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The Gullah are African Americans who live in the Low Country region of South Carolina and Georgia, which includes both the coastal plain and the Sea Islands. Historically, the Gullah region once extended north to the Cape Fear area on the coast of North Carolina and south to the vicinity of Jacksonville on the coast of Florida; but today the Gullah area is confined to the South Carolina and Georgia Low Country. The Gullah people are also called Geechee, especially in Georgia. Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Main article: African American African American history is the history of an ethnic group in the United States also known as black Americans. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... Failed to parse (unknown error): Insert formula here<<nowiki>Insert non-formatted<blockquote> Block quote </blockquote> text here</nowiki>/math><br /><small>Small Text</small> {| class=infobox style=text-align: center; font-size: 95%; |- [[Media:<nowiki><sub>|[[Image:AmericaAfrica. ... Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and in force between 1876 and 1964 that required racial segregation, especially of black, in all public facilities. ... A.U.M.P. Church AME Church National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. ... Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion and philosophy that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former (and last) emperor of Ethiopia, as Jah (the Rasta name for God incarnate, from a shortened form of Jehovah found in Psalms 68:4 in the King... Black Jews may refer to a number of different religious and ethnic groups. ... Black Hebrew Israelites (also Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, Hebrew Israelites) are groups of people of African ancestry situated mostly in the United States who claim to be descendants of the ancient Israelites. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Doctrine of Father Divine are the teachings of the late Father Divine (d. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into African American history. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom See also: American Civil Rights Movement (1896-1957) The African-American Civil Rights Movement refers to a set of... Garveyism is that aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works, words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. ... Black nationalism is a political and social movement arising in the 1960s and early 70s mostly among African Americans in the United States. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... African Americans have had a tremendous impact on left-wing politics in the United States. ... Black Conservatism is a political and social movement within African American culture that aligns largely with the American Right, emphasizing patriotism, independence and self-help, Free market and within some circles Christian Right values. ... The Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) is a non-profit organization founded in Chicago, Illinois, in 1915 as The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History by Carter G. Woodson and Jesse E. Moorland. ... United Negro College Fund logo The United Negro College Fund (UNCF) is a Fairfax, Virginia-based American philanthropic organization that fundraises college tuition money for black students and general scholarship funds for 39 historically black colleges and universities. ... The National Pan-Hellenic Council, Inc. ... The Links, Incorporated is an exclusive non-profit organization based upon the ideals of combining friendship and community service. ... Bud Fowler, the first professional black baseball player with one of his teams, Western of Keokuk, Iowa The Negro Leagues were American professional baseball leagues comprising predominantly African-American teams. ... The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is literature written by, about, and sometimes specifically for African Americans. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... African American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community. ... African American music (also called black music, formerly known as race music) is an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... African American contemporary issues are a group of social, political, and business issues that are of interest and concern to African Americans because these issues and the state of their resolution directly affect the quality of life of African Americans. ... In the United States, Historically Black Colleges And Universities (HBCU) (a type of minority-serving institution or MSI) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... African American Vernacular English (AAVE), also called African American English, Black English, Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), or Black Vernacular English (BVE), is a type variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of the American English language. ... The Gullah language is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal Low Country region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Louisiana Creole French (Kreyol Lwiziyen) is a French-based creole spoken in Louisiana. ... This is an incomplete list of African Americans. ... This is a list of landmark legislation and court decisions in the United States concerning African Americans. ... This is an alphabetical list of African-American-related topics: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A African American African American contemporary issues African American culture... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The South Carolina Low Country is a term used to describe the states coastal counties, generally south of Charleston. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the geographical feature on the coast of North Carolina. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Gullah are known for preserving more of their African linguistic and cultural heritage than any other black community in the United States. They speak an English-based creole language containing many African loanwords and significant influences from African languages in grammar and sentence structure. The Gullah language is related to Jamaican Creole, Bahamian Creole, and the Krio language of Sierra Leone in West Africa. Gullah storytelling, foodways, music, folk beliefs, crafts, farming and fishing traditions, etc. all exhibit strong influences from African cultures. A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... The Gullah language is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal Low Country region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Jamaican Creole, also known to foreigners as Patois/(Patwa) or simply Jamaican, is an English/African-based language --not to be confused with Jamaican English nor with the Rastafarian use of English-- used primarily on the island of Jamaica. ... Krio is a creole language native to the Krios, a community of about 250,000 descendants of freed slaves living in Sierra Leones capital city of Freetown. ...

Contents

"Gullah" and "Geechee"

The name "Gullah" may derive from Angola, a country in southwestern Africa where many of the Gullahs' ancestors originated. Some scholars have also suggested it comes from Gola, an ethnic group living on the border area between Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa, another region where many of the Gullahs' ancestors originated. The name "Geechee" may come from Kissi (pronounced "Geezee"), a tribe living in the border area between Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Other scholars have suggested Native American orgins for these words. The Spanish called the South Carolina and Georgia coastal region "Guale" after a Native American tribe, and the "Ogeechee River," a prominent geographical feature in coastal Georgia, takes its name from a Creek Indian word. Regardless of the origins of these names, though, it is clear that Gullah language and culture have strong connections to the African continent. The Gola or Gula are a tribal people living in western Liberia and parts of eastern Sierra Leone. ... Kissi (or Kisi) is a language split into two parts, northern and southern. ... Guale was a Native American chiefdom that became part of Spanish Floridas missionary system in the late 16th century. ... Ogeechee River is a 230 miles long river in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ...


African Roots

Most of the Gullahs' ancestors were brought to the South Carolina and Georgia Low Country through the ports of Charleston and Savannah. Charleston was the most important port in North America for the Atlantic slave trade, and almost half of the enslaved Africans brought into what is now the United States came through that one port. Savannah was also active in the Atlantic slave trade, but on a much smaller scale than Charleston. The South Carolina Low Country is a term used to describe the states coastal counties, generally south of Charleston. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City, Chucktown, Port City, Charlie O C-Port City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: The Creative Coast or The Hostess City Location Coordinates: Government County Chatham Mayor Otis S. Johnson Geographical characteristics Area 202. ... Failed to parse (unknown error): Insert formula here<<nowiki>Insert non-formatted<blockquote> Block quote </blockquote> text here</nowiki>/math><br /><small>Small Text</small> {| class=infobox style=text-align: center; font-size: 95%; |- [[Media:<nowiki><sub>|[[Image:AmericaAfrica. ...


The largest group of Africans brought into Charleston and Savannah came from the West African rice-growing region that stretches from what are now Senegal, Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau in the north to Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia in the south. South Carolina and Georgia rice planters once called this region the "Rice Coast" -- indicating its importance as a source of skilled African labor for their own rice industry -- but modern historians call it as the "Upper Guinea Coast." The second-largest group of Africans brought through these ports came from Angola in Southern Africa, but smaller numbers also came from the Gold Coast (modern Ghana) and the West Indies. The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Origin of Gullah Culture

The Gullah region once extended from SE North Carolina to NE Florida.
The Gullah region once extended from SE North Carolina to NE Florida.

The Gullah people have been able to preserve so much of their African cultural heritage because of geography and climate. By the mid-1700s, the South Carolina and Georgia Low Country was covered by thousands of acres of rice fields; and African farmers from the "Rice Coast" brought the skills that made rice one of the most successful industries in early America. [1] Image File history File links Gullah1. ... Image File history File links Gullah1. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild species...


But the semi-tropical climate that made the Low Country such an excellent place for rice production also made it vulnerable to the spread of malaria and yellow fever. These tropical diseases were carried by mosquitoes that were brought unintentionally aboard the slave ships that came from Africa. The mosquitoes bred in the swamps and inundated rice fields of the Low Country, and malaria and yellow fever soon became endemic in the region. The South Carolina Low Country is a term used to describe the states coastal counties, generally south of Charleston. ... Malaria is an infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. ... In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs. ...


Africans were far more resistant to tropical fevers than the European slave owners, and the white population of the low country grew at a slower rate than the black population. More and more Africans were also brought into the Low Country as the rice industry expanded, and by about 1708 South Carolina had a black majority. Coastal Georgia later acquired its own black majority after rice cultivation expanded there in the mid-1700s and malaria and yellow fever became endemic. Fearing disease, many white planters left the Low Country during the rainy spring and summer months when fever ran rampant, leaving their African "rice drivers," or overseers, in charge of the plantations. Having much less contact with white colonists than slaves in white majority colonies like Virginia and North Carolina, the Gullahs were able to preserve their African language, culture, and community life to a much higher degree. The Golden Isles of Georgia are a group of barrier islands on the coast of Georgia. ...


Gullah customs and traditions

African influences are found in every aspect of the Gullahs' traditional way of life:

  • Gullah rice dishes called "red rice" and "okra" soup" are similar to West African "jollof rice" and "okra soup." Jollof rice is a style of cooking brought by the Wolof and Mandé peoples of West Africa. [2]
  • The Gullah version of "gumbo" has its roots in African cooking. "Gumbo" is derived from a word in the Umbundu language of Angola, meaning "okra."
  • Gullah beliefs about "hags," "haunts" and "plat-eyes" are similar to African beliefs about malevolent ancestors, witches, and "devils" (forest spirits).
  • Gullah "root doctors" protect their clients against dangerous spiritual forces using similar ritual objects to those employed by African medicine men.
  • Gullah herbal medicines are similar to traditional African remedies.
  • The Gullah "seekin'" ritual is similar to coming of age ceremonies in West African secret societies like Poro and Sande.
  • Gullah stories about "Buh Rabbit" are similar to West and Central African trickster tales about the clever and coniving rabbit, spider, and tortoise.
  • Gullah spirituals, shouts, and other musical forms employ the "call and response" method commonly used in African music.
  • Gullah "strip quilts" mimic the design of cloth woven with the traditional strip loom used throughout West Africa. The famous kente cloth from Ghana is woven on the strip loom.

Jollof rice is a popular dish in Ghana consisting of rice, tomatoes and tomato paste, onion, salt, and red pepper as well as other optional ingredients such as vegetables, meats, and/or spices. ... The Wolof are an ethnic group found in Senegal, The Gambia, and Mauritania. ... Mandé is an ethnic group of West Africa. ... A bowl of shrimp gumbo Gumbo is a spicy, hearty stew or soup, found typically in the states on the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, and very common in the southern part of Louisiana and the Lowcountry around Charleston, South Carolina. ... Umbundu is a language spoken by the Ovimbundu people in the central highlands of Angola. ... Binomial name Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Okra, or ladys finger, is a flowering plant in the mallow family Malvaceae, originating somewhere near present-day Ethiopia. ... Mortar and pestle Mortar used to pulverise plant material with liquid nitrogen A mortar and pestle are two tools used in conjunction with each other to grind and mix substances. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... A Boo Hag is a mythical creature in the folklore of South Carolinas Gullah culture. ... Witchcraft, in various historical, religious and mythical contexts, is the use of certain kinds of alleged supernatural or magical powers. ... A witch doctor often refers to healers that believe that maladies are caused by magic and are therefore best cured by it, as opposed to science or developed medicine. ... It has been suggested that Herbal supplements be merged into this article or section. ... Coming of age is a young persons formal transition from adolescence to adulthood. ... The Poro, or Purrah or Purroh, is a secret society of Sierra Leone. ... Sande is a womens association found in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea that initiates girls into adulthood, confers fertility, instills notions of morality and proper sexual comportment, and maintains an interest in the well-being of its members throughout their lives. ... Brer Rabbit is a fictional character, the hero of the Uncle Remus stories derived from African American folktales of the Southern United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section can be improved by converting lengthy lists to text. ... The term Call and response may refer to Call and response -- a type of musical phrasing Call-and-response -- a type of communication Call and Response is a Californian pop band. ... Four styles of household basket. ... The Mende are a large West African ethnic group (population approximately 2 million), speakers of the Mende language, living primarily in Sierra Leone and Liberia. ... An example of a patchwork quilt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kente cloth, known locally as nwentoma, is a type of fabric made of interwoven woven cloth strips and is native to the country of Ghana, where it was first developed in the 12th century. ...

Civil War period

When the U.S. Civil War began, the Union rushed to blockade the Confederate shipping. White planters on the Sea Islands, fearing an invasion by the US naval forces, abandoned their plantations and fled to the mainland. When Union forces arrived on the Sea Islands in 1861, they found the Gullah people eager for their freedom, and eager as well to defend it. Many Gullahs served with distinction in the Union Army's First South Carolina Volunteers. The Sea Islands were the first place in the South where slaves were freed, and long before the War ended, Quaker missionaries from Pennsylvania came down to start schools for the newly freed slaves. Penn Center, now a Gullah community organization on Saint Helena Island, South Carolina, began as the very first school for freed slaves. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (April 3–April 10, 1865) Largest city New Orleans... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... The First South Carolina Volunteers was a Union Army regiment during the American Civil War. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... St. ...


After the Civil War ended, the Gullahs' isolation from the outside world actually increased in some respects. The rice planters on the mainland gradually abandoned their farms and moved away from the area due to the unwillingness of free blacks to work in the dangerous and disease-ridden rice fields and to a series of hurricanes that devastated the crops in the 1890s. Left alone in remote rural areas in the Low Country, the Gullahs continued to practice their traditional culture with little influence from the outside world well into the 20th Century. On August 27, 1893 a major hurricane which came to be known as the Sea Islands Hurricane struck the United States near Savannah, Georgia. ...


Modern times

In recent years the Gullah people -- led by Penn Center and other determined community groups -- have been fighting to keep control of their traditional lands. Since the 1960s, resort development on the Sea Islands has threatened to push Gullahs off family lands they have owned since Emancipation, but they have fought back against uncontrolled development on the islands through community action, the courts, and the political process. The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive decree by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during that countrys Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States of America that had not already returned to Union control. ...


The Gullahs have also struggled to preserve their traditional culture. In 2005, the Gullah community unveiled a translation of the New Testament in the Gullah language, a project that took more than 20 years to complete. The Gullahs achieved another victory in 2006 when the U.S. Congress passed the "Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor Act" that provides $10 million over ten years for the preservation and interpretation of historic sites relating to Gullah culture. The "heritage corridor" will extend from southern North Carolina to northern Florida. The project will be administered by the US National Park Service with strong input from the Gullah community. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Gullahs have also reached out to their lost family in West Africa. Gullah groups made three celebrated "homecomings" to Sierra Leone in 1989, 1997, and 2005. Sierra Leone is at the heart of the traditional rice-growing region of West Africa where many of the Gullahs' ancestors originated; and Bunce Island, the British slave castle in Sierra Leone, sent many African captives to Charleston and Savannah during the mid- and late 1700s. These dramatic homecomings were the subject of three documentary films -- "Family Across the Sea" (1990), "The Language You Cry In" (1998), and "Priscilla's Homecoming" (in production). Plan of Bunce Island, 1726 Bunce Island (spelled at different periods Bence, Bense, or Bance Island) lies in the Sierra Leone River, the estuary of the Rokel River and Port Loko Creek, about 20 miles upriver from Sierra Leones capital city of Freetown. ...


Over the years, the Gullahs have attracted many historians, linguists, folklorists, and anthropologists interested in their rich cultural heritage; and many academic books on that subject have been published. The Gullah have also become a symbol of cultural pride for African Americans throughout the United States and a subject of general interest in the media. This has given rise to countless newspaper and magazine articles, documentary films, and children's books on Gullah culture and to a number of popular novels set in the Gullah region.


Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana recently held an event to showcase the Gullah culture. Purdue's Black Cultural Center maintains a bibliography of Gullah publications as well.


Cultural survival

The media typically portray the Gullah people as living only on the Sea Islands, but Gullahs have always lived everywhere in the Low Country region -- on both the Sea Islands and the much larger coastal plain. The media also portray Gullah culture as being "near extinction" because of resort development on the islands. Many Sea Island communities are, indeed, under serious threat, but there are islands that have never been subjected to tourism development where the Gullah way of life is very much intact. And most Gullah people live in coastal areas where resort development is not an issue and where their culture also still thrives today. The South Carolina Low Country is a term used to describe the states coastal counties, generally south of Charleston. ... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


Far from being near extinction, Gullah culture has proven to be particularly resilient. Gullah traditions are still strong in urban areas of the Low Country, like Charleston and Savannah. But the old ways have persisted even among Gullahs who have left the low country and moved far away. Many Gullahs migrated to New York starting at the beginning of the 20th century, and these urban migrants have not lost their identity. Gullahs have their own neighborhood churches in Harlem, Brooklyn, and Queens, and typically send their children back to rural communities in South Carolina and Georgia during the summer months to be reared by grandparents, uncles and aunts. Gullah people living in New York also frequently return to the low country to retire. Second- and third-generation Gullahs from New York often maintain many of their traditional customs and sometimes still speak the Gullah language. Harlem is a neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, long known as a major black cultural and business center. ... Brooklyn (named for the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... Queens Borough in New York City, in yellow Queens is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... The Gullah language is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal Low Country region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ...


See also

The Gullah language is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal Low Country region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Stono Rebellion is one of the earliest known organized acts of rebellion against slavery in the Americas. ... Denmark Vesey (originally Telemanque, 1767-1822) was an African American slave and entrepreneur who planned what would have been a large slave rebellion had word of the plans not been leaked. ... Gullah Jack, also known as Couter Jack, was a Methodist, an African conjurer, and a slave to Paul Pritchard in Charleston, South Carolina. ... 19th-century engraving depicting a Black Seminole warrior of the First Seminole War (1817–8). ... Robert Smalls (5 April 1839 - 23 February 1915) was an African American former slave born in Beaufort, South Carolina, United States, who became a politician and naval hero. ... The First South Carolina Volunteers was a Union Army regiment during the American Civil War. ... Port Royal Experiment was an American Civil War period program in which former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by plantation owners. ... A Boo Hag is a mythical creature in the folklore of South Carolinas Gullah culture. ... The South Carolina Low Country is a term used to describe the states coastal counties, generally south of Charleston. ... The Golden Isles of Georgia are a group of barrier islands on the coast of Georgia. ... The Sea Islands are an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Plan of Bunce Island, 1726 Bunce Island (spelled at different periods Bence, Bense, or Bance Island) lies in the Sierra Leone River, the estuary of the Rokel River and Port Loko Creek, about 20 miles upriver from Sierra Leones capital city of Freetown. ...

External links

*GULLAH BIBLIOGRAPHY


Further reading (Gullah history)

  • Ball, Edward (1998) "Slaves in the Family,” New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
  • Carney, Judith (2001) "Black Rice: The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas," Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Littlefield, Daniel (1981) Rice and Slaves: Ethnicity and the Slave Trade in Colonial South Carolina," Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
  • Miller, Edward (1995) "Gullah Statesman: Robert Smalls from Slavery to Congress, 1839-1915," Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
  • Pollitzer, William (1999) "The Gullah People and their African Heritage," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Smith, Julia Floyd (1985) "Slavery and Rice Culture in Low Country Georgia: 1750-1860," Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
  • Wood, Peter (1974) "Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion," New York: Knopf.

Further reading (Gullah language and storytelling)

  • Bailey, Cornelia & Christena Bledsoe (2000) "God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man: A Saltwater Geechee Talks about Life on Sapelo Island," New York: Doubleday.
  • Geraty, Virginia Mixon (1997) "Gulluh fuh Oonuh: A Guide to the Gullah Language," Orangeburg, SC: Sandlapper Publishing Company.
  • Jones, Charles Colcock (2000) "Gullah Folktales from the Georgia Coast," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Jones-Jackson, Patricia (1987) "When Roots Die: Endangered Traditions on the Sea Islands," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Montgomery, Michael (ed.) (1994) "The Crucible of Carolina: Essays in the Development of Gullah Language and Culture," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Sea Island Translation Team (2005) "De Nyew Testament (The New Testament in Gullah)," New York: American Bible Society.
  • Stoddard, Albert Henry (1995) "Gullah Animal Tales from Daufuskie Island, South Carolina," Hilton Head Island, SC: Push Button Publishing Company.
  • Turner, Lorenzo Dow (2002) "Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect," Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

Further reading (Gullah culture)

  • Creel, Margaret Washington (1988) "A Peculiar People: Slave Religion and Community Culture among the Gullahs," New York: New York University Press.
  • Joyner, Charles (1984) "Down by the Riverside: A South Carolina Slave Community," Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Kiser, Clyde Vernon (1969) "Sea Island to City: A Study of St. Helena Islanders in Harlem and Other Urban Centers," New York: Atheneum.
  • McFeely, William (1994) "Sapelo's People: A Long Walk into Freedom," New York: W.W. Norton.
  • Parish, Lydia (1992) "Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Rosenbaum, Art (1998) "Shout Because You're Free: The African American Ring Shout Tradition in Coastal Georgia," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Rosengarten, Dale (1986) "Sea Grass Baskets of the South Carolina Lowcountry," Columbia, South Carolina: McKissick Museum, University of South Carolina.
  • Twining, Mary & Keigh Baird (1991) "Sea Island Roots: The African Presence in the Carolinas and Georgia," Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press.

Further reading (historical photos of the Gullah)

  • Georgia Writer's Project (1986) "Drums and Shadows: Survival Studies among the Georgia Coastal Negroes," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Johnson, Thomas L. & Nina J. Root (2002) "Camera Man's Journey: Julian Dimock's South," Athens: University of Georgia Press.
  • Minor, Leigh Richmond & Edith Dabbs (2003) "Face of an Island: Leigh Richmond Miner's Photographs of Saint Helena Island," Charleston, South Carolina: Wyrick & Company.
  • Ulmann, Doris & Robert Coles (1974) "The Darkness and the Light: Photographs by Doris Ulmann," Millerton, New York: Aperture, Inc.

Children's books on the Gullah

*BIBLIOGRAPHY: CHILDREN'S BOOKS ON THE GULLAH

  • Branch, Muriel (1995) "The Water Brought Us: The Story of the Gullah-Speaking People," New York: Cobblehill Books.
  • Clary, Margie Willis (1995) "A Sweet, Sweet Basket," Orangeburg, South Carolina: Sandlapper Publishing Company.
  • Geraty, Virginia (1998) "Gullah Night Before Christmas," Gretna, Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company.
  • Jaquith, Priscilla (1995) "Bo Rabbit Smart for True: Tall Tales from the Gullah," New York: Philomel Books.
  • Krull, Kathleen (1995) "Bridges to Change: How Kids Live on a South Carolina Sea Island," New York: Lodestar Books.
  • Seabrooke, Brenda (1994) "The Bridges of Summer," New York: Puffin Books.
  • Raven, Margot Theis (2004) "Circle Unbroken," New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Works of fiction set in the Gullah region

  • Dash, Julie (1999) "Daughters of the Dust," New York: Plume Books.
  • Gershwin, George (1935) "Porgy and Bess," New York:Alfred Publishing. [3]
  • Heyward, Dubose (1925)"Porgy," Charleston, S.C.: Wyrick & Compnay. [4]
  • Hurston, Zora Neale (1937) "Their Eyes Were Watching God," New York: Harper Perennial. [5]
  • Naylor, Gloria (1988) "Mama Day," New York: Ticknor & Fields.
  • Straight, Susan (1993) "I Been in Sorrow's Kitchen and Licked Out All the Pots," New York: Hyperion.

Films

*REVIEWS: FILMS ON THE GULLAH

  • The Language You Cry In (1998)
  • God's Gonna Trouble the Water (1997)
  • Daughters of the Dust (1991)
  • Family Across the Sea (1990)
  • When Rice Was King (1990)
  • Gullah Tales (1988)
  • Tales of the Unknown South (1984) (One of these short films is a Gullah ghost story.)

Radio programs

Gullah Historical Figures

Gullah Jack, also known as Couter Jack, was a Methodist, an African conjurer, and a slave to Paul Pritchard in Charleston, South Carolina. ...

Gullah leaders, artists, and cultural activists

Emory Campbell is a renowned community leader among the Gullah people, African Americans who live in the coastal low country region of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Marquetta Goodwine (also known as Queen Quet or Marquetta L. Goodwine), a native of St. ...

Famous African Americans with Gullah roots


  Results from FactBites:
 
Gullah (1109 words)
Gullah is spoken chiefly on the coastal islands—the so-called rice islands—that stretch for 160 miles along the seaboard of South Carolina and Georgia, but it is also heard on parts of the adjacent mainland.
Gullah was thus sheltered from the process of "decreolization," by which creole speech gradually changes under the influence of the prevailing language.
Gullah has special pronunciations of its own, however: put is regularly pit, see'em is shum, ain't it becomes enti, and young is nyoung.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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