the city of Edinburgh, and is Scotlands second most visited tourist attraction, after the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and...

The old Powder or Pouther magazine dating from 1642, built by order of James VI. Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland.
The old Powder or Pouther magazine dating from 1642, built by order of James VI. Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland.

By the early fourteenth century, according to N.J.G. Pounds's study The Medieval Castle in England and Wales, many English castles had been deserted and others were crumbling. Their military significance faded except on the borders. Gunpowder made smaller castles useless.[47] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 1. ... Irvine is a coastal new town in Ayrshire, Scotland, administered by North Ayrshire council. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Henry VIII was short of gunpowder when he invaded France in 1544 and England needed to import gunpowder via the port of Antwerp.[46] Henry VIII redirects here. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


The English Civil War, 1642-1645, led to an expansion of the gunpowder industry, with the repeal of the Royal Patent in August 1641.[46] For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ...


The Home Office removed gunpowder from its list of Permitted Explosives; shortly afterwards, on 31 December 1931, Curtis & Harvey's Glynneath gunpowder factory at Pontneddfechan, in Wales, closed down, and it was demolished by fire in 1932.[48] The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glynneath (alternatively Glyn-Neath, Welsh: Glyn-nedd), is a small town in the county borough of Neath Port Talbot, traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, lying on the River Neath. ... Pontneddfechan(meaning bridge over the lesser river neath) is a village in South Wales in the valley of the River Neath. ... This article is about the country. ...


The last remaining gunpowder mill at the Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham Abbey was damaged by a German parachute mine in 1941 and it never reopened.[7] This was followed by the closure of the gunpowder section at the Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Chorley, the section was closed and demolished at the end of World War II; and ICI Nobel's Roslin gunpowder factory which closed in 1954.[7][49] Image:NapoleonicBattle. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... Royal Ordnance Factories (ROFs) was the collective name of the UK governments munitions factories in and after World War II. Until privatisation in 1987 they were the responsibility of the Ministry of Supply and later the Ministry of Defence. ... ROF Chorley was a UK government-owned, Royal Ordnance Factory. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nobel Enterprises is a chemicals business based at Ardeer, near to near Stevenston in Scotland. ... Roslin Roslin (sometimes spelt Rosslyn or Roslyn) is a village in Midlothian, Scotland, to the south of the Scottish capital city Edinburgh. ...


This left the sole United Kingdom gunpowder factory at ICI Nobel's Ardeer site in Scotland; it too closed in October 1976.[7] Since then gunpowder has been imported into the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s / early 1980s gunpowder was bought from eastern Europe; particularly from what were then, East Germany and the former Yugoslavia. This article is about the country. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


United States

Prior to the American Revolutionary War very little gunpowder was made in the United States; and, as a British Colony, most was imported from Britain.[50] In October 1777 the British Parliament banned the importation of gunpowder into America.[50] Gunpowder, however, was secretly obtained from France and the Netherlands.[50] This article is about military actions only. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ...


The first domestic supplies of gunpowder were made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.[50] The company was founded in 1802 by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, two years after he and his family left France to escape the French Revolution.[51] They set up a gunpowder mill, the Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine at Wilmington, Delaware based on gunpowder machinery bought from France and site plans for a gunpowder mill supplied by the French Government.[51] Starting, initially, by reworking damaged gunpowder and refining saltpetre for the US Government they quickly moved into gunpowder manufacture.[51] E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (NYSE: DD) was founded in July 1802 as a gun powder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont on Brandywine Creek, near Wilmington, Delaware. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Eleutherian Millswas a gunpowder mill site significant for the manufacture of explosives by the du Pont family business, from 1802 on. ... Brandywine Creek (also called the Brandywine River) is a tributary of the Christina River, approximately 20 mi (32 km) long, in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. ... : Chemical Capital of the World , Corporate Capital of the World , Credit Card Capital of the World : A Place to Be Somebody United States Delaware New Castle 17. ...


In the United States, saltpetre was worked in the "nitre caves" of Kentucky at the beginning of the 19th century.[52]. Tourists at Mammoth Cave, KY to this day are shown the vast deposits of bat guano, as well as the historic machinery use in its extraction and conversion to usable saltpetre for gunpowder from Revolutionary times right up to World War I. Mammoth Cave National Park is a U.S. National Park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


Manufacturing technology

Edge-runner mill in a restored mill, at Eleutherian Mills
Edge-runner mill in a restored mill, at Eleutherian Mills

For the most powerful black powder "meal" a wood charcoal is used. The best wood for the purpose is pacific willow, but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Eleutherian Millswas a gunpowder mill site significant for the manufacture of explosives by the du Pont family business, from 1802 on. ... Meal powder is the fine dust left over when black powder is corned and screened to separate it into different grain sizes. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... Species See text The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as distinct) of about 100 species of shrubs or small trees from 1-10 m tall (rarely to 15 m), in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. ...


The ingredients are mixed as thoroughly as possible. This is achieved using a ball mill with non-sparking grinding apparatus (e.g., bronze or lead), or similar device. Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century this had changed to either an iron shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed.[5] The mix is sometimes dampened with alcohol or water during grinding to prevent accidental ignition. A ball mill, a type of crusher, is a cylindrical device used to grind (or mix) materials like ores, chemicals, ceramics and paints. ... This article is about the metal alloy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Around the late 14th century, European powdermakers began adding liquid to the constituents of gunpowder to reduce dust and with it the risk of explosion.[53] The powdermakers would then shape the resulting paste of moistened gunpowder, known as mill cake, into "corns", or granules, to dry. Not only did "corned" powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns. Before long, powdermakers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand.


During the 18th century gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy.[54]


Other uses

Besides its habitual use as an explosive, gunpowder has been occasionally employed for other purposes, After the battle of Aspern-Essling (1809), the surgeon of the Napoleonic Army Larrey combated the lack of food for the wounded under his care by preparing a bouillon of horse meat seasoned with gunpowder for lack of salt[55][56]. Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Archduke Charles Strength 90,000 95,000 Casualties 21,000 23,400 The strategic situation and the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22, 1809. ... Dominique Jean Larrey, portrait by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Relief map displayed in the city. ... Musculature of horse Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse. ...


See also

For other uses, see Ballistics (disambiguation). ... Ballincollig Royal Gunpowder Mills was one of three Royal gunpowder mills that manufactured gunpowder for the British Government. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... A gunpowder magazine is a magazine (building) designed to store the explosive gunpowder in wooden barrels for safety. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Chinese Wujing Zongyao of 1044 AD. Gunpowder was the first and only known chemical explosive until the invention of others—nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, smokeless powder and TNT—in the 19th century. ... Smokeless powder Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of gunpowder-like propellants used in firearms which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older black powder which it replaced. ... Jiaozi, the worlds first paper-printed currency, an innovation of the Song Dynasty. ... Image:NapoleonicBattle. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The History of the 10.4x38 Swiss Cartridge
  2. ^ Blackpowder to Pyrodex and Beyond by Randy Wakeman at Chuck Hawks
  3. ^ The History and Art of Shotshells by Jon Farrar, Nebraskaland Magazine
  4. ^ Buchanan. "Editor's Introduction: Setting the Context", in Buchanan 2006, p. 4.
  5. ^ a b Earl 1978, Chapter 2: The Development of Gunpowder
  6. ^ Flash! Bang! Whiz!, University of Denver
  7. ^ a b c d e Cocroft 2000, "The demise of gunpowder". Chapter 4
  8. ^ Johnson 2008
  9. ^ Bhattacharya (in Buchanan 2006, p. 42) acknowledges that "most sources credit the Chinese with the discovery of gunpowder" though he himself disagrees.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Chase 2003:31–32
  11. ^ Buchanan. "Editor's Introduction: Setting the Context", in Buchanan 2006.
  12. ^ a b Kelly 2004:23–25
  13. ^ Kelly 2004:4
  14. ^ Kelly 2004:10
  15. ^ a b Needham 1986:345–346
  16. ^ Needham 1986:347
  17. ^ Crosby 2002:100–103
  18. ^ Needham 1986:12
  19. ^ Needham 1986:293–294
  20. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 264.
  21. ^ a b Urbanski 1967, Chapter III: Blackpowder
  22. ^ Needham 1986:108
  23. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  24. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  25. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  26. ^ a b Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 209-210
  27. ^ Chase 2003:130
  28. ^ a b Khan 2004:9-10
  29. ^ Khan 2004:10
  30. ^ Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 225
  31. ^ Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 226
  32. ^ a b "India." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  33. ^ "Chāpra." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  34. ^ Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 226
  35. ^ "rocket and missile system." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  36. ^ a b "Gunpowder", Encyclopedia Britannica, London, 1771 . "frier Bacon, our countryman, mentions the compofition in exprefs terms, in his treatife De nullitate magiæ, publifhed at Oxford, in the year 1248."
  37. ^ Partington 1960:70-71
  38. ^ a b Partington 1960:74
  39. ^ Cocroft 2000:1 A picture of this handwritten paragraph, taken from the Sloan MSS, held in the British Library is given on page one of Cocroft (2000)
  40. ^ Kelly 2004:25
  41. ^ Partington 1960:60
  42. ^ a b Partington 1960:48-49, 54
  43. ^ a b Partington 1960:82–83
  44. ^ "Fireworks," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 © 1997-2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  45. ^ Metzner, Paul (1998), Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution, University of California Press 
  46. ^ a b c d Cocroft 2000, "Success to the Black Art!". Chapter 1
  47. ^ Ross, Charles. The Custom of the Castle: From Malory to Macbeth. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1997. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft3r29n8qn/ pp. 131-130.
  48. ^ Pritchard, Tom; Evans, Jack & Johnson, Sydney (1985), The Old Gunpowder Factory at Glynneath, Merthyr Tydfil: Merthyr Tydfil & District Naturalists' Society 
  49. ^ MacDougall, Ian (2000), "Oh! Ye had to be Careful": Personal Recollections by Roslin Gunpowder Mill Factory Workers, East Linton: Tuckwell Press, ISBN 1-86232-126-4 
  50. ^ a b c d Brown 1998
  51. ^ a b c du Pont, B.G. (1920), E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company: A History 1802 to 1902, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 1-4179-1685-0 
  52. ^ Calvert, J. B.. Cannons and Gunpowder.
  53. ^ Kelly 2004:60–63
  54. ^ Frangsmyr, Tore, J. L. Heilbron, and Robin E. Rider, editors The Quantifying Spirit in the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft6d5nb455/ p. 292.
  55. ^ Parker, Harold T. (1983 reprint) Three Napoleonic Battles. (2nd Ed). Duke University Press. ISBN 0-82230547-X. Page 83 (in Google Books). Quoting Dominique-Jean Larrey, Mémoires de chirurgie militaire et campagnes, III 281, Paris, Smith.
  56. ^ Larrey is quoted in French at Dr Béraud, Études Hygiéniques de la chair de cheval comme aliment, Musée des Familles (1841-42).

A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... Duke University Press is a book publisher and a part of Duke University. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... Dominique Jean Larrey, portrait by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ...

References

  • Brown, G. I. (1998), The Big Bang: A History of Explosives, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-1878-0 .
  • Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A Technological History, Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 0754652599 .
  • Chase, Kenneth (2003), Firearms: A Global History to 1700, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521822742 .
  • Cocroft, Wayne (2000), Dangerous Energy: The archaeology of gunpowder and military explosives manufacture, Swindon: English Heritage, ISBN 1-85074-718-0 .
  • Crosby, Alfred W. (2002), Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521791588 .
  • Earl, Brian (1978), Cornish Explosives, Cornwall: The Trevithick Society, ISBN 0-904040-13-5 .
  • Kelly, Jack (2004), Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, & Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, Basic Books, ISBN 0465037186 .
  • Khan, Iqtidar Ali (1996), "Coming of Gunpowder to the Islamic World and North India: Spotlight on the Role of the Mongols", Journal of Asian History 30: 41–5 .
  • Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2004), Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India, Oxford University Press .
  • Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, vol. V:7: The Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521303583 .
  • Norris, John (2003), Early Gunpowder Artillery: 1300-1600, Marlborough: The Crowood Press .
  • Partington, J.R. (1960), A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder, Cambridge, UK: W. Heffer & Sons .
  • Urbanski, Tadeusz (1967), Chemistry and Technology of Explosives, vol. III, New York: Pergamon Press .
  • Partington, James Riddick; Hall, Bert S. (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5954-9. 
  • Johnson, Norman Gardner (2008), "History of black powder" in "explosive", Encyclopædia Britannica.

Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (December 9, 1900 – March 24, 1995) was a British biochemist and pre-eminent authority on the history of Chinese science. ... James Riddick Partington (June 20, 1886 - 1965) was a British chemist and historian of chemistry. ...

External links

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Look up gunpowder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gunpowder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1101 words)
Gunpowder, whether fl powder or smokeless powder, is a substance that burns very rapidly, releasing gases that act as a propellant in firearms.
Gunpowder spread to the Arabs in the 13th century.
In Europe, the first written reference to gunpowder was set down by Roger Bacon in the works he prepared for Pope Clement IV around 1267: "a child’s toy of sound and fire made in various parts of the world with powder of saltpeter, sulphur and charcoal of hazelwood.
Gunpowder warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3456 words)
Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive.
The understanding of "gunpowder warfare", expressed here, comes from the works of Michael Roberts who argued that a military revolution occurred in the sixteenth century that forever changed warfare, and society in general.
Gunpowder, explosive weapons had been used in China centuries before cannon appeared in Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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