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Encyclopedia > Gun control
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. (Discuss)

The phrase gun control refers to efforts to restrict or limit the possession, production, importation, shipment, sale, and/or use of guns by private citizens. In this context, the guns in question are generally personal firearms: handguns and long guns. The gun control issue in the United States is a highly contentious one (see gun politics). The right to own a firearm is enshrined in the United States Constitution, in the Second Amendment. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of freedom or restriction (more gun rights or more gun control) should be enforced upon the private ownership and usage of firearms, and to what extent ownership influences crime and the... 155 mm M198 howitzer U.S. Army soldier with a compact M249 variant USS Iowa (BB-61) fires a full broadside of nine 16/50 and six 5/38 guns during a target exercise near Vieques Island, Puerto Rico, 1 July 1984. ... An assortment of modern firearms using fixed ammunition, including military assault rifles, a sporting shotgun (fourth from bottom), and a tactical shotgun (third from bottom). ... A handgun is a firearm small enough to be carried and used in one hand. ... A long gun is a firearm with an extended barrel, usually designed to be fired braced against the shoulder. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of freedom or restriction (more gun rights or more gun control) should be enforced upon the private ownership and usage of firearms, and to what extent ownership influences crime and the... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares the necessity for a well regulated militia, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people to keep and bear arms. // Text The Second Amendment, as passed by the House and...

Contents


Self Defense

John Lott, author of More Guns, Less Crime, analyzed crime data from the years 1977 to 1992 and discovered a positive correlation between gun control legislation and crimes in which criminals victimize law-abiding citizens. The findings reveal that criminals ignore gun control laws, and are effectively deterred by armed intended victims. Other researchers, however, have found serious flaws in Lott's studies. Ayres and Donahue, for example, found that if crime data for the years after 1992 is included, Lott's conclusions do not hold up. They published their findings in the Standford Law Review. Furthermore, serious questions have arisen about Lott's academic integrity because he was unable to provide evidence of the existence of a study that is spoken of in his book More Guns, Less Crime. [1] John R. Lott Jr. ...


According to information from the U.S. Department of Justice, handguns were used to commit more than 900,000 crimes each year from 1987 to 1992. During the same time period, firearms were used in self defense against violent crimes approximately 62,000 times annually. In addition, firearms were used about 20,000 times each year by people to protect their property against theft. [2]


Advocates of rights to gun ownership (gun rights) counter that since law abiding gun owners vastly outnumber the criminals who steal guns, the only way to eliminate this avenue of criminal gun ownership is to fully disarm all law abiding gun owners. Even then, just as with illegal drugs and illegal full-autos, some argue criminals would continue to smuggle guns into the USA from other nations. The Scotland Yard report on the illegal importation of firearms into the United Kingdom, following the near total gun ban in that nation, is cited as an example of what happens when firearms are banned for law abiding citizens. However, it must be taken into consideration that the UK and other developed nations that have strict gun laws generally have very low levels of gun crime compared to the US. So while strict gun control may not prevent every criminal from obtaining a gun, it can certainly reduce the number of criminals who have easy access to firearms. New Scotland Yard, London New Scotland Yard, often referred to simply as Scotland Yard or The Yard, is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, responsible for policing Greater London (although not the City of London itself). ...


Non-defensive uses of guns, such as hunting, varmint control and the sport of target shooting, are often lost in the debate despite being the most common reasons for private gun ownership. However it should be noted that most countries where a gun control is enforced allow these kinds of uses.


Gun Facts

In 1996, 2 people were murdered by handguns in New Zealand, 15 in Japan, 106 in Canada, 213 in Germany, and 9,390 in the United States. [FBI Uniform Crime Report]


Guns kept in the home for self-protection are 43 times more likely to kill a family member or friend than to kill in self-defense. [ Kellermann and Reay, N.E. Journal of Medicine]


Every two years, more Americans die of gunshot than there were American soldiers killed during the entire Vietnam War [National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Defense Almanac].


In homes with guns, a member of the household is almost three times as likely to be the victim of a homicide compared to gun-free homes. Kellermann AL, Rivara FP, et al. "Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home." NEJM 329:15 (1993):1084-1091.


• In 2001, firearms were used to murder 6 people in New Zealand, 56 in Japan, 96 in Great Britain, 168 in Canada, and 331 in Germany United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, The Eighth United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (2001-2002).


In comparison, firearms were used to murder 11,348 in the United States WISQARS, Injury Mortality Reports.


In 2003, there were only 163 justifiable homicides by private citizens using handguns in the United States FBI Uniform Crime Report, 2003, table 2.16, p. 24.


Human rights

Many opponents of gun control believe that the right to own a firearm is a fundamental human right. Many in the United States believe that the right to own guns is not actually based on the second amendment and that if there were no second amendment in the U.S. Constitution, one would still possess a right to own a weapon of self-defense, which in today's context, means guns. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ...


The right to own a firearm, they contend, is based on the right to self-defense, i.e., the right to those means to defend oneself against those who wish to destroy one's life. That the right to self-defense is itself a corollary of the right to life.


Libertarians and other advocates of human rights say that it would be absurd to say one has the right to life, but does not have the right to the means necessary to protect that life. They say it would be like saying one has the right to life, but not the right to purchase food. This is what they claim opponents to the right to own a gun are really against: the right to life. See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


Under libertarianism and other philosophies based on individual liberty, it is the government's job to use force to defend its citizen's rights; however, government is not omnipotent, and it is not omnipresent: it cannot be everywhere. In many cases the protective forces of government cannot arrive to a criminal situation in time to prevent an irreversible situation, i.e., such as a murder. As such, every peaceful citizen has the right to those means necessary to protect themselves in emergency situations, until the police can arrive to 'takeover', i.e., an intrusion by a would be rapist when a woman is alone in ones apartment. This article is about the classical liberal individualist philosophy that strongly emphasizes private property rights conjoined with civil liberties. ...


Security against tyranny and invasion

A position taken by gun rights advocates is that an armed citizenry is the population's last line of defense against tyranny by their own government. They point out that many soldiers in the American Revolution were ordinary citizens using their privately owned firearms. In addition, the people's power to replace elected officials by voting is sufficient to keep the government in check. A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ... The American Revolution ended two toilets of Kingdom of Great stupidity rule for most of the North American colonies and created the modern United dindongs of America. ...


Indeed, there is a historical regularity in that totalitarian regimes pass gun control legislation as a first before restricting civil liberties. The sequence is supposed to be gun registration, followed some time later by confiscation. Nazi legislation is the most famous example of this sequence, but it also occurred in Marxist regimes. However, some gun control advocates claim that many democratic governments also have restrictive gun control laws with no loss of civil liberties. That claim is highly disputed. Totalitarianism describes a form of government where the state exercises absolute political and social control over most or all aspects of public and private behavior; there is no regard for individualism; and political opposition is typically subject to violent or arbitrary repression. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Invasion by hostile outside forces is another reason gun rights advocates oppose registration. If captured, the associated records would provide invaders with a means of locating and eliminating law-abiding resistance fighters. Location and capture of such records is a standard doctrine taught to military intelligence officers. Registration aside, gun rights advocates point out that an armed citizenry is a strong deterrent against a foreign invasion.


Many gun control supporters, however, argue that this leads to untrained civilians taking the role of police and military. This claim is also disputed.


U.S. gun control

In the United States, gun control has a long history. For example, Pennsylvania passed a law in the 18th Century that required everyone to swear an oath of loyalty to the state or be disarmed. In 1801, Tennessee passed a law which prohibited the carrying of concealed weapons. Louisiana passed a similar law in 1813. Illinois passed a law in 1832 that fined anyone $100 for carrying a concealed weapon. In Ohio, the fine was $200 for the same offense. Congress passed The Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 which placed restrictions on the sale of arms to Indians. States also passed laws that prohibited blacks from owning guns.


During the 20th Century, several new federal gun control laws have been passed. Concerned about lawlessness and gangs, Franklin D. Roosevelt hoped the National Firearms Act of 1934 would remove automatic weapons and short-barreled shotguns from our nation's streets. This law required purchasers to pay a $200 tax and fill out paperwork that has to be approved by the US Department of Treasury. The Federal Firearms Act of 1938 is concerned with the sale of guns through interstate or international commerce. This law required dealers to obtain a Federal Firearms License and keep a record of their sales. The assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King motivated the passage of the Gun Control Act of 1968. This law added most convicted felons to the list of people who were prohibited from posssessing firearms. It also banned mail order sales of rifles and shotguns. In 1972 the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms(ATF) was created. One of its purposes was to enforce federal gun laws. Previously, it had been the responsibility of Department of the Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division of the Internal Revenue Service to enforce such laws.


The Firearms Owners' Protection Act of 1986 eased restrictions on gun dealers and on the sale of certain guns. It also banned the sale of machine guns that were manufactured after 1986. The Crime Control Act of 1990 outlawed the possession of a gun within a school zone. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1993 required that all gun purchasers must pass a background check before buying a gun from a dealer. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, more commonly known as the Federal Assault Weapons Ban, restricted the selling and buying of certain semi-automatic firearms. This law expired in 2004 and therefore is no longer in effect.


See also

The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of freedom or restriction (more gun rights or more gun control) should be enforced upon the private ownership and usage of firearms, and to what extent ownership influences crime and the... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association, UK The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a 501(c)(4) group for the protection of gun rights in the United States, established in New York in 1871 as the American... Second Amendment Sisters, Inc. ... Amendment II (the Second Amendment) of the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, declares the necessity for a well regulated militia, and prohibits infringement of the right of the people to keep and bear arms. // Text The Second Amendment, as passed by the House and... The first Granpa Jack Freedom Booklet published by the JPFO. Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership or JPFO is a group dedicated to the preservation of gun rights in the United States. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gun politics in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3412 words)
Gun control advocates argue that high levels of gun ownership lead to higher levels of suicide and accidental deaths.
Gun control advocates answer that it is unrealistic to postulate that private citizens could successfully oppose a government which controls the full power of the US Armed Forces, were it to become tyrannical.
Gun control advocates dispute these ideas, arguing that the US's two neighbors, Mexico and Canada, are unlikely ever to invade, although recent incursions across the border by Mexican troops protecting drug traffickers weaken this argument significantly.
Gun control - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1507 words)
The gun control issue in the United States is a highly contentious one (see gun politics).
Guns kept in the home for self-protection are 43 times more likely to kill a family member or friend than to kill in self-defense.
A position taken by gun rights advocates is that an armed citizenry is the population's last line of defense against tyranny by their own government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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