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Encyclopedia > Gull
Gulls
Black-headed Gull
Black-headed Gull
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Suborder: Lari
Family: Laridae
Vigors, 1825
Genera

Larus
Rissa
Pagophila
Rhodostethia
Xema
Creagus Seagull or Seagulls may refer to: Gull, a family of seabird, members of which are often called seagulls. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixel Image in higher resolution (2372 × 1756 pixel, file size: 625 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Larus ridibundus File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Main... Binomial name Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 The Black-headed Gull, (Larus ridibundus), is a small gull which breeds in much of Europe and Asia, and also in coastal eastern Canada. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Families Laridae Sternidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae The suborder Lari is the part of the order Charadriiformes which includes the gulls, terns, skuas and skimmers, with the waders and auks making up the rest of the order. ... Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785 – October 26, 1840) was an Irish zoologist and politician. ... Species Many, see list Larus is a large genus of seabirds to which most gulls belong. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray, 1824) The Rosss Gull, Rhodostethia rosea, is a small gull, the only species in its genus. ... Binomial name Xema sabini Sabine,, 1819 The Sabines Gull, Xema sabini, is a small gull, the only species in its genus. ... Binomial name Creagrus furcatus (Neboux, 1846) The Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus is the only nocturnal gull. ...

Gulls are birds in the family Laridae. They are most closely related to the terns (family Sternidae) and only distantly related to auks, and skimmers, and more distantly to the waders. Most gulls belong to the large genus Larus. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Pagophila Larus Rissa Creagus Xema Rhodostethia Gulls are seabirds in the family Laridae and subfamily Lari. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Species Black Skimmer (Rhynchops niger) African Skimmer (Rhynchops flavirostris) Indian Skimmer (Rhynchops albicollis) For other uses, see Skimmer (disambiguation). ... Families Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Burhinidae Chionididae Pluvianellidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Charadriidae Dunlin (Calidris alpina). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Many, see list Larus is a large genus of seabirds to which most gulls belong. ...


They are typically medium to large birds, usually grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills, and webbed feet. Gull species range in size from the Little Gull, at 120 g (4.2 oz) and 29 cm (11.5 inches), to the Great Black-backed Gull, at 1.75 kg (3.8 lbs) and 76 cm (30 inches). For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Larus minutus Pallas, 1776 The Little Gull Larus minutus, is a small gull which breeds in northern Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus, is a very large gull which breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic. ...


Most gulls, particularly Larus species, are ground nesting carnivores, which will take live food or scavenge opportunistically. The live food often includes crabs and small fish. Apart from the kittiwakes, gulls are typically coastal or inland species, rarely venturing far out to sea. The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ...


Gulls — the larger species in particular — are resourceful and highly-intelligent birds, demonstrating complex methods of communication and a highly-developed social structure - for example many gull colonies display mobbing behaviour, attacking and harassing would-be predators and other intruders.[1] In addition, certain species (e.g. the Herring Gull) have exhibited tool use behaviour. Many species of gull have learned to co-exist successfully with man and have thrived in human habitats. Others rely on kleptoparasitism to get their food. The Great Tit, a passerine bird, employs both mobbing behavior and alarm calls. ... Binomial name Pontoppidan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America, Europe and Asia. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ...


Two terms are in common usage among gull enthusiasts for subgroupings of the gulls:

  • Large white-headed gulls for the 16 Herring Gull-like species from Great Black-backed Gull to Lesser Black-backed Gull in the taxonomic list below
  • White-winged gulls for the two Arctic-breeding species Iceland Gull and Glaucous Gull

Hybridisation between species of gull occurs quite frequently, although to varying degrees depending on the species involved (see Hybridisation in gulls). The taxonomy of the large white-headed gulls is particularly complicated. Binomial name Pontoppidan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America, Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus, is a very large gull which breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull which breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. ... Binomial name Larus glaucoides Meyer, 1822 The Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides, is a large gull which breeds in the arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not Iceland, where it is only seen in the winter. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hybridisation in gulls occurs quite frequently, although to varying degrees depending on the species involved. ...


In common usage, members of various gull species are often referred to as sea gulls or seagulls. This name is used by the layman to refer to a common local species or all gulls in general, and has no fixed taxonomic meaning.

Gulls can be quite aggressive, taking food from a human's hand
Gulls can be quite aggressive, taking food from a human's hand
A gull hovers above hundreds of tourists on Brighton Pier, England
A gull hovers above hundreds of tourists on Brighton Pier, England

The American Ornithologists' Union combines Sternidae, Stercorariidae, and Rhynchopidae as subfamilies in the family Laridae, but recent research (Paton et al., 2003; Thomas et al., 2004; Paton & Baker, 2006) indicates that this is incorrect. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 284 KB) Larus argentatus, immature, near Brighton, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 284 KB) Larus argentatus, immature, near Brighton, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Brighton Marine Palace and Pier is a pleasure pier in Brighton, England. ... The American Ornithologists Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. ... Genera Sterna (Gelochelidon) (Hydroprogne) (Thalasseus) Chlidonias Phaetusa Anous Procelsterna Gygis Larosterna Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily Sterninae of the gull family Laridae. ... Genera Stercorarius Catharacta The skuas are seabirds in the family Stercorariidae. ... The Skimmers are a small family of tern-like birds in the order Charadriiformes, which also includes the waders, gulls and auks. ...

Contents

List of gulls in taxonomic order

Genus Larus Species Many, see list Larus is a large genus of seabirds to which most gulls belong. ...

Genus Rissa Binomial name Larus scoresbii Traill, 1823 The Dolphin Gull (Larus scoresbii), also known as the sexy-billed Gull, is a gull native to southern Chile and Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, and the Falkland Islands. ... Binomial name Latham, 1802 The Pacific Gull (Larus pacificus) is a very large gull, native to the coasts of Australia. ... Binomial name Larus belcheri Vigors, 1829 The Belchers Gull or Band-tailed Gull, Larus belcheri, is a South American gull. ... Binomial name Olrog, 1958 The Olrogs Gull (Larus atlanticus) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Larus crassirostris Vieillot, 1818 The Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) is a medium-sized (46cm) gull. ... Binomial name Larus modestus Tschudi, 1843 The Grey Gull (Larus modestus) is a gull found in South America. ... Binomial name Larus heermanni Cassin, 1852 The Heermanns Gull (Larus heermanni) is a gull resident in the United States and Mexico. ... Binomial name Larus leucophthalmus Temminck, 1825 The White-eyed Gull (Larus leucophthalmus) is a small gull which is endemic to the Red Sea. ... Binomial name Bruch, 1853 The Sooty Gull (Larus hemprichii) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Larus canus Linnaeus, 1758 The Common Gull, Larus canus is a medium-sized gull which breeds in the northwest of North America (where it is called Mew Gull), Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Larus audouinii Payraudeau, 1826 The Audouins Gull (Larus audouinii) is a large gull restricted to the Mediterranean and the western coast of Saharan Africa. ... Binomial name Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815 The Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) is a medium-sized gull. ... Binomial name Larus californicus (Lawrence, 1854) Subspecies Lawrence, 1854 Great Basin California Gull Jehl, 1987 Great Plains Galifornia Gull The California Gull, Larus californicus, is a medium-sized gull, smaller than the Herring Gull but larger than the Ring-billed Gull. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Black-backed Gull, Larus marinus, is a very large gull which breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic. ... Binomial name Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823) The Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus, breeds on coasts and islands through much of the southern hemisphere. ... Binomial name Larus glaucescens (Naumann, 1840) The Glaucous-winged Gull, Larus glaucescens, is a large, white-headed gull residing from the Aleutians to the western coast of Alaska to the coast of Washington. ... Binomial name Larus occidentalis (Audubon, 1839) The Western Gull, Larus occidentalis, is a large white-headed gull that lives on the western coast of North America. ... Binomial name Larus livens (Dwight, 1919) The Yellow-footed Gull, Larus livens, is a large gull, closely related to the Western Gull and thought to be a subspecies until the 1960s. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Larus glaucoides Meyer, 1822 The Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides, is a large gull which breeds in the arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not Iceland, where it is only seen in the winter. ... Binomial name Larus thayeri WS Brooks, 1915 Synonyms Larus glaucoides thayeri The Thayers Gull (Larus thayeri) is a large gull native to North America that breeds in the Arctic islands of Canada and primarily winters on the Pacific coast, from southern Alaska to the Gulf of California, though there... Binomial name Pontoppidan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America, Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Larus heuglini Bree, 1876 Heuglins Gull, Larus heuglini, is a seabird in the genus Larus. ... Binomial name Larus argentatus Pontopiddan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Naumann, 1840 Synonyms Larus cachinnans michahellis Naumann, 1840 Larus cachinnans atlantis Larus cachinnans lusitanius The Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis) is a large gull of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. ... Binomial name Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 Caspian Gull is a name applied to the gull taxon Larus (argentatus) cachinnans, a member of the Herring Gull/Lesser Black-backed Gull complex. ... Binomial name Larus argentatus Pontopiddan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Larus argentatus Pontopiddan, 1763 The Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, is a large gull which breeds across North America Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Stejneger, 1884 The Slaty-backed Gull (Larus schistisagus), is a large white-headed gull that breeds on the western coast of Alaska but travels widely during nonbreeding seasons. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull which breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. ... Binomial name Larus ichthyaetus Pallas, 1773 The Great Black-headed Gull or Pallass Gull, Larus ichthyaetus, is a large gull. ... Binomial name Larus brunnicephalus Jerdon, 1840 The Brown-headed Gull , Larus brunnicephalus, is a small gull which breeds in the high plateaux of central Asia from Turkmenistan to Mongolia. ... Binomial name Larus cirrocephalus Vieillot, 1818 The Grey-headed Gull (Larus cirrocephalus) is a small gull which breeds patchily in South America and Africa south of the Sahara. ... Binomial name Larus hartlaubii Bruch, 1853 The Hartlaubs Gull or King Gull, (Larus hartlaubii) is a small gull which is a non-migratory breeding resident endemic to the Atlantic Ocean coastline of South Africa and Namibia. ... Binomial name Larus novaehollandiae Stephens, 1826 The Silver Gull (Larus novaehollandiae) is the most common gull seen in Australia. ... Binomial name Larus scopulinus Forster, 1844 The Red-billed Gull Larus scopulinus is a native of New Zealand, being found throughout the country and on outlying islands including the Chatham Islands and Sub-antarctic islands. ... Binomial name Hutton, 1871 The Black-billed Gull, Mouette De Buller, or Gaviota Maorí (Larus bulleri) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Lichtenstein, 1823 The Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766 The Black-headed Gull, (Larus ridibundus), is a small gull which breeds in much of Europe and Asia, and also in coastal eastern Canada. ... Binomial name Larus genei Breme, 1839 The Slender-billed Gull, Larus genei, is a mid-sized gull which breeds very locally around the Mediterranean and the north of the western Indian Ocean (e. ... Binomial name Larus philadelphia (Ord, 1815) The Bonapartes Gull, Larus philadelphia, is a small gull. ... Binomial name (Swinhoe, 1871) The Saunderss Gull (Larus saundersi) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Tschudi, 1844 The Andean Gull (Larus serranus) is a species of gull in the Laridae family. ... Binomial name Larus melanocephalus Temminck, 1820 The Mediterranean Gull, Larus melanocephalus, is a small gull which breeds almost entirely in Europe, mainly in the south east, especially around the Black Sea, and in central Turkey. ... Binomial name Larus relictus Lönnberg, 1931 The Relict Gull, Larus relictus, is a medium-sized gull which breeds in two locations in Kazakhstan, one in Russia, several in Mongolia, and one in China. ... Binomial name Larus fulginosus Gould, 1841 The Lava Gull (Larus fuliginosus) is a large gull, probably related to the Laughing Gull. ... Binomial name Larus atricilla Linnaeus, 1758 Adult winter Laughing Gulls The Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla, is a medium-sized gull of North and South America. ... Binomial name Larus pipixcan Wagler, 1831 The Franklins Gull (Larus pipixcan) is a small gull. ... Binomial name Larus minutus Pallas, 1776 The Little Gull Larus minutus, is a small gull which breeds in northern Europe and Asia. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ...

  • Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla
  • Red-legged Kittiwake, Rissa brevirostris

Genus Pagophila Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ...

Genus Rhodostethia This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Genus Xema Binomial name Rhodostethia rosea (MacGillivray, 1824) The Rosss Gull, Rhodostethia rosea, is a small gull, the only species in its genus. ...

Genus Creagrus Binomial name Xema sabini Sabine,, 1819 The Sabines Gull, Xema sabini, is a small gull, the only species in its genus. ...

  • Swallow-tailed Gull, Creagrus furcatus

The Laridae are known from fossil evidence since the Early Oligocene, some 30-33 mya. A fossil gull from the Late Miocene of Cherry County, USA is placed in the prehistoric genus Gaviota; apart from this and the undescribed Early Oligocene fossil, all prehistoric species are at least tentatively assigned to the modern genus Larus, q.v. Binomial name Creagrus furcatus (Neboux, 1846) The Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus is the only nocturnal gull. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Cherry County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ Alcock, J. (1998) Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (6th edition). Sinauer Associates, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-009-4
  • Olsen, Klaus Malling & Larsson, Hans (1995): Terns of Europe and North America. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-4056-1
  • Paton, Tara A. & Baker, Allan J. (2006): Sequences from 14 mitochondrial genes provide a well-supported phylogeny of the Charadriiform birds congruent with the nuclear RAG-1 tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39(3): 657–667. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.011 (HTML abstract)
  • Paton, T. A.; Baker, A. J.; Groth, J. G. & Barrowclough, G. F. (2003): RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 268-278. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8 (HTML abstract)
  • Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A. & Székely, Tamás (2004): A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny. BMC Evol. Biol. 4: 28. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-28 PDF fulltext Supplementary Material

John Alcock is an American behavioral ecologist and author. ... The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books dealing with the identification of groups of birds. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The BMC-series of journals are a collection of 59 (at last count) online research journals published by BioMed Central. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Rudy's Gull-index: Pictures of several less well-known plumages of large gulls plus many links.
  • The Norwegian Gull Page: Huge picture archive including all NW European species, as well as features from the Nearctic and SE Europe.
  • Bird pictures - Gulls: Pictures and descriptions of large gulls from The Netherlands, France, Spain and Poland.
  • Bird Hybrids Database: Search for specific laridae hybrids by entering gull species name in query box. Click on hybrid for references.
  • Gull videos on the Internet Bird Collection
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up gull in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Iceland Gull - encyclopedia article about Iceland Gull. (1131 words)
The Iceland Gull, Larus glaucoides, is a large gull which breeds in the arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not Iceland, where it is only seen in the winter.
This is a fairly large gull, very pale in all plumages, with no fl in the wings or tail.
The Glaucous Gull, Larus hyperboreus is a large gull which breeds in the arctic regions of the northern hemisphere and the Atlantic coasts of Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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