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Encyclopedia > Gulf of Bothnia
The Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea

The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin.; Pohjanlahti, Sw.; Botniska viken) is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It is situated between Finland's west coast and Sweden's east coast. In the south of the gulf lie the Åland Islands, between the Sea of Åland and the Archipelago Sea. Map of the Baltic Sea (translated from the Ostsee. ... Map of the Baltic Sea (translated from the Ostsee. ... Finnish ( (help· info)) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92%) and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. ... Swedish ( (help· info)) is a North Germanic language (also called Scandinavian languages) spoken predominantly in Sweden and in part of Finland, especially along the coast and on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Motto: None Anthem: Ã…länningens sÃ¥ng Capital Mariehamn Largest city Mariehamn Official language(s) Swedish Government Governor Premier Autonomous Province Peter Lindbäck Roger Nordlund Autonomy 1920 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   6,784 km² (n/a) 77. ... The sea area of the Gulf of Bothnia between the Åland Islands and mainland Finland is called Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish Skärgårdshavet). ...

Contents


Name

Bothnia is a Latinization of a name in an ancestral nordic language from which the current Swedish botten also derives, Väster-botten on the Sweden side and Öster-botten the Finland side ("East Bottom" and "West Bottom"). The -th- in the Latinized word comes from the earlier Germanic letter, thorn. The name of the Finland province in Finnish, Pohjan-maa, or "Pohjan"-land, gives us a hint as to the meaning in both languages: Pohja means both "bottom" and "north." The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... Thorn, a sharp structure or growth on plants. ...


Botten is believed to be related to English bottom as in bottomland. It might part of a general north European distinction of lowlands, as opposed to highlands, such as in the names Netherlands and Zemaitia (Lithuania) or Samland (Prussia). Sambia or the Sambian Peninsula (Russian: semlyandskiy poluostrov, German: Samland) is the name of a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (Old Prussian: Prūsa, German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad...


A second possibility is that botten follows an alternative Scandic connotation of 'furthermost'. Thus, the Gulf of Bothnia would be the farthest extent of the Ocean.


Julius Pokorny gives the extended Indo-european root as *bhudh-m(e)n with a *bhudh-no- variant, from which also Latin fundus, as in fundament. The original meaning of English north, from Indo-european *ner- "under", indicates an original sense of "lowlands" for "bottomlands". On the other hand, by "North" the classical authors usually meant "outermost", as the northern lands were outermost to them. Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ...


Which meaning prevailed is a distinction that may be too precise to determine, especially as European cultures tended to assimilate and exchange cultural elements.


Whether Pohjanmaa translates botten or vice versa is a question for history and archaeology, relating to who settled and named the region first.


Geophysical data

The gulf is 725 km (450 mi) long, 80-240 km (50-150 mi) wide and has an average depth of 60 m (200 ft, 33 fathoms). The maximum depth is 295 m (965 ft, 161 fathoms). The surface area is 117,000 sq km (45,200 sq mi). A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... A mile is a unit of distance (or, in physics terminology, length) currently defined as 5,280 feet, 1,760 yards, or 63,360 inches. ... The metre (Commonwealth English) or meter (American English) (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A fathom is a non-SI unit of length. ...


Into the gulf flow a number of rivers from both sides; consequently, a salinity gradient exists from north to south. In the South the water is the normal brackish water of the Baltic Sea, but in the North the salinity has dropped so low that one can no longer taste the salt in the water and many freshwater fish thrive in it. Being nearly fresh, the gulf is iced for five months. Icing of the Baltic sea begins and ends there. Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. ... Brackish redirects here. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ...


Geologic history

For the geologic history of the entire region, refer to Baltic sea. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ...


History

Some historians consider Ottar to refer to the Gulf of Bothnia when he uses Cwen sea (9th c.). It is possible too that Claussön's usage Mare Gotticus (15th c.) refers to Gulf of Bothnia. Ottar from HÃ¥logaland was a Viking adventurer from HÃ¥logaland. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Claudius Claussön Swart, or Clavus Claudius, or Nicholas Niger, (September 14, 1388-?), was a Danish geographer sometimes considered to be the first Nordic cartographer. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Economy

Botten or Pohjan are heavily forested. Trees are logged, then transported to the coast for milling.


Rivers

View of the river by its estuary Umeå The Ume River (Swedish: Umeälven) is one of the main rivers in northern Sweden. ... Position Ångermanälven The Ångerman River (also known as the Angerman River, or Ångermanälven in Swedish) is one of Swedens longest rivers with a total length of 490 kilometer, and the one containing the largest amount of water. ... Location of Lule älv Lule älv (English: Lule River) is a major river in Sweden, rising in northern Sweden and flowing southeast for 450 km (280 miles) before reaching the Gulf of Bothnia at Luleå. The river is an important source of hydroelectric energy, with major hydroelectric plants at Porjus... The Torne River (Finnish: Tornionjoki, Swedish: Torne älv, Torneälven, Northern Sami: Duortneseatnu, Meankieli: Tornionväyla), is a river on the border between Sweden and Finland. ... Kemijoki, with its 550 km length, is the longest river in Finland. ...

Cities


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bottenvikshamnar (0 words)
North Sweden Seaports is a cooperation between three sea ports situated within 150 km along the coastline in the Gulf of Bothnia; from south Port of Skellefteå, Port of Piteå and Port of Luleå.
Gulf of Bothnia Stevedore operates in all three ports and provides full service in the areas of loading and unloading vessels as well as supplying complementary services to this line of business, such as land transport, warehousing, clearance etc.
Gulf of Bothnia Stevedore handles approximately 5 million tonnes of Cargo annually with 160 employees.
Unique Facts About Europe: The Baltic Sea (1029 words)
Icing begins in the northern coast of Gulf of Bothnia typically in early November, reaching the open waters of Bothnian Bay, the northern basin of Gulf of Bothnia, in early January.
Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January.
The Gulf of Riga lies between the Latvian capital city of Riga and the Estonian island of Saaremaa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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