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Encyclopedia > Gunnar Myrdal

Gunnar Myrdal (December 6, 1898May 17, 1987) was a Swedish economist and politician. He was born in Gagnef, Dalarna, and died in Danderyd, close to Stockholm. He graduated from Stockholm University Law School in 1923 and received a doctorate degree in Economics in 1927. He married Alva Myrdal in 1924, and they had three children including Jan Myrdal and Sissela Bok. He, along with Friedrich von Hayek, won the 1974 Nobel Prize for Economics for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena. [1] December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gagnef is a Municipality in Dalarna County, in central Sweden. ...   is a historical province or landskap in central Sweden. ... Djursholm Chapel Danderyd is a Municipality in Stockholm County, in central Sweden. ...   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... Alva Reimer Myrdal (January 31, 1902 – February 1, 1986) received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Jan Myrdal (born July 19, 1927) Swedish author, political writer and wine columnist. ... Sissela Bok, philosopher and ethicist, was born in Sweden the daughter of two Nobel Prize winners: Gunnar Myrdal who won the Economics prize with Friedrich Hayek in 1974 and her mother, Alva Myrdal who won the Novel Peace Prize in 1982. ... Friedrich von Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist and collectivist thought in the mid... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physiology or Medicine and Economics. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


Gunnar Myrdal himself is known for his 1944 study, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, which influenced the US Supreme Court 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education outlawing racial segregation in public schools. Myrdal was also a signatory of the 1950 UNESCO statement The Race Question, which also influenced Brown v. Board. Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Race Question is a UNESCO statement issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II. Signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of psychology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology, it questioned the foundations of scientific racist theories which had became very popular at...

Contents

Career

In Gunnar Myrdal's juris doctor degree in Economics, published in 1927, he examined the role of expectations in price formation. His analysis strongly influenced the Stockholm school, a school that developed Keynesian economics before Keynes. The Stockholm School, or Stockholmsskolan, is a school of economic thought. ... John Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes [ˈkeɪns], 1st Baron Keynes of Tilton (June 5, 1883 - April 21, 1946) was an English economist, whose radical ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political thought. ...


He was professor of economics at the Stockholm School of Economics from 1933 to 1947 and simultaneously a Social Democratic member of parliament. He became minister of trade from 1945 to 1947. For the next 10 years he was executive secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe after which Asia and third world poverty commanded his attention for a while. His research about Asia and the causes of poverty resulted in his influential study "Asian Drama: An inquiry into the Poverty of Nations" (1968). Between 1960 and 1967 he was professor of international economics at Stockholm University. He shared the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (otherwise known as the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics) with Friedrich Hayek in 1974, but argued for its abolition because it had been given to economic liberals such as Hayek and Milton Friedman.[1] The Stockholm School of Economics or Handelshögskolan is a business school and private university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE or ECE) was established in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Stockholm University (Stockholms universitet) is a state university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Swe. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Classical liberalism (also called laissez-faire liberalism[1]) is a term used: to label the philosophy developed by early liberals from the Age of Enlightenment until John Stuart Mill [2] to label the revived economic liberalism of the 20th century, seen in work by Friedrich Hayek[3] and Milton Friedman. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was a prominent American economist and public intellectual. ...


Myrdal is perhaps even more famous for his influential and landmark book "An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy", originally published in 1944 and commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation. The "American dilemma" is between high ideals on the one hand and poor performance on the other: in the two generations or more since the Civil War, the U.S. had not been able to put its human rights ideals into practice for the black (or Negro) tenth of its population. This comprehensive study of sociological (including economics), anthropological and legal data on black-white race relations in the U.S. was begun in 1938, after Myrdal was selected by the Carnegie corporation to direct the study. It should be noted here that Myrdal planned on doing a similar study on the question of gender instead of race; however, he could not find the funding for this project so he never completed it. The Carnegie Foundation (Carnegie Stichting in Dutch) is a organization based in The Hague, The Netherlands. ...


Myrdal published many other notable works, both before and after this most notable work and, among many other contributions to social and public policy, founded and chaired the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Internationally revered as a father-figure of social policy, he contributed to social democratic thinking throughout the world, in collaboration with friends and colleagues in the political and academic arenas. Sweden and Britain were among the pioneers of a welfare state and books by Myrdal (Beyond the Welfare State - New Haven, 1958) and Richard Titmuss (Essays on “The Welfare State” - London, 1958) unsurprisingly explore similar themes. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was founded in 1966 to commemorate 150 years of unbroken peace in Sweden. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Richard Titmuss was a pioneering social researcher and teacher who founded the academic discipline of Social Administration and held the founding chair in the subject at the LSE. His books and articles helped to define the characteristics of Britains post WWII welfare state and of a caring welfare society. ...


See also

The Stockholm School of Economics or Handelshögskolan is a business school and private university in Stockholm, Sweden. ...

Publications

  • The Equality Issue in World Development - The American Economic Review, vol 79, no 6, Dec 1989
  • Fiscal Policy in the Business Cycle - The American Economic Review, vol 21, no 1, Mar 1939
  • America and Vietnam – Transition, No. 3, Oct, 1967
  • Gunnar Myrdal on Population Policy in the Underdeveloped World – Population and Development Review, Vol 13, No. 3, Sept. 1987
  • Twenty Years of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe – International Organization, Vol 22, No. 3, Summer, 1968
  • Challenge to Affluence Published by Random House 1963
  • Conference of the British Sociological Association, 1953. II Opening Address: The Relation between Social Theory and Social Policy The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sept, 1953
  • Social Trends in America and Strategic Approaches to the Negro Problem – Phylon, Vol. 9, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, 1948
  • Value in Social Theory: A Selection of Essays on Methodology Edited by Paul Streeten, published by Harper 1958
  • An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy Published by Harper & Bros, 1944
  • Population, a Problem for Democracy The Godkin Lectures, Published by Harvard University Press, 1940
  • Crisis in the Population Question – 1934
  • The Political Element in the Development of Economic Theory

(Note: The Royal Library of Sweden has a complete bibliography in Swedish.)


References

  1. ^ Brittan, Samuel; “The not so noble Nobel Prize”, Financial Times 19 December 2003.

December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Gunnar Myrdal (2510 words)
Gunnar Myrdal (December 6, 1898 – May 17, 1987) was a Swedish economist and politician.
Gunnar Myrdal himself is known for his 1944 study, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, which influenced the US Supreme Court 1954 decision in Brown v.
Myrdal is perhaps even more famous for his influential and landmark book "An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy", originally published in 1944 and commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation.
Boston Globe Online / Table of Contents (461 words)
Myrdal rose from Swedish village life to become one of his country's leading intellectuals and true cosmopolitans, a thinker who helped change fixed ideas in many fields.
Myrdal had already made a name for himself as a young teacher of economics at Stockholm University.
Myrdal became minister of labor the following year, and served as a Social Democrat in the government for two years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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