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Encyclopedia > Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective.
Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective.

The Gulf of Mexico is the ninth largest body of water in the world. It is an ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. The shape of its basin is roughly circular and approximately 810 nautical miles (1,500 km) wide and filled with sedimentary rocks and debris. It connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Florida Straits between the U.S. and Cuba, and with the Caribbean Sea (with which it forms the American Mediterranean Sea) via the Yucatan Channel between Mexico and Cuba. Tidal ranges are extremely small due to the narrow connection with the ocean. The gulf basin is approximately 615,000 mi² (1.6 million km²). Almost half of the basin is shallow intertidal waters. At its deepest it is 14,383 ft (4,384 m) at the Sigsbee Deep, an irregular trough more than 300 nautical miles (550 km) long. It was probably formed approximately 300 million years ago as a result of the seafloor sinking.[1] There is evidence that the Chicxulub Crater was formed when a large meteorite hit the earth 65 million years ago which may have led to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x837, 545 KB)The Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x837, 545 KB)The Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Categories: Stub | Straits ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean Caribbean Sea from space (top left). ... A mediterranean sea, in oceanography, is a mostly enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds. ... The Yucatan Channel is a strait between Mexico and Cuba. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The Sigsbee Deep is the deepest part of the Gulf of Mexico. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater (IPA: ) (cheek-shoo-LOOB) is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ...

Contents

History

Formation

Little is known about the geologic history of the Gulf of Mexico Basin before Late Triassic time. Some authors have postulated the presence of a basin in the area during most of Paleozoic time, but most evidence seems to indicate that Paleozoic rocks do not underlie most of the Gulf of Mexico basin and that the area was, at the end of Paleozoic time, part of the large supercontinent of Pangea, the result of the collision of several continental plates.[3] The Late Triassic (also known as Upper Triassic, or Keuper) is the third and final of three epochs of the Triassic period. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Pangea may refer to: a common alternative spelling of the name Pangaea given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras Pangea, a geology equipment supplier/developer of mineralogical testing equipment Pangea (cable system), a submarine telecommunications cable system connecting the Netherlands and...


The present Gulf of Mexico basin is believed to have had its origin in Late Triassic time as the result of rifting within the North American Plate at the time it began to crack and drift away from the African and South American plates. Rifting probably continued through Early and Middle Jurassic time with the formation of "stretched" or "transitional" continental crust throughout the central part of the basin. Intermittent advance of the sea into the continental area from the west during late Middle Jurassic time resulted in the formation of the extensive salt deposits such as the Brine pool. It appears that the main drifting episode, during which the Yucatan block moved southward and separated from the North American Plate and true oceanic crust formed in the central part of the basin, took place during the early Late Jurassic, after the formation of the salt deposits.[3]  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The thickness of the Earths crust (km). ... Basin has several meanings: Look up basin in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ...


Since Late Jurassic time, the basin has been a stable geologic province characterized by the persistent subsidence of its central part, probably due at first to thermal cooling and later to sediment loading as the basin filled with thick prograding clastic wedges along its northwestern and northern margins, particularly during the Cenozoic.[3] The Cenozoic Era (IPA pronunciation: ); sometimes Caenozoic Era or Cainozoic Era (in the United Kingdom), meaning new life (Greek (kainos), new, and (zoe), life), is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ...


To the east, the stable Florida platform was not covered by the sea until the latest Jurassic or the beginning of Cretaceous time. The Yucatan platform was emergent until the mid-Cretaceous. After both platforms were submerged, the formation of carbonates and evaporites has characterized the geologic history of these two stable areas. Most of the basin was rimmed during the Early Cretaceous by carbonate platforms, and its western flank was involved during the latest Cretaceous and early Tertiary in a compressive deformation episode, the Laramide Orogeny, which created the Sierra Madre Oriental of eastern Mexico.[3] Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Carbonate is an anion with a charge of -2 and an empirical formula of CO32-. An aqueous solution of carbon dioxide contains a minute amount of H2CO3, called carbonic acid, which dissociates to form hydrogen ions and carbonate ions. ... Evaporites are sediments formed when mineral rich water evaporates. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... The Laramide orogeny was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. ... The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico, spanning 1000 km from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, to northern Puebla and Querétaro, where it joins with the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico. ...


Today, there are 7 main areas of the gulf:[3]

  • Gulf of Mexico Basin, which contains the Sigsbee Deep and can be further divided into the continental rise, the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain, and the Mississippi Cone.
  • Campeche Bank, which extends from the Yucatan Straits in the east to the Tabasco-Campeche Basin in the west and includes Arrecife Alacran.
  • Eastern Mexico Continental Shelf and Slope, which is located between Veracruz to the south and the Rio Grande to the north.

The Sigsbee Deep is the deepest part of the Gulf of Mexico. ... The shared flood plain of the Yazoo and Mississippi Rivers The Mississippi Delta is the distinct northwest section of the state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. ... Biloxi and Mississippi coast The city derived its name originally from the Biloxi, a native American tribe: Biloxi (Tribe) Biloxi is a city located in Harrison County, Mississippi. ... Apalachee Bay is an arm of the Gulf of Mexico occupying an indentation of the Florida coast to the west of where the Florida peninsula joins the rest of the United States mainland. ... Apalachee Bay is an arm of the Gulf of Mexico occupying an indentation of the Florida coast to the west of where the Florida peninsula joins the rest of the United States mainland. ... The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland, generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Florida Keys and Cuba. ... Palm trees in Islamorada The Florida Keys is an archipelago of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States. ... Dry Tortugas overview map The Dry Tortugas are a small group of islands, located at the end of the Florida Keys, USA, about west of Key West, and west of the Marquesas Keys, at , the closest islands. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Bay of Campeche The Bay of Campeche (Spanish: Bahía de Campeche or Sonda de Campeche) is the southern bight of the Gulf of Mexico. ... “Bay” redirects here. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Rio Grande (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

European exploration

Although Christopher Columbus was credited with the founding of the Americas, the ships in his four voyages never reached the Gulf of Mexico. Instead, Columbus sailed into the Caribbean around Cuba and Hispaniola. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ...


The first European exploration of the Gulf of Mexico was Amerigo Vespucci in 1497. He followed the coastal land mass of central America before returning to the Atlantic Ocean via the Straits of Florida between Florida and Cuba. In his letters, Vespucci described this trip, and once Juan de la Cosa returned to Spain, a famous world map, depicting Cuba as an island, was produced. Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454 -February 22, 1512) was an Italian merchant, explorer and cartographer. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait is a strait located south-southeast of the North American mainland, generally accepted to be between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the Florida Keys and Cuba. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


In 1506, Hernán Cortés took part in the conquest of Hispaniola and Cuba, receiving a large estate of land and Indian slaves for his effort. In 1510, he accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an aide of the governor of Hispaniola, in his expedition to conquer Cuba. In 1518 Velázquez put him in command of an expedition to explore and secure the interior of Mexico for colonization. 1506 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... Early map of Hispaniola The island of Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For loved to eat live babies and terrorists the Spanish painter, see Diego Velázquez. ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ...


In 1517, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba discovered the Yucatán Peninsula. This was the first European encounter with an advanced civilization in the Americas, with solidly-built buildings and a complex social organization which they recognized as being comparable to those of the Old World; they also had reason to expect that this new land would have gold. All of this encouraged two further expeditions, the first in 1518 under the command of Juan de Grijalva, and the second in 1519 under the command of Hernán Cortés, which led to the Spanish exploration, military invasion, and ultimately settlement and colonization known as the Conquest of Mexico. Hernández did not live to see the continuation of his work: he died in 1517, the year of his expedition, as the result of the injuries and the extreme thirst suffered during the voyage, and disappointed in the knowledge that Diego Velázquez had given precedence to Grijalva as the captain of the next expedition to Yucatán. Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (died 1517) was a Spanish conquistador, known to history mainly for the ill-fated expedition he led in 1517, in the course of which the Yucatán Peninsula was discovered by Europeans. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... European people: populations: Demography of Europe genetics: Genetic history of Europe ethnicities: European ethnic groups European Americans Category:European diaspora Categories: | | ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Events A plague of tropical fire ants devastates crops on Hispaniola. ... Juan de Grijalva (born around 1489 in Cuéllar - January 21, 1527) was a Spanish conquistador. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ...


In 1523, Ángel de Villafañe sailed to Mexico City and shipwrecked along the coast of Padre Island, Texas in 1554. When word of the disaster reached Mexico City, the viceroy requested a rescue fleet and immediately sent Villafañe marching overland to find the treasure-laden vessels. Villafañe traveled to Pánuco and hired a ship to transport him to the site, which had already been visited from that community. He arrived in time to greet García de Escalante Alvarado (a nephew of Pedro de Alvarado), commander of the salvage operation, when Alvarado arrived by sea on July 22, 1554. The team labored until September 12 to salvage the Padre Island treasure. This loss, in combination with other ship disasters around the Gulf of Mexico, gave rise to a plan for establishing a settlement on the northern Gulf Coast to protect shipping and more quickly rescue castaways. As a result, the expedition of Tristán de Luna y Arellano was sent and landed at Pensacola Bay on August 15, 1559. Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Ángel de Villafañe (c. ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... A map of Padre Island. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Tristán de Luna y Arellano (1519 – 1571) was a Spanish conquistador of the 16th century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ...


On December 11, 1526, Charles V granted Pánfilo de Narváez a license to claim what is now the Gulf Coast of the United States, known as the Narváez expedition. The contract gave him one year to gather an army, leave Spain, be large enough to found at least two towns of one hundred people each, and garrison two more fortresses anywhere along the coast. On April 7, 1528, they spotted land north of what is now Tampa Bay. They turned south and traveled for two days looking for a great harbor the master pilot Miruelo knew of. Sometime during these two days, one of the five remaining ships was lost on the rugged coast, but nothing else is known of it. December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Charles V may refer to: Charles V of France, the Wise (1338–1380). ... Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (1470 – 1528) was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... The Narváez Expedition was a Spanish attempt, in 1527–1528, to install Pánfilo de Narváez as adelantado (governor) of Florida. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Landsat image of Tampa Bay Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor and estuary along the Gulf of Mexico on the western coast of Florida, made up of Old Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay, McKay Bay, and the New Tampa Bay. ...


In 1697, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville sailed for France and was chosen by the Minister of Marine to lead an expedition to rediscover the mouth of the Mississippi River and to colonize Louisiana which the English coveted. Iberville's fleet sailed from Brest on 24 October 1698. On January 25, 1699, Iberville reached Santa Rosa Island in front of Pensacola founded by the Spanish; he sailed from there to Mobile Bay and explored Massacre Island, later renamed Dauphin Island. He cast anchor between Cat Island and Ship Island; and on February 13, 1699, he went to the mainland, Biloxi, with his brother Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville. On May 1, 1699, he completed a fort on the north-east side of the Bay of Biloxi, a little to the rear of what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi. This fort was known as Fort Maurepas or Old Biloxi. A few days later, on May 4, Pierre Le Moyne sailed for France leaving his teenage brother, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, as second in command to the French commandant. Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Pierre Le Moyne dIberville. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Pensacola is the name of several cities as well as other things: Pensacola (tribe), a group of Native Americans A number of places in the U.S. state of Florida: Pensacola, Florida An area airport, see Pensacola Regional Airport. ... Mobile Bay - Landsat photo Mobile and Mobile Bay from space, June 1991 During a jubilee along the shores of Mobile Bay, blue crabs & flounder come to shallow water near shore Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. ... Dauphin Island is a barrier island on the western edge of Mobile Bay. ... Cat Island may refer to: Cat Island, Bahamas Cat Island is a island in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Ship Island is a famous tourist spot off the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Biloxi and Mississippi coast The city derived its name originally from the Biloxi, a native American tribe: Biloxi (Tribe) Biloxi is a city located in Harrison County, Mississippi. ... Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville (February 23, 1680–March 7, 1767) was a colonizer and governor of Louisiana. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Location of city of Ocean Springs, Mississippi (right) on the Gulf of Mexico Ocean Springs is a city in Jackson County, Mississippi, about 2 miles east of Biloxi. ... Fort Maurepas was one of the first forts built by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de la Vérendrye and his men west of Fort St. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Principal features

Gulf beach near Sabine Pass.
Gulf beach near Sabine Pass.

The Gulf of Mexico's eastern, north, and northwestern shores lie along the US states of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. This coastline spans 1,630 miles, receiving water from thirty-three major rivers that drain 31 states.[4] The Gulf's southwestern and southern shores lie along the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, and the northernmost tip of Quintana Roo. On the southeast it is bordered by Cuba. It supports major American, Mexican and Cuban fishing industries. The outer margins of the wide continental shelves of Yucatán and Florida receive cooler, nutrient-enriched waters from the deep by a process known as upwelling, which stimulates plankton growth in the euphotic zone. This attracts fish, shrimp, and squid.[5] River drainage and atmospheric fallout from industrial coastal cities also provide nutrients to the coastal zone. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that comprise Mexico. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... The State of Campeche was long a part of Yucatán and shared its history through the mid 19th century. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Link title {{portal|Food} A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ... The euphotic zone is the surface layer of the ocean where sufficient light is available for photosynthesis. ...


The Gulf Stream, a warm Atlantic Ocean current and one of the strongest ocean currents known, originates in the gulf, as a continuation of the Caribbean Current-Yucatán Current-Loop Current system. Other circulation features include the anticyclonic gyres which are shed by the Loop Current and travel westward where they eventually dissipate, and a permanent cyclonic gyre in the Bay of Campeche. The Bay of Campeche in Mexico constitutes a major arm of the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, the gulf's shoreline is fringed by numerous bays and smaller inlets. A number of rivers empty into the gulf, most notably the Mississippi River in the northern gulf, and the Grijalva and Usumacinta Rivers in the southern gulf. The land that forms the gulf's coast, including many long, narrow barrier islands, is almost uniformly low-lying and is characterized by marshes and swamps as well as stretches of sandy beach. For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... The Caribbean Current is a warm water current that flows into the Caribbean Sea from the east along the coast of South America. ... Gulf Stream currents (1943 map). ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... Gulf Stream currents (1943 map). ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... Bay of Campeche The Bay of Campeche (Spanish: Bahía de Campeche or Sonda de Campeche) is the southern bight of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Bay of Campeche The Bay of Campeche (Spanish: Bahía de Campeche or Sonda de Campeche) is the southern bight of the Gulf of Mexico. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Río Grijalva is a river in south Mexico. ... Categories: Stub ...


The continental shelf is quite wide at most points along the coast, most notably at the Florida and Yucatán Peninsulas. The shelf is exploited for its oil by means of offshore drilling rigs, most of which are situated in the western gulf and in the Bay of Campeche. Another important commercial activity is fishing; major catches include red snapper, amberjack, tilefish, swordfish, and various grouper, as well as shrimp and crabs. Oysters are also harvested on a large scale from many of the bays and sounds. Other important industries along the coast include shipping, petrochemical processing and storage, military use, paper manufacture, and tourism.  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Bay of Campeche The Bay of Campeche (Spanish: Bahía de Campeche or Sonda de Campeche) is the southern bight of the Gulf of Mexico. ...

Graph showing the overall water temperature of the Gulf between Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Although Katrina cooled waters in its path by up to 4°C, they had rebounded by the time of Rita's appearance.

The gulf's warm water temperature can feed powerful Atlantic hurricanes causing extensive human death and other destruction as happened with Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In the Atlantic, a hurricane will draw up cool water from the depths and making it less likely that further hurricanes will follow in its wake (warm water being one of the preconditions necessary for their formation). However, the Gulf is shallower and its entire water column is warm. When a hurricane passes over, although the water temperature may drop it soon rebounds and becomes capable of supporting another tropical storm.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x931, 77 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1215x931, 77 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tropical cyclone ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Lowest pressure 895 mbar (hPa)[1] Damages $10 billion (2005 USD)[1] Fatalities 7 direct, 113 indirect Areas affected Bahamas, Florida, Cuba, Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season Hurricane Rita is the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most... This article is about weather phenomena. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...


The Gulf is considered aseismic: however, mild tremors have been recorded throughout history (usually 5.0 or less on the Richter scale). A 6.0 tremor was recorded on September 10, 2006, 250 miles off the coast of Florida which caused no damage, but could be felt throughout the Southeastern United States. No damage or injuries were reported.[7] Earthquakes such as this may be caused by interactions between sediment loading on the sea floor and adjustment by the crust.[8] A house sitting atop the Calaveras Fault In geology, aseismic creep is measurable surface displacement along a fault in the absence of notable earthquakes. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Pollution

Because of the ever increasing amount of nitrogen and phosphates dissolved in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, pollution has more than doubled since 1950. Current estimates suggest that three times as much nitrogen is being carried into the Gulf today compared with levels 30 years ago or at any time in history in the water. Every summer there is now an area south of the Louisiana coastline, larger than the U.S. state of Massachusetts at over 7,000 mi² (18,000 km²) that is hypoxic. These waters do not carry enough oxygen to sustain marine life. This annually enlarging dead zone is a major threat to the fishing industry and to public health. General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the... This article is about the U.S. State. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ...

Fishing boats in Biloxi
Fishing boats in Biloxi

Also, there are frequent "red tide" algae blooms[9] that kill fish and marine mammals and cause respiratory problems in humans and some domestic animals when the blooms reach close to shore. This has especially been plaguing the southwest Florida coast, from the Florida Keys to north of Pasco County, Florida. Image File history File links Fishing and shrimp boats on the Gulf of Mexico File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf of Mexico Mississippi Fishing Biloxi, Mississippi ... Image File history File links Fishing and shrimp boats on the Gulf of Mexico File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf of Mexico Mississippi Fishing Biloxi, Mississippi ... A red tide off the coast of La Jolla, California. ... Palm trees in Islamorada The Florida Keys is an archipelago of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States. ... Pasco County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. ...

See also

Estuary mouth Charlotte Harbor Estuary is a natural estuary spanning the west coast west coast of Florida from Venice to Bonita Springs to Winter Haven, Florida on the Gulf of Mexico and is one of the most productive wetlands in Florida. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Gulf of Mexico is a major body of water bordered and nearly landlocked by North America. ...

References

  1. ^ General Facts about the Gulf of Mexico. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  2. ^ Buckley, A. (1997). Dinosaur Extinction Page.
  3. ^ a b c d e gulfbase.org
  4. ^ National Water Program Guidance: FY 2005. epa.gov. Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  5. ^ GULF OF MEXICO. Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
  6. ^ Warm Waters Provide Fuel for Potential Storms. NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2006-05-05.
  7. ^ Central Florida Feels Quake. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  8. ^ Earthquakes in the Gulf of Mexico. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  9. ^ The Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Red Tides. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA Earth Observatory is an online publication of NASA where the public can access satellite imagery and scientific information about our planet for free. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ...

External links

Gallery

Coordinates: 25°22′07″N, 90°23′26″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Nature Conservancy in the Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico Initiative: Gulf of Mexico Environment - Gulf of Mexico ... (371 words)
The Gulf of Mexico is a large oceanic basin that borders five U.S. states — Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida — to the north, and Mexico’s eastern shoreline and the Yucatán Peninsula to the south.
Because of its considerable size and diversity of habitat types, the Gulf of Mexico is home to a highly diverse and valuable array of natural resources, including nesting waterfowl, colonial waterbird rookeries, sea turtles, and fisheries all supported by the abundant bays, estuaries, tidal flats and barrier islands of the Gulf of Mexico.
The drainage basin for the northern Gulf of Mexico extends from the Appalachians to the Rockies.
Gulf of Mexico - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (918 words)
The gulf's eastern, north, and northwestern shores lie within the United States of America (specifically, the states of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas); its southwestern and southern shores lie within Mexico (specifically, the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo); on the southeast it is bordered by Cuba.
The present-day culture of the coastal region is primarily Spanish-American (Mexico, Cuba) and Anglo-American (U.S.).
It is hypothesized that this impact was the asteroid that caused the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs.
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