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Encyclopedia > Gun politics in the United States

Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. At the heart of this debate is the relationship between the rights of the citizen and the government's duty to provide for the common defense[1] versus the government's authority to regulate firearms and its duty to maintain order.[2] Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and control of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through criminal use. ... The Federal Government of the United States was established by the United States politics is dominated by the two major parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. ...

Gun politics

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United States Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and control of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through criminal use. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Contents

Overview

U.S. Firearms
Legal Topics
Assault weapons ban
ATF (law enforcement)
Brady Handgun Act
Federal Firearms License
Firearm case law
Firearm Owners Protection Act
Gun Control Act of 1968
Gun laws in the U.S. — by state
Gun laws in the U.S. — federal
Gun politics in the U.S.
National Firearms Act
Second Amendment
Straw purchase
Sullivan Act (New York)
Violent Crime Control Act

Gun politics in the United States, viewed in its simplest form, addresses three questions. First, "does the Constitution permit federal, state, or local regulation of individual firearms ownership? Second, do such laws effectively and materially reduce violent crime? And third, what regulations are needed?" [3] // Legal Topics Primary Organizations Liberty Belles Prominent individuals Advocates of firearms Gary Kleck Charlton Heston Wayne LaPierre John Lott Ted Nugent Advocates of firearms control Darrell Scotts Congressoinal Speech Michael D. Barnes Michael Bellesiles James Brady Sarah Brady Tom Diaz Arthur Kellermann Michael Moore (Bowling for Columbine) Josh Sugarmann... The Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) was a subtitle of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, a federal law of the United States that included a prohibition on the sale to civilians of certain semi-automatic assault weapons manufactured after the date of the bans... The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ... The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993, Pub. ... “Gun license” redirects here. ... Firearm case law decisions are numerous in the history of the United States. ... The Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) is a United States federal law that revised many statutes in the Gun Control Act of 1968. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. ... Many US states have legislated gun (firearm) laws, independent of existing federal firearms laws. ... In the United States of America, the protection against infringement of the right to bear arms is addressed in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... The National Firearms Act (NFA), cited as the Act of June 26, 1934, Ch. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people... A straw purchase is any purchase where the buyer is not eligible to own the purchased item according to the law and therefore purchases the item through a proxy buyer. ... The Sullivan Act, also known as the Sullivan Law, is a controversial gun control law in New York State. ... The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) is a piece of legislation, sponsored by Rep. ...


Key to this issue is the Second Amendment, which is interpreted by supporters of gun rights as enshrining an individual right, and by advocates of gun control as referring to a right of the people to arm themselves only when bonded together for communal defense. [3] A consensus of legal opinion does support the individual right of people to keep and bear arms. The history of enactment of gun regulation legislation is characterized by repetitive cycles of popular outrage, action and reaction usually in response to sensational shootings. The first modern gun regulation, the 1911 Sullivan Act in New York State emerged in reaction to an attempt to murder New York City Mayor William Jay Gaynor. The shooting deaths of Senator Robert F. Kennedy and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. led to public outrage and the political action with enactment of the federal Gun Control Act of 1968. Supporters of individual gun rights have resisted nearly all these regulation efforts, often spearheaded by the National Rifle Association. This outrage-action-reaction cyclical pattern reflects an essential core value conflict at the center of the gun politics issue. [4] The Sullivan Act, also known as the Sullivan Law, is a controversial gun control law in New York State. ... William Jay Gaynor (1849–1913) was an American politician from New York City, associated with the Tammany Hall political machine. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights...


Gun culture

Main article: Gun culture

The right to own a gun and defend oneself is considered by many to be central to the American identity. This stems in part from the nation's frontier history, where guns were integral to America's westward expansion, enabling settlers to guard themselves from Indians, animals and foreign armies, and citizens assumed much responsibility for self-protection. The importance of guns also derives from the role of hunting in American culture, which remains popular as a sport in the country today.[5] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Houston gun show at the George R. Brown Convention Center The gun culture is a culture shared by people in the gun politics debate, generally those who advocate preserving gun rights and who are against more gun control. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... For the American magazine, see Foreign Policy. ... An army comprises all of a nations land-based military forces or a specific large military force. ...


About 59.1 million adults in the United States personally own a gun. In 1993-4, roughly 93 million adults, or 49% of the adult U.S. population, lived in households with guns.[6] There is no national gun register in the USA, so it is impossible to know exactly how many guns are in circulation or who has them, but the FBI estimates there are more than 200 million guns in civilian hands.[5] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Guns are prominent in contemporary U.S. popular culture as well, appearing frequently in movies, television, music, books, and magazines. Television regularly shows shootings and other violence in graphic detail, while sexual content and profanity are strictly regulated by the FCC.[7]. The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City...


In a seminal article, America as a Gun Culture[8], the noted historian Richard Hofstadter popularized the phrase gun culture to describe America's long affection for the gun, embracing and celebrating the association of guns and America's heritage. Regardless of one's political opinion about guns, the gun culture is an undeniable component of the gun debate. Richard Hofstadter (August 6, 1916 - October 24, 1970) was an American historian and DeWitt Clinton Professor of American History at Columbia University. ... Houston gun show at the George R. Brown Convention Center The gun culture is a culture shared by people in the gun politics debate, generally those who advocate preserving gun rights and who are against more gun control. ...


Origins of gun culture

The origins of American gun culture trace back to the hunting/sporting ethos and the militia/frontier ethos that draw from the country's early history.[2]


The hunting/sporting ethos has come from a time when the United States was an agrarian, subsistence nation where hunting was an auxiliary source of food for some settlers, and also a deterrence to animal predators. A connection between shooting skills and survival among rural American males was a 'rite of passage' for entering manhood. Today, hunting survives as a central sentimental component of the gun culture regardless of the modern trend away from subsistence hunting and rural living.[2]


The militia/frontier ethos derives from an early American dependence on wits and skill to protect themselves from hostile Native Americans and rarely from foreign armies. Survival depended upon everyone being capable of carrying a weapon. In the Eighteenth Century, there was neither budget nor manpower nor government desire to maintain a full time army, believing they were a threat to the rights of the civilian populace. Therefore the armed citizen soldier carried the responsibility. Service in militia, including providing your own ammunition and weapons, was mandatory for all adult males. Yet, as early as the 1790s, the mandatory universal militia duty gave way to voluntary militia units and a reliance on a regular army, with a decline of the importance of militia trend continuing throughout the Nineteenth Century.[2] The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...


Closely related to the militia tradition was the frontier tradition, with the westward movement closely associated with weaponry. In the Nineteenth Century firearms were closely associated with the westward expansion. Some historians believe that this perception that guns won the West springs from a mythology, and ignores the role of homesteaders, ranchers, miners, tradespeople and businessmen. In fact the so-called taming of the West was attributable to ranchers and farmers, not gun-slinging cowboys. Regardless, today, there remains a powerful central elevation of the gun associated with the Hunting/Sporting and Militia/Frontier ethos among the American Gun Culture.[2] Though it hasn't been a necessary part of daily survival for a long time, generations of Americans have continued to embrace and glorify it as a living inheritance—a permanent ingredient of the nation's style and culture.[9] In addition to that Gun control is positive


Guns in popular culture

The gun has long been a symbol of power and masculinity. In the United States it is also frequently tied to independence, freedom, respect, and patriotism.


In popular literature, frontier adventure was most famously told by James Fenimore Cooper, who is credited with creating archetype of the 18th-century frontiersman through such novels as "The Last of the Mohicans" (1826) and "The Deerslayer" (1840).[10] Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... For other uses, see The Last of the Mohicans (disambiguation). ... The Leatherstocking Tales is a series of novels by American writer James Fenimore Cooper, each featuring the hero Natty Bumppo, otherwise known as Leatherstocking, Pathfinder, Deerslayer, or Hawkeye. ...


In the late 1800s cowboy imagery entered the collective imagination. The cowboy archetype of individualist hero was established largely by Owen Wister in stories and novels, most notably "The Virginian" (1902), following close on the heels of Theodore Roosevelt's "The Winning of the West" (1889-1895), a history of the early frontier.[11][12] [13] Cowboys were also popularized in turn of the century cinema, notably through such early classics as "The Great Train Robbery" (1903) and "A California Hold Up" (1906)--the most commercially successful film of the pre-nickelodeon era.[14] Owen Wister, author of the Western novel, The Virginian and friend of Theodore Roosevelt Owen Wister (July 14, 1860 – July 21, 1938) was an American writer of western novels. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Great Train Robbery may refer to: a real event: The Great Train Robbery took place near Linslade in the United Kingdom in 1963 a film: The Great Train Robbery as directed by Edwin S. Porter in 1903. ...


Gangsters films began appearing as early as 1912, but didn't really take off until the advent of sound in film in the 1930s. The genre was boosted by the events of the prohibition era, such as bootlegging and the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929, the existence of real-life gangsters (e.g., Al Capone) and the rise of contemporary organized crime and escalation of urban violence. These movies flaunted the archetypal exploits of "swaggering, cruel, wily, tough, and law-defying bootleggers and urban gangsters".[15] Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... Picture of The St. ... “Capone” redirects here. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ...


With the arrival of World War II, Hollywood produced many morale boosting movies, patriotic rallying cries that affirmed a sense of national purpose. The lone image of the cowboy was replaced in these combat films by stories that emphasized group effort and the value of individual sacrifices for a larger cause, often featuring a group of men from diverse ethnic backgrounds who are thrown together, tested on the battlefield, and molded into a dedicated fighting unit.[16]


Guns frequently accompanied famous heroes and villains in late 20th Century American films, from the glamorous outlaws of Bonnie and Clyde (1967) and The Godfather (1972), to the law and order avengers like Dirty Harry (1971) and Robocop (1987). In the 1970s films portrayed madmen produced by the Vietnam war in films like Taxi Driver (1976) and Apocalypse Now (1979), while other films told stories of veterans who were victims of the war and in need of rehabilitation (Coming Home and The Deer Hunter, both 1978).[17] Many action films continue to celebrate the gun toting hero in both realistic and fantastical settings. At the same time, the negative role of the gun in modern urban violence has been explored in films like Boyz in the Hood (1991) and Menace 2 Society (1993). This article is about the outlaws. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... For other uses, see Dirty Harry (disambiguation). ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... This article is about the 1976 American film. ... Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... Coming Home is a 1978 film which tells the story of a handicapped Vietnam War veterans difficulty in re-entering civilian life after his return from the war. ... For other uses, see Deer Hunter. ... The film title, Boyz-N-The Hood, is taken from the name of a classic hip-hop song performed by Eazy-E as a member of the group N.W.A. For the Southern rap quartet, see Boyz N Da Hood. ... Menace II Society is a 1993 movie starring Tyrin Turner, Larenz Tate and Jada Pinkett Smith. ...


Political divides

Traditionally, regional differences are greater than partisan ones on this issue. Coastal states such as New York, New Jersey and California support restrictions on guns, while other Western states (such as Montana and Wyoming) and Southern states (including Alabama and Florida) are mostly pro-gun. Other areas, including the Midwest, are mixed.[18] Alaska and Vermont do not require any license to be allowed to carry concealed weapons in public places, but there are laws in these states prohibiting concealed weapons in certain places (e.g., in Alaska it is not permitted to carry a weapon, concealed or otherwise, into a bar or tavern)[19] . The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...


While gun control is not strictly a partisan issue, there is more support for gun control in the Democratic Party than in the Republican Party.[20] The Libertarian Party and the Constitution Party are the largest parties that completely support gun rights.[citation needed] The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative third party in the United States, founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992. ...


Antebellum-era gun politics

Perhaps the first political battle over the right to firearms involved the rights of slaves to join militia and to carry firearms in the United States, ultimately resulting in political battles, and ultimately civil war, in the aftermath of the 1856 Supreme Court decision Dred Scott v. Sanford which denied Negro's the full rights of citizenship:[21] "... (Mr. Scott's petition) would give to persons of the negro race, the right to enter every other State whenever they pleased, …the full liberty of speech in public and in private upon all subjects upon which its own citizens might speak; to hold public meetings upon political affairs, and to keep and carry arms wherever they went. And all of this would be done in the face of the subject race of the same color, both free and slaves, and inevitably producing discontent and insubordination among them, and endangering the peace and safety of the State.". [22]. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Holding Blacks, whether slaves or free, could not become United States citizens and the plaintiff therefore lacked the capacity to file a lawsuit. ...


Politically, this case strengthened the opposition to slavery in the North, divided the Democratic Party on sectional lines, encouraged secessionist elements among Southern supporters of slavery to make even bolder demands, and strengthened the Republican Party, political forces with effect upon the Civil War. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Single issue groups

Pro gun rights

The National Rifle Association (NRA), originally formed in New York State in 1871, reflecting concern over the Union Army's poor marksmanship skills in the American Civil War. The group languished in its early years. Again, following concerns of poor marksmanship following the Spanish-American War of 1898, the group enjoyed a revival in 1900 with the assistance of gun enthusiast Theodore Roosevelt. Congress was prompted to establish the National Board for Promotion of Rifle Practice as part of the Militia Act of 1903, with the group benefiting from significant government subsidies.[23] This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... The Militia Act of 1903, also known as the Dick Act, was the result of a program of reform and reorganization in the military establishment initiated by Secretary of War Elihu Root following the Spanish-American War of 1898 after the war demonstrated weaknesses in the militia, as well as...


In 1921, the NRA was still small, but by 1934, under the leadership of promotions manager C. B. Lister, the group had grown tenfold, with only limited political activities the main focus of the group was on marksmanship and sportsmanship. Another boost of membership occurred after World War II, with the returning soldiers, the enrollment tripled with a greater emphasis on hunting. A shift in the NRA's emphasis towards greater political activity opposing gun control occurred in the 1960s in response to the Congressional attention to gun regulation during this decade.[23]


For many decades the NRA has operated firearms safety and marksmanship training courses and certifications through local shooting clubs with government subsidies of free ammunition and free access to military shooting ranges, through the Department of Defense Division of Civilian Marksmanship until 1996.[23] In 1996, Congress created the non-profit Corporation for the Promotion of Rifle Practice & Firearms Safety, which took over the administration and promotion of the Civilian Marksmanship Program with the purpose of encouraging marksmanship skills among civilians with an emphasis on youth. The Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP)is a U.S. government program that promotes firearms safety training and rifle practice for all qualified U.S. citizens with special emphasis on youth. ...


Other national gun rights groups generally take a much harder line than the NRA. These groups criticize the NRA's history of support for various gun control legislation such as the Gun Control Act of 1968, the ban on armor-piercing projectiles and the point-of-purchase background checks (NICS). The Second Amendment Sisters, Second Amendment Foundation, Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership and Gun Owners of America are among the groups in this category. Second Amendment Sisters, Inc. ... The Second Amendment Foundation or SAF is an educational and legal defense organization which describes its mission as ...promoting a better understanding about our Constitutional heritage to privately own and possess firearms. ... The first Granpa Jack Freedom Booklet published by the JPFO. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ...


Pro gun regulation

Handgun Control Inc. (HCI), founded in 1974 by Republican businessman Pete Shields, formed a partnership with the National Coalition to Ban Handguns (NCBH), also founded in 1974. Soon parting ways, the NCBH was renamed the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence in 1990, and while smaller than HCI, has generally taken a tougher stand on gun regulation than HCI. Starting with few resources and not much impact, HCI saw an increase of interest and fund raising in the wake of the 1980 murder of John Lennon. By 1981 membership exceeded 100,000 though dwarfed in power by the size of the NRA. Measured in dollars contributed to congressional campaigns, HCI contributed $75,000 to the NRA's $1.5 million in 1980. Following the 1981 assassination attempt on President Reagan, and the resultant injury of James Brady, Sarah Brady joined the board of HCI in 1985. HCI were renamed in 2001 to Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence.[23] The Brady Campaign or The Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence or The Brady Campaign united with the Million Mom March was founded in 1974 as The National Council to Control Handguns (NCCH) by Dr. Mark Borinsky, a victim of gun violence. ... The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence or CSGV is a non-partisan group of 45 organizations and 100,000 individual members founded in 1974 that seeks to ban handguns and assault weapons in the United States. ... John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... James Brady James Scott “Jim” Brady (born August 29, 1940) was Assistant to the President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan. ... front cover snapshot of A Good Fight, published in 2002 Sarah Brady (born February 6, 1942) is the wife of former White House Press Secretary James Scott Brady. ... The Brady Campaign or Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence or The Brady Campaign united with the Million Mom March was founded in 1974 as the National Council to Control Handguns and was named Handgun Control, Inc. ...

Political lobbying

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Lobbying in the United States
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According to The Center for Public Integrity, 145 groups are registered as making Gun related filings to lobby Congress. The largest being the National Rifle Association, spending about $1.5 Million dollars per year, predominantly through two lobbying firms, the WPP Group and The Federalist Group.[24] Ranked by total filings, Pro-Gun lobbying exceeded Gun-Control lobbying by the ratio of approximately 3:1.[25] Lobbying in the United States targets the United States Senate, the United States House of Representatives, and state legislatures. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... A 527 group is a type of tax-exempt organization named after a section of the United States tax code, created primarily to influence the nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates for public office. ... Campaign finance in the United States is the financing of electoral campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... Agriculture is a major industry in the United States and the country is a net exporter of food. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... Software lobbying groups aim to influence a governments technology policy decisions on behalf of their members. ... Abortion in the United States is a highly-charged issue with significant political and ethical debate. ... A leadership PAC in U.S. politics is a political action committee that can be established by a member of Congress to support other candidates. ... For a history, see Timeline of United States diplomatic history For the published diplomatic papers, see The Foreign Relations of the United States For Foreign relations under George W. Bush, see Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... WPP Group plc (LSE: WPP) (NASDAQ: WPPGY), based in London, is one of the worlds largest communications services groups (and one of the big six advertising holding companies, the others being Omnicom, Interpublic, Publicis, Dentsu and Havas) employing 97,000 people working in more than 2,000 offices in...


Measured in dollars, in 2006, Gun Rights political spending on Lobbying totaled $3,000,000 versus Gun Control spending of $90,000 - a ratio of 33:1. [26]


Notable individuals

The field of political research regarding firearms suffers from the same contention as the issue of the effect of firearm ownership on crime levels. Some influential individuals in the debate include (in alphabetical order):

  • James Brady, who was shot and disabled in an assassination attempt on President Reagan while working as his assistant. He and his wife Sarah Brady later became founders of the Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence.
  • Arthur Kellermann, who studied firearm injury prevention after assisting many gun crime victims as an emergency room doctor. He has published studies examining the relationship between gun injury and the availability of firearms.
  • Gary Kleck, a leading academic expert in the connection between gun control laws and violence.
  • John Lott, author of More Guns, Less Crime and The Bias Against Guns
  • David Hemenway, author of Private Guns, Public Health
  • Donna Dees-Thomases Founder of the Million Mom March[27]
  • Suzanna Hupp, survivor of the Luby's massacre and advocate of the right to carry a concealed weapon.

James Brady James Scott “Jim” Brady (born August 29, 1940) was Assistant to the President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan. ... Reagan, an Irish surname, may refer to: // Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of The United States Nancy Reagan, the wife of Ronald Reagan and influential First Lady Ron Reagan, President Reagans son and liberal journalist Michael Reagan, President Reagans son and conservative talk show host Maureen Reagan, President... front cover snapshot of A Good Fight, published in 2002 Sarah Brady (born February 6, 1942) is the wife of former White House Press Secretary James Scott Brady. ... The Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence in the United States is a not-for-profit organization headed by James Brady, former U.S. White House Press Secretary to President Ronald W. Reagan. ... Dr. Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H. (born 1955) is a professor and chairman of the department of emergency medicine at Emory University. ... Gary Kleck (born March 2, 1951) is a criminologist at Florida State University who is an expert on the links between guns, violence and gun control laws in the United States. ... John R. Lott Jr. ... John R. Lott Jr. ... The Bias Against Guns: Why Almost Everything Youve Heard About Gun Control Is Wrong is a book by John Lott, following up on his controversial More Guns, Less Crime. ... Suzanna Gratia Hupp (born 1959) is an outgoing Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, who represented traditionally Democratic District 54 (Bell, Burnet, and Lampasas counties) for ten years from 1997-2007. ... Lubys massacre was a mass killing that took place on October 16, 1991, in Killeen, Texas, United States when George Hennard entered a Lubys Cafeteria and shot and killed 23 people, wounded 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself. ...

Political arguments

Disagreements range from the practical — does gun ownership cause or prevent crime? — to the constitutional — how should the Second Amendment be interpreted? — to the ethical — what should the balance be between an individual's right of self-defense through gun ownership and the People's interest in maintaining public safety? Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people...


Political arguments about gun rights fall into two basic categories, first, does the government have the right and authority to regulate guns, and second, if it does, is it effective public policy to regulate guns.[28]


Rights-based arguments


A fundamental type of political argument about gun control is based on the premise that the government does or does not have the right and/or authority to regulate guns.


The meaning of the Second Amendment

The text of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution reads as follows: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed."[29]


The understanding of the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution is a touchstone of modern political debate about guns in American politics. The claim that the Second Amendment grants or protects a constitutionally based individual right to guns is a common theme of gun right proponents.They assert that unlike many other nations, the United States has enshrined in the Bill of Rights (i.e.,specifically in the Second Amendment) of the US Constitution, the individual right of citizens to keep and bear arms. Every one of the Ten Amendments comprising the Bill of Rights refer to individual (not collective) rights and place explicit limitations upon the power of the federal government.[30][31][32][33] For example, a study of the National Rifle Association publication American Hunter found thirty-four references to this claim in a single issue of the magazine.[34] The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people...


The extensive emphasis on the meaning of the Second Amendment in modern political activity is reflected in the resultant public perception.[34] A poll conducted by the National Rifle Association found that 89% of Americans believe they have a right to own a gun.[35]


The "individual rights" view of the Second Amendment has been, and is, endorsed by many commentators, among them attorney and former senator Fred Thompson. In a recent article, Senator Thompson noted:

From the enactment of the Bill of Rights in 1791 until the 20th century, no one seriously argued that the Second Amendment dealt with anything but an individual right — along with all other nine original amendments. [Don] Kates writes that not one court or commentator denied it was a right of individual gun owners until the last century. Judges and commentators in the 18th and 19th century routinely described the Second Amendment as a right of individuals. And they expressly compared it to the other rights such as speech, religion, and jury trial.[36]

The claim that the Second Amendment does not grant or protects a constitutionally based individual right to guns is a common theme of gun rights opponents. Robert Spitzer[37] summarizes his opinion of United States Supreme Court precedence on this question:

"The Court in this case (U.S. v. Cruikshank, a pre-incorporation Supreme Court case) established two principles that it (and most other courts) have consistently upheld: that the Second Amendment does not simply afford any individual a right to bear arms free from governmental control; and that the Second Amendment is not "incorporated," meaning that it pertains only to federal power, not state power..."[38] United States v. ... Incorporation of the Bill of Rights is the legal doctrine by which portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights are applied to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ...

According to Spitzer, the Second Amendment does not in any way restrict the States from passing legislation which regulates firearms. The vast majority of firearm laws in the United States are not federal, but local codes, and are not constrained by the Second Amendment[39]


State constitutions

See also Gun laws in the United States (by state) Many US states have legislated gun (firearm) laws, independent of existing federal firearms laws. ...


Each of the fifty states has its own constitution and laws regulating guns. Some of the States' constitutions provide for a state based right to firearms, and some do not. Each state differs politically and legally as to the balance of citizen's rights to guns versus the collective right to regulate guns.


Right of self-defense

While a range of views may be found among proponents of gun rights, most believe that the Second Amendment protects the right to own guns for individual self defense, hunting, and target shooting. Gun rights supporters argue that the phrase "the people" applies to all individuals rather than an organized collective, and point out that the phrase "the people" means the same individuals in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 9th, and 10th Amendments.[40][41][42] They also cite the fact that the Second Amendment resides in the Bill of Rights and argue that the Bill of Rights, by its very nature, defines individual rights of the citizen.[43][44] Many proponents of gun rights also read the Second Amendment to state that because of the need of a formal military, the people have a right to "keep and bear arms" as a protection from the government. The cultural basis for gun ownership traces to the American revolution, where colonists owned and used muskets equivalent to those of the British soldiers to gain independence. Thomas Jefferson also stated that the right to bear arms is necessary for the citizens to protect themselves from the "tyranny of government". This article and defense of property deal with the legal concept of excused (sometimes termed justified) acts that might otherwise be illegal. ... The United States Bill of Rights consists of the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution. ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...


Security against tyranny and invasion arguments

A position taken by some personal gun rights advocates is that an armed citizenry is the population's last line of defense against tyranny by their own government, as they believe was one of the main intents of the Second Amendment. This belief was also held by some of the authors of the Constitution, though a right of rebellion was not explicitly included in the Constitution, and instead the Constitution was designed to ensure a government deriving its power from the consent of the governed. This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ...


The Declaration of Independence itself says when discussing the abusive British rule: "...Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it..."


Thomas Jefferson wrote in defense of the Shays' Rebellion in a letter to William Stevens Smith (November 13, 1787), quoted in Padover's Jefferson On Democracy, Shays rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ...

"What country before ever existed a century and half without a rebellion? And what country can preserve its liberties if their rulers are not warned from time to time that their people preserve the spirit of resistance? Let them take arms. The remedy is to set them right as to facts, pardon and pacify them. What signify a few lives lost in a century or two? The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure."

Yet, the legal scholar Roscoe Pound has said: Roscoe Pound (1870 - 1964) was a distinguished American legal scholar and educator. ...

"(a) legal right of a citizen to wage war on the government is something that cannot be admitted. ... In the urban industrial society of today a general right to bear efficient arms so as to be enabled to resist oppression by the government would mean that gangs could exercise an extra-legal rule which would defeat the whole Bill of Rights."[45]

Opponents of this right of revolution theory argue that the intent of the Second Amendment was the need to avoid a standing army by ensuring the viability of people's militias, and that the concept of rebellious private citizens or rogue militias as a check on governmental tyranny was clearly not part of the Second Amendment. As historian Don Higginbotham notes, the well-regulated militia protected by the Second Amendment was more likely to put down rebellions than participate in them.[46]In his book "Armed People Victorious," Larry Pratt recounts how countries as dissimilar as Guatemala and the Philippines preserved their freedom against communist insurgency by arming the people and forming rural militias in the 1980s.[47]


Critics of the 'security against tyranny' argument argue also that replacing elected officials by voting is sufficient to keep the government in check, although there are numerous examples in history of elected officials assuming absolute power, with little regard to laws. Personal gun right advocates put forward the Battle of Athens in August 2, 1946 as an example of citizens in desperate circumstances using firearms where all other democratic options have failed. Pro-gun groups argue that the only way to enforce democracy is through having the means of resistance[48][49][50] . The Battle of Athens was a rebellion led by citizens in Athens, Tennessee, United States, against local government in August 1946. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Then Sen. John F. Kennedy recognized the intent of the founding fathers "fears of governmental tyranny" and "security of the nation" in his statement Know Your Lawmakers, Guns, April 1960, p. 4 (1960),

"By calling attention to 'a well regulated militia,' the 'security' of the nation, and the right of each citizen 'to keep and bear arms,' our founding fathers recognized the essentially civilian nature of our economy. Although it is extremely unlikely that the fears of governmental tyranny which gave rise to the Second Amendment will ever be a major danger to our nation, the Amendment still remains an important declaration of our basic civilian-military relationships, in which every citizen must be ready to participate in the defense of his country. For that reason I believe the Second Amendment will always be important."[51]

Pro-gun rights groups rarely believe in the plausibility of an "instant" rebellion's success through traditional warfare. Those who believe that arms allow for successful rebellions against tyranny hold that Guerrilla Warfare is the method in which liberty could be once again (or even for the first time) be achieved. The right of free people to form militias to protect life, liberty, and property has been shown historically to be essential for the preservation of freedom.[52]


Few people in the past had debated the applicability of the Second Amendment in conjunction with the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, which read, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people" and "The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people."More recently, scholars had begun to recognize the importance of these Amendments in conjunction with the Second Amendment in preserving individual freedom. Clearly, the founding fathers recognized that some rights were so clear and obvious that they needed no enumeration. In the end, the Bill of Rights with these Amendments was a necessary addition to the federal Constitution for its assure ratification by the states.


Public policy arguments


A second class of political arguments is founded on the premise that even if the government has the right and authority to regulate guns, to do so may or may not be sound public policy. [53] Image File history File links Acap. ...


Importance of a militia

Opponents of a restrictive interpretation of the Second Amendment point out that at the time of the second amendment in the late 18th century, the word "militia" meant all able-bodied male citizens between the ages of 17 and 45. Even today, the United States Code states that the militia is all male citizens and resident aliens at least 17 up to 45 with or without military service experience, and including additionally those under 64 having former military service experience, as well as including female citizens who are members of the National Guard. [54] Some people argue about even the number of commas in the amendment.[55] Also, there is disagreement about the difference between organized militias and unorganized militias, and their relationship to the Second Amendment, the general question being, "Does the right pertain to only organized, well-regulated militias or all citizens?"


There is a wide range of views regarding the Second Amendment. Some gun rights advocates argue that the right to arms for self-preservation pre-dates the U.S. Constitution, is one of the unenumerated rights codified by the Tenth Amendment, and is protected by the Second Amendment; such gun rights advocates argue that the Second Amendment does not grant the right to arms, but simply protects the right to arms. Some gun control advocates argue that the Second Amendment does not cover individual gun ownership; others argue that the right to own firearms rests on other grounds which render it subject to the full force of the state's police powers, while others argue for outright repeal of the Amendment.[56]A wide range of views exists regarding the Second Amendment among gun control supporters, but most all agree that the militia refer to the people and that the Second Amendment refer to the individual right to keep and bear arm, and most legal scholars are coming to agree with that view as we enter the 21st Century.[57]


Firearm deaths

Those concerned about high levels of gun violence in the United States in comparison to other developed countries[58][59] look to restrictions on gun ownership as a way to stem the violence. Those supportive of long-standing rights to keep and bear arms point to the Second Amendment of the Constitution, which some interpret as specifically preventing infringement of the "right of the people to keep and bear arms", independent of serving in a militia, as the means by which to stem the violence.[60][61] Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold in the cafeteria at Columbine High School, shortly before committing suicide. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people...


Within the gun politics debate, gun control advocates and gun rights advocates disagree on more practical questions as well. There is an ongoing debate over the role that guns play in crime. Gun-rights groups say that a well-armed citizenry prevents crime and that making civilian ownership of firearms illegal would increase the crime rate by making law-abiding citizens vulnerable to those who choose to disregard the law,[62][63] while gun control organizations say that increased gun ownership leads to higher levels of crime, suicide, and other negative outcomes. This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Relationships between crime, violence, and gun ownership

There is an open debate regarding the relationship between gun control, and violence and other crimes. The numbers of lives saved or lost by gun ownership is debated by criminologists. Research difficulties include the difficulty of accounting accurately for confrontations in which no shots are fired, and jurisdictional differences in the definition of "crime".


One author, frequent talk show guest, columnist and think tank founder John Longenecker, author of The Case For Nationwide Concealed Carry Of Handguns points to Orginal Intent as enduring for the interests of the nation. Longenecker shows that the Founding Fathers defeated abuse of due process when defeating the Crown Of England, and that this lives on today or the nation perishes. Longenecker adds that the Founders did not write the Constitution for citizens as much as to impose limits on government - a subject they knew only too well. Regarding the Second Amendment, the Founders did not fear nor imagine weapons of the future, but foresaw and forbade abuses of due process in the future, and wrote that the Citizen is the supreme authority to protect the new nation against abuses for all time. The Second Amendment embodies this by backing that ultimate citizen authority with force. Longenecker emphasizes that Crime is often used as an excuse to disarm that ultimate authority - the people - for the unhampered growth of cottage industries and other anti-crime policy. Finally, Longenecker shows how claims of no change in right-to-carry states are untrue: For the FBI's report of 10,177 gunshot deaths in 2006, there were 2.5 million crimes de-escalated by armed citizens, who believed they had sufficient control of the situation that they did not have to fire their weapon. "Clearly," Longenecker says, "What the people don't see tells the story 2.5 million times a year. Armed citizens play their role in crime control and they do it in due process."


Some writers, such as John Lott, author of More Guns, Less Crime, say they have discovered a positive correlation between gun control legislation and crimes in which criminals victimize law-abiding citizens. Lott asserts that criminals ignore gun control laws and are effectively deterred only by armed intended victims just as higher penalties deter crime. His work involved comparison and analysis from data collected from all the counties in the United States.[64] Lott's study has been criticized for not adequately controlling for other factors, including other state laws also enacted, such as Florida's laws requiring background checks and waiting period for handgun buyers.[65] with similar findings by Jens Ludwig.[66] Since concealed-carry permits are only given to adults, Philip J. Cook suggests that analysis should focus on the relationship with adult and not juvenile gun incident rates.[67] He finds a small, positive effect of concealed-carry laws on adult homicide rates, but states the effect is not statistically significant.[67] The National Academy of Science has found no evidence that shows right-to-carry laws have an impact, either way, on rates of violent crime.[68] NAS suggests that new analytical approaches and datasets at the county or local level are needed to evaluate adequately the impact of right-to-carry laws.[69] John R. Lott Jr. ... John R. Lott Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... A violent crime or crime of violence is a crime in which the offender uses or threatens violent force upon the victim. ...


Another researcher, Dr. Gary Kleck, a criminologist at Florida State University, estimated that approximately 2.5 million people used their gun in self-defense or to prevent crime each year, often by merely displaying a weapon. The incidents that Kleck studied generally did not involve the firing of the gun and he estimates that as many as 1.9 million of those instances involved a handgun.[70] Kleck's research has been challenged by scholars such as David Hemenway who argue that these estimates of crimes prevented by gun ownership are too high. Indeed, Hemenway argues, according to Kleck's study (which is based on gun owners' self-reporting), hundreds of thousands of murder attempts are thwarted every year by gun owners, which would mean that the vast majority of murder attempts are in fact prevented by self-defense gun use. This seems counterintuitive, to say the least. Gary Kleck (born March 2, 1951) is a criminologist at Florida State University who is an expert on the links between guns, violence and gun control laws in the United States. ... Florida State University (commonly referred to as Florida State or FSU)[8] is a public research university located in Tallahassee. ...


The National Rifle Association regularly reprints locally-published stories of ordinary citizens whose lives were saved by their guns.


A study supported by the National Rifle Association found that homicide rates as a whole, especially homicides as a result of firearms use, are not always significantly lower in many other developed countries. This is apparent in the UK and Japan, which have very strict gun control, while Israel, Canada, and Switzerland at the same time have low homicide rates and high rates of gun distribution. Although Dr Kleck has stated, "...cross-national comparisons do not provide a sound basis for assessing the impact of gun ownership levels on crime rates." [71]


In a New England Journal of Medicine article, Kellermann found that people who keep a gun at home increase their risk of homicide.[72] Florida State University professor Gary Kleck disagrees with the journal authors' interpretation of the evidence and he argues that there is no evidence that the guns involved in the home homicides studied by Kellermann, et al. were kept in the victim's home.[70] Similarly, Dave Kopel, writing in the National Review criticized Kellermann's study.[73]Researchers John Lott, Gary Kleck and many others still dispute Kellermann's work.[74] [75][76][77] Kleck agrees only with Kellermann's finding that contrary to widespread perception, the overall frequency of homicide in the home by an invading stranger is much less than that of domestic violence. Kellerman's work has also being severely criticized because he ignores factors such as guns being used to protect property, save lives, and deter crime without killing the criminal—which, Kleck and others argue, accounts for the large majority of defensive gun uses.[78][79][80] Kellermann responded to similar criticisms of the data behind his study in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine[81] Finally, another argument cited by academics researching gun violence points to the positive correlation between guns in the home and an already violent neighborhood. These points assert that Professor Kleck's causal story is in fact backwards and that violent neighborhoods cause homeowners to purchase guns and it is the neighborhood that determines the probability of homicide, not the presence of a gun.Lott's results suggest that allowing law-abiding citizens to carry concealed firearms, deters crime because potential criminals do not know who may or may not be carrying a firearm. The possibility of getting shot by an armed victim is a substantial deterrent to crime and prevents not only petty crime but physical confrontation as well from criminals. Lott's data comes from the FBI's massive crime statistics from all 3,054 US counties.[82] Other scholars, such as Gary Kleck, support Lott's findings but take a slightly different tack; while criticizing Lott's theories as (paradoxically) overemphasizing the threat to the average American from armed crime, and therefore the need for armed defense, Kleck's work speaks towards similar support for firearm rights by showing that the number of Americans who report incidents where their guns averted a threat vastly outnumber those who report being the victim of a firearm-related crime.[83] Others have pointed out that the beneficial effects of firearms, not only in self-protection, deterring crime, and protecting property but also in preserving freedom, have not been properly studied by public health researchers.[62][63] Gary Kleck (born March 2, 1951) is a criminologist at Florida State University who is an expert on the links between guns, violence and gun control laws in the United States. ...


In his book Private Guns, Public Health, David Hemenway makes the argument in favor of gun control and he provides evidence for the more guns, more gun violence and suicide hypothesis. Rather than compare America to countries with radically different cultures and historical experiences, he focuses on Canada, New Zealand and Australia and concludes that the case for gun control is a strong one based on the relationship he finds between lower crime rates and gun control.[84] Other information from countries such as South Africa, Russia, and several other countries which forbid almost all individual firearms and have low rates of gun ownership, have much higher murder rates than the US, usually committed with simple knives, explosives, or improvised blunt-force weapons.[85]


Firearms are also the most common method of suicide, accounting for 53.7% of all suicides committed in the United States in 2003[86].


For a more detailed discussion of the historical and current gun violence issues in the United States, see Gun violence in the United States. 1901 assassination of President William McKinley by Leon Czolgosz, using a concealed revolver, at the Pan-American Exposition reception in Buffalo, New York. ...


Non crime related

Non-defensive uses of guns, such as hunting, vermin control, and recreational target shooting, often receive little attention despite being the most common uses of privately owned firearms. This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Look up vermin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Security against foreign invasion

There is some historical evidence that an armed populace is a strong deterrent against a foreign invasion. Personal gun rights advocates frequently cite tyrants who feared the idea of invading countries where the citizenry was heavily armed or when these tyrants needed to disarm their own populace to be effective. For example, Adolf Hitler said (as quoted in his Tischgespräche im Führerhauptquartier, April 11, 1942): "The most foolish mistake we could possibly make would be to permit the conquered Eastern peoples to have arms. History teaches that all conquerors who have allowed their subject races to carry arms have prepared their own downfall by doing so." Once the Nazis had taken and consolidated their power, they then proceeded to implement gun control laws to disarm the population and wipe out the opposition. Genocide of disarmed Jews, gypsies, and other undesirables followed.[87] [88] The Battles of Lexington and Concord, sometimes known as the Shot heard 'round the world, in the 1770s, were started in part because General Gage sought to carry out an order by the British government to disarm the populace[89]. Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, (Minutemen) British Army, British Marines, Royal Artillery Commanders John Parker, James Barrett, John Buttrick, William Heath, Joseph Warren Francis Smith, John Pitcairn, Walter Laurie, Hugh, Earl Percy Strength 75 at Lexington Common (Parker). ... The stanza is inscribed at the base of The Minute Man statue by Daniel Chester French The shot heard round the world is a well known phrase that has come to represent several historical incidents throughout world history. ... Sir Thomas Gage (1719 – April 2, 1787) was a British general and commander in chief of the North American forces from 1763 to 1775 during the early days of the American Revolution. ...


Historical evidence cited by these supporters of gun rights includes the fact that during the Pacific War, Japan rejected the idea of invading the West Coast of the United States due to the prevalence of armed civilians. As noted after the war by one Japanese Admiral, "We knew that your country actually had state championships for private citizens shooting military rifles. We were not fools to set foot in such quicksand."[90] For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


The Afghanistani Mujahideen countered well-equipped Soviet Armed Forces with ancient bolt action rifles. As noted by Major Keith J. Stalder, USMC, in 1985, "... the Lee Enfield-armed Afghans can often hit at 800 meters or longer range while the Kalashnikov-armed motorized riflemen are ineffective beyond 300 meters..".[91] As Kenneth W. Royce has phrased it, 60,000 dead Soviets cannot all be wrong. Ultimately, the Soviets left in defeat, losing against mostly WW I and WW II bolt action rifles, while they themselves were armed with the latest weapons. Of course, the Mujahideen did have significant support from the West with 'Stinger' Anti-Aircraft missiles, but their bolt-action infantry weapons were still essentially indigenous. For the Iranian opposition group, see Peoples Mujahedin of Iran. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Lieutenant General Keith J. Stalder, United States Marine Corps, is the Commanding General for II Marine Expeditionary Force, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. ... The Lee-Enfield was, in various marks and models, the British Armys standard bolt-action, magazine-fed, repeating rifle for over 60 years from (officially) 1895[2] until 1957[3], although it remained in British service well into the early 1960s and is still found in service in the... Kenneth W. Royce is an American author who also writes under the pen-name of Boston T. Party. ...


The courts and the law

Supreme Court decisions

Since the late Nineteenth Century, with three key cases from the pre-incorporation era, the Supreme Court consistently ruled that the Second Amendment (and the Bill of Rights) restricts only the federal Congress, and not the States, in the regulation of guns.[92] Some legal scholars hold that since the Supreme Court has declined ample opportunity to review these decisions in the post-incorporation era, these decisions stand as "good law". [93] Challenges to gun regulations (including efforts to incorporate the Second Amendment) have been uniformly turned aside, concluding that the Supreme Court considers this matter settled for the time being.[94] Other scholars hold that the Court's incorporation of other rights suggests that they may incorporate the Second, should a suitable case come before them. [95] Incorporation of the Bill of Rights is the legal doctrine by which portions of the U.S. Bill of Rights are applied to the states through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ...

"Americans also have a right to defend their homes, and we need not challenge that. Nor does anyone seriously question that the Constitution protects the right of hunters to own and keep sporting guns for hunting game any more than anyone would challenge the right to own and keep fishing rods and other equipment for fishing -- or to own automobiles. To "keep and bear arms" for hunting today is essentially a recreational activity and not an imperative of survival, as it was 200 years ago; "Saturday night specials" and machine guns are not recreational weapons and surely are as much in need of regulation as motor vehicles." — Ex-Chief Justice Warren Burger, 1990. [96]

There has been only one modern Supreme Court case that dealt directly with the Second Amendment, United States v. Miller.[97] In that case the Supreme Court did not address the incorporation issue, but the case instead hinged on whether a sawed-off shotgun "has some reasonable relationship to the preservation or efficiency of a well regulated militia." [98] In quashing the indictment against Miller, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Arkansas stated that the National Firearms Act of 1934, "offend[ed] the inhibition of the Second Amendment to the Constitution." The federal government then appealed directly to the US Supreme Court. On appeal the federal government did not object to Miller's release, seeking only to have the trial judge's ruling on the unconstitutionality of the federal law overturned. Under these circumstances, neither Miller nor his attorney appeared before the US Supreme Court to argue the case; the Court only heard argument from the federal prosecutor. In its ruling, the Supreme Court overturned the trial court and upheld the law. For a more complete reading of this case, see Reynolds, Glenn Harlan and Denning, Brannon P., "Telling Miller's Tale" . 65 Law & Contemp. Probs. 113 (Spring 2002).[99] Holding The National Firearms Act - as applied to transporting in interstate commerce a 12-gauge shotgun with a barrel less than 18 inches long, without having registered it and without having in his possession a stamp-affixed written order for it - was not unconstitutional as an invasion of the reserved...


Circuit court

A recent circuit court decision, Parker v. District of Columbia, overturned a federal gun control law on constitutional grounds ruling contrary to Supreme Court precedent, and most other federal courts of appeal, according to Duke Professor Erwin Chemerinsky,[100]. According to the majority: Holding The statutes as applied are unconstitutional. ...

"In determining whether the Second Amendment’s guarantee is an individual one, or some sort of collective right, the most important word is the one the drafters chose to describe the holders of the right—“the people.” That term is found in the First, Second, Fourth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments. It has never been doubted that these provisions were designed to protect the interests of individuals against government intrusion, interference, or usurpation. We also note that the Tenth Amendment—“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people”—indicates that the authors of the Bill of Rights were perfectly capable of distinguishing between “the people,” on the one hand, and “the states,” on the other. The natural reading of “the right of the people” in the Second Amendment would accord with usage elsewhere in the Bill of Rights."

Gun laws

See also: Gun laws in the United States (by state) and Gun law in the United States

Gun control laws and regulations exists at all levels of government, with the vast majority being local codes which vary between jurisdictions. The NRA reports 20,000 gun laws nationwide.[101]. Yet, a study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine identifies only 300 relevant federal and state laws regarding the manufacture, design, sale, purchase, or possession of guns[102]. Many US states have legislated gun (firearm) laws, independent of existing federal firearms laws. ... In the United States of America, the protection against infringement of the right to bear arms is addressed in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. ...


At the federal level, fully automatic weapons and short barrel shotguns have been taxed and mandated to be registered since 1934 with the National Firearms Act. The Gun Control Act of 1968 adds prohibition of mail-order sales, prohibits transfers to minors, and outlaws civilian ownership of machine guns manufactured after May 19, 1986. The 1968 Act requires that guns carry serial numbers and implemented a tracking system to determine the purchaser of a gun whose make, model, and serial number are known. It also prohibited gun ownership by convicted felons and certain other individuals. The Act was updated in the 1990s, mainly to add a mechanism for the criminal history of gun purchasers to be checked at the point of sale, and in 1996 with the Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban to prohibit ownership and use of guns by individuals convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence. Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Firearms Act (NFA), cited as the Act of June 26, 1934, Ch. ... The Gun Control Act of 1968, Pub. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban (1996) was a piece of legislation passed by the US Congress. ...


See also

In the United States, carrying concealed weapon (CCW, also known as concealed carry) is the privilege or right for private citizens to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner, either on the person or in close proximity to the person. ... The Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP)is a U.S. government program that promotes firearms safety training and rifle practice for all qualified U.S. citizens with special emphasis on youth. ... The Coalition to Stop Gun Violence or CSGV is a non-partisan group of 45 organizations and 100,000 individual members founded in 1974 that seeks to ban handguns and assault weapons in the United States. ... Firearm case law decisions are numerous in the history of the United States. ... Many US states have legislated gun (firearm) laws, independent of existing federal firearms laws. ... In the United States of America, the protection against infringement of the right to bear arms is addressed in the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... Gun Owners of America is the second largest gun rights organization in America. ... Gun politics is a set of legal issues surrounding the ownership, use, and control of firearms as well as safety issues related to firearms both through their direct use and through criminal use. ... 1901 assassination of President William McKinley by Leon Czolgosz, using a concealed revolver, at the Pan-American Exposition reception in Buffalo, New York. ... Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold in the cafeteria at Columbine High School, shortly before committing suicide. ... The first Granpa Jack Freedom Booklet published by the JPFO. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ... The Joyce Foundation is a charitable foundation based in Chicago, Illinois in the United States and operating principally in the Great Lakes region. ... The Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition is a coalition of mayors from 225 different United States cities, with a stated goal of making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association, UK The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a 501(c)(4) group for the protection of gun rights in the United States. ... The Pink Pistols are a gay gun rights organization in the United States and Canada. ... The Second Amendment Foundation or SAF is an educational and legal defense organization which describes its mission as ...promoting a better understanding about our Constitutional heritage to privately own and possess firearms. ... Second Amendment Sisters, Inc. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares a well regulated militia as being necessary to the security of a free State, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Wayment, Andrew M., The Second Amendment: A Guard for Our Future Security. Idaho Law Review Comments 37 (2000): 223
  2. ^ a b c d e Spitzer, Robert J.: The Politics of Gun Control, Chapter 1. Chatham House Publishers, 1995.
  3. ^ a b Gottesman, Ronald: Violence in America: An Encyclopedia, pp. 66,68, Simon and Schuster, 1999
  4. ^ Spitzer, Robert J.: "The Politics of Gun Control", Chapter 1. Chatham House Publishers, Inc., 1995.
  5. ^ a b "A look inside America's gun culture", ABC News Online, 2007-04-17
  6. ^ "Gun Control", Just the Facts, 2005-12-30 (revised)
  7. ^ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/16/AR2007021600161.html?nav=rss_technology Report Urges FCC to Regulate TV Violence, The Washington Post, 2007-02-16]
  8. ^ Hofstadter, Richard: America as a Gun Culture. American Heritage Magazine, October, 1970.
  9. ^ JERVIS ANDERSON, GUNS IN AMERICA 10 (1984), page 21
  10. ^ James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)
  11. ^ American Literature: Prose, MSN Encarta
  12. ^ New Perspectives on the West: Theodore Roosevelt, PBS, 2001
  13. ^ "Owen Wister (1860-1938)", Petri Liukkonen, Authors' Calendar, 2002
  14. ^ "Western Films", Tim Dirks, Filmsite, 1996-2007
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  96. ^ Burger, Warren E., Chief Justice of the United States (1969-86): Parade Magazine, January 14, 1990, pages 4-6
  97. ^ United States v. Miller, 307 U.S. 174 (1939)
  98. ^ Levinson, Sanford: The Embarrassing Second Amendment, 99 Yale L.J. 637-659 (1989)
  99. ^ "Telling Miller's Tale", Reynolds, Glenn Harlan and Denning, Brannon P.
  100. ^ Chemerinsky, Erwin; Professor of Law, Duke University: A Well-Regulated Right to Bear Arms. Washington Post, editorial, March 14, 2007; Page A15
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  102. ^ American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 40-71 R. Hahn, O. Bilukha, A. Crosby, M. Fullilove, A. Liberman, E. Moscicki, S. Snyder, F. Tuma, P. Briss

Dr. Robert J Spitzer is Distinguished Service Professor of Political Science at the State University of New York at Cortland. ... Don Edward Fehrenbacher was a well known Historian of 10th century US politics, Slavery, and Abraham Lincoln. ... United States v. ... Presser v. ... Erwin Chemerinsky (born 1953) is a well-known professor of Constitutional law and federal civil procedure, currently teaching at the Duke University School of Law, a position which he has held since July 1, 2004. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Gun politics in the United States - Biocrawler (2766 words)
Gun control advocates argue that high levels of gun ownership lead to higher levels of suicide and accidental deaths; gun ownership advocates dispute these statistics, for example pointing out that Japan, which allows virtually no private gun ownership, has one of the highest suicide rates in the world.
Another position taken by gun rights advocates is that an armed citizenry is the population's last line of defense against tyranny by their own government, as many believe was one of the main intents of the Second Amendment.
However, Minnesota's shall-issue law was invalidated by a state appeals court in 2005 on grounds that the law was passed in violation of a provision in the state constitution that prohibited multi-issue legislation.
Gun politics (1595 words)
In both the United States and around the world, debates about firearms policy center on the role of privately owned firearms in crime and crime prevention, as well as on the role of these firearms in the balance of power between governments and the people.
Some who argue for "gun rights" do so from a type of private-property libertarian perspective, saying that the government has no right to interfere with individuals rights to own guns or any other inanimate object of private property as long as the individuals are not harming or intimidating their fellow citizens.
Gun Politics in the UK In the United Kingdom, handguns are completely banned for private ownership (exceptions to the ban include pistols of antique and historical interest, starting pistols and shot pistols for pest control).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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