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Encyclopedia > Gulf War
Persian Gulf War

Date August 2, 1990February 28, 1991 (officially ended November 30, 1995)
Location North of The Arabian Peninsula
Result
  • Altering of Kuwait
  • Heavy casualties and destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure
  • Internal rising against Saddam Hussein encouraged then ignored, and suppressed
  • Establishment of US military presence in Saudi Arabia
  • Saudi scorn of Osama bin Laden
  • Imposition of UN Sanctions against Iraq
  • Palestinian Expulsion from Kuwait [1]
Belligerents
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia
Flag of Egypt Egypt
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait
Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates
Flag of Oman Oman
Flag of Qatar Qatar
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan
Flag of Syria Syria
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of South Korea South Korea
Flag of the Philippines Philippines (medical support)
Flag of Argentina Argentina
NATO
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of France France
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of Norway Norway
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlandset al.
Flag of Iraq Republic of Iraq
Commanders
Flag of the United States Norman Schwarzkopf
Flag of Saudi Arabia Khalid bin Sultan[2][3]
Flag of the United Kingdom Peter de la Billière
Flag of the United States George H.W. Bush
Flag of the United Kingdom John Major
Flag of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher
Flag of Australia Bob Hawke
Flag of Iraq Saddam Hussein
Strength
956,600[4]
1,820 Fighter aircraft (1,376 American, 175 Saudi, 69 British, 42 French)
3,318 tanks (mainly M1 Abrams(US),Challenger 2(UK), M60 Patton(US)
8 aircraft carriers
2 battleships
20 cruisers
20 destroyers
5 submarines[5]
260,000
649 fighters
2,000 tanks (Chinese & self produced T-55 T-62, about 300 soviet T-72) [6]
Casualties and losses
358 killed in action,
776 wounded in action,
41 taken prisoner (unknown Kuwaiti casualties)
Est. 20,000-200,000 (see section below),
80,000 taken prisoner,[7]
75,000 wounded

The Persian Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991)[8][9] was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force from 34 nations[10] authorized by the United Nations (UN) and led primarily by the United States and the United Kingdom in order to return Kuwait to the control of the Emir of Kuwait. The conflict developed in the context of the Iran-Iraq War and in 1990 Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq's oil through slant drilling.[11] The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops was met with immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by some members of the UN Security Council, and with immediate preparation for war by the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The expulsion of Iraqi troops from Kuwait began in January 1991 and was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, which took over Kuwait and entered Iraqi territory. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and bordering areas of Saudi Arabia. Iraq also launched missiles against targets in Saudi Arabia and Israel in retaliation for their support of the invading forces in Kuwait. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Saudi Arabia, United States, Qatar1 Iraq Commanders Sultan Al-Mutairi 2 Salah Abud Mahmud 3 Casualties and losses 36 dead, 32 wounded, 2 POW 2000+, 400 POW4 The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. ... Combatants United States Army British Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Casualties U.S. 12 KIA and FF, 57 wounded 600 killed and wounded The Battle of 73 Easting was a decisive tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between United States and... The Battle of Al Busayyah was a tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Army. ... Combatants US Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders Paul E. Funk Ayad Futayih Al-Rawi Casualties 2 KIAs 12 WIAs 4 Bradleys destroyed 10 Bradleys damaged Unknown number of KIAs and WIAs 6 T-72s tanks destroyed or abandoned 17 APCs destroyed The Battle of Phase Line Bullet was one of... Combatants United States Iraq Commanders Montgomery Meigs Saddam Hussein Strength 1st Armored Division 2nd Brigade of Medina Luminous Division Casualties 1 killed (friendly fire), 30 wounded, 4 tanks damaged 186 tanks destroyed, 127 AFVs destroyed Gulf War Kuwait – Khafji – 73 Easting – Al Busayyah – Phase Line Bullet – Medina Ridge – Wadi Al... Combatants US Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders General Norman Schwarzkopf F.General Ayad Al-Rawi Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of Wadi Al-Batin or Battle of Ruqi Pocket or Operation Red Storm was one of the battles which happeneds before the begining of the Desert Storm operations in February 15... The Battle of Norfolk was a tank battle fought on 27 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Coalition of Gulf War were the countries officially opposed to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait during the 1990 / 1991 Gulf War. ... UN redirects here. ... This is an (incomplete) list of emirs of Kuwait: The Sabah dynasty came to power in 1752, before the Bani Khalid tribe was ruling the region. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Directional drilling. ... The Iraqi Army is the land force of Iraq, active in various forms since being formed by the British during their mandate over the country after World War I. Today, it is a component of the Iraqi Security Forces tasked with assuming responsibility for all Iraqi land-based military operations... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Polish missile wz. ...


Since the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88 had been called the "Persian Gulf War" by many news sources, the 1991 war has sometimes been called the "Second Persian Gulf War", but more commonly, the 1991 war is styled simply the "Gulf War" or the "First Gulf War", in distinction from the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[12] "Operation Desert Storm" was the U.S. name of the air and land operations and is often used to refer to the conflict. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... AirLand doctrine was first adopted by the US Army in 1982 as Field Manual 100-5, and has been the driving military doctrine of the last 20 years. ...


Shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, US President George H.W. Bush started to deploy US Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard units to Saudi Arabia (Operation Desert Shield), while at the same time urging other countries to send their own forces to the scene. UN coalition-building efforts were so successful that by the time the fighting (Operation Desert Storm) began on January 16, 1991, twelve countries had sent naval forces, joining the regional states of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf states, as well as the huge array of the US Navy, which deployed six aircraft-carrier battle groups; eight countries had sent ground forces, joining the regional troops of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as the seventeen heavy and six light brigades of the US Army and nine Marine regiments, with their large support and service forces; and four countries had sent combat aircraft, joining the local air forces of Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia, as well as the US Air Force, US Navy, and U.S. Marine aviation, for a grand total of 2,430 fixed-wing aircraft. For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USAF redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with military aviation. ... Marine AV-8B Harrier II on the deck of USS Nassau While other nations have Marines who are aviators, only the United States Marine Corps has its own dedicated aviation arm. ...


Against them, the Iraqis had only a few gunboats and small missile craft to match the coalition's armada; but on the other hand, some 1.2 million ground troops with about 5,800 tanks, 5,100 other armored vehicles, and 3,850 artillery pieces made for a lot more strength on the ground. Iraq also had 750 fighters and bombers, 200 other aircraft, and elaborate missile and gun defenses. A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... Armada may refer to: Armada Española, the Spanish Navy. ... ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

Further information: Iraq-United States relations

During the Cold War Iraq had been chiefly an ally of the Soviet Union and there was a history of friction between it and the United States. The US was concerned with Iraq’s role in Israeli-Palestinian politics and its disapproval of moves toward peace between Israel and Egypt. It also disliked Iraqi support for various Arab and Palestinian militant groups such as Abu Nidal, which led to its inclusion on the incipient U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism on 29 December 1979. The US remained officially neutral during the outbreak of hostilities in the Iran-Iraq War, although it assisted Iraq covertly. In March 1982, however, Iran began a successful counteroffensive (Operation Undeniable Victory) and the United States began to more concertedly support Iraq to prevent Iran from overrunning the region. The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... The U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism is a list, compiled by the U.S. State Department, of countries that the United States sees as sponsoring terrorism. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Combatants  Iraq  Iran In March 1982, Iran launched an offencive named Operation Undeniable Victory. ...


In a bid to open full diplomatic relations with Iraq, the country was removed from the list of state sponsors of terrorism. Ostensibly this was because of improvement in the regime’s record, although former United States Assistant Secretary of Defense Noel Koch later stated, "No one had any doubts about [the Iraqis'] continued involvement in terrorism… The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran."[13] With Iran's newfound success in the war and its rebuff of a peace offer in July, arms sales to Iraq (which included poison gas which was then used against Iranian troops) from other states (most importantly the USSR, France, Egypt, and starting that year, the People's Republic of China) reached a record spike in 1982, but an obstacle remained to any potential US-Iraqi relationship — Abu Nidal continued to operate with official support in Baghdad. When Saddam Hussein expelled the group to Syria at the US' request in November 1983, the Reagan administration then sent Donald Rumsfeld to Saddam Hussein as a special envoy to cultivate ties. Assistant Secretary of Defense is a title used for many executive positions in the United States Department of Defense. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... // Values are shown in millions of US dollars at constant (1990) estimated values. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII in Roman) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ...


Tensions with Kuwait

Main article: Invasion of Kuwait

When the ceasefire with Iran was signed in August 1988, Iraq was virtually bankrupt and heavily indebted to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Those two nations had funded Iraq due to shared antagonism towards the Iranian regime. Iraq's economy was further damaged when the following year, in open defiance of OPEC quotas, Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent. The collapse in oil prices had a catastrophic impact on the Iraqi economy. The Iraqi government described it as a form of economic warfare, which it claimed was aggravated by Kuwait slant-drilling across the border into Iraq's Rumaila oil field [4]. Combatants Republic of Iraq State of Kuwait Commanders Ali Hassan al-Majid N/A Strength 100,000[1] 16,000[2] Casualties 37+ aircraft (est. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a group of thirteen states[1][2] made up of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Indonesia. ... Politics of Iraq includes the social relations involving authority or power in Iraq. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Kuwait had been part of the Ottoman province of Basra, and although its ruling dynasty, the al-Sabah family, had concluded a protectorate agreement in 1899 that assigned responsibility for its foreign affairs to Britain, it did not make any attempt to secede from the Ottoman Empire. For this reason, Iraqi governments had always refused to accept Kuwait's separation, and its borders were never clearly defined or mutually agreed.[citation needed] The British High Commissioner drew lines that deliberately constricted Iraq's access to the ocean so that any future Iraqi government would be in no position to threaten Britain's domination of the Gulf. Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


In late July 1990, as negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait stalled, Iraq massed troops on its border with the emirate and summoned US ambassador April Glaspie to a meeting with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Two transcripts of that meeting have been produced, both of them controversial. In them, Saddam Hussein outlined his grievances against Kuwait, while promising that he would not invade Kuwait before one more round of negotiations. In the version published by The New York Times on September 23, 1990, Glaspie expressed concern over the troop buildup to Saddam Hussein: This article is about the year. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... April Catherine Glaspie (born April 26, 1942), American diplomat, is best-known for her role in the events leading up to the Gulf War of 1991. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

We have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait. I was in the American Embassy in Kuwait during the late ’60s. The instruction we had during this period was that we should express no opinion on this issue and that the issue is not associated with America. James Baker has directed our official spokesmen to emphasize this instruction. We hope you can solve this problem using any suitable methods via [Chadli] Klibi [then Arab League General Secretary] or via President Mubarak. All that we hope is that these issues are solved quickly. With regard to all of this, can I ask you to see how the issue appears to us?

My assessment after 25 years' service in this area is that your objective must have strong backing from your Arab brothers. I now speak of oil. But you, Mr. President, have fought through a horrific and painful war. Frankly, we can see only that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Normally that would not be any of our business. But when this happens in the context of what you said on your national day, then when we read the details in the two letters of the Foreign Minister, then when we see the Iraqi point of view that the measures taken by the U.A.E. and Kuwait is, in the final analysis, parallel to military aggression against Iraq, then it would be reasonable for me to be concerned. And for this reason, I received an instruction to ask you, in the spirit of friendship — not in the spirit of confrontation — regarding your intentions. I simply describe the position of my Government. And I do not mean that the situation is a simple situation. But our concern is a simple one. James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ...

Some have interpreted portions of these statements, particularly the language "We have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait", as signaling an American "green light" for the invasion. Although the US State Department did not confirm (or deny) the authenticity of these transcripts, US sources say that it handled everything “by the book” (in accordance with the US' official neutrality on the Iraq-Kuwait issue) and had not signaled to Saddam Hussein any approval for defying the Arab League’s Jeddah crisis squad, which had conducted the negotiations. Many believe that Saddam Hussein may have been influenced by the perception that the US was not interested in the issue, (as they had not minded when he ordered the invasion of Iran) for which the Glaspie transcript is merely an example, and that he may have felt so in part because of U.S. support for the reunification of Germany, another act that he considered to be nothing more than the nullification of an artificial, internal border. Others, such as Kenneth Pollack, believe he had no such illusion, or that he simply underestimated the extent of a US response. The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) refers to the reunification of Germany from its constituent parts of East Germany and West Germany under a single government on October 3, 1990. ... Kenneth Michael Pollack (born 1966) is a an arm-chair warmongerer who helped deceive a nation into committing itself to a catastrophic military intervention . ...


In November 1989, CIA director William Webster met with the Kuwaiti head of security, Brigadier Fahd Ahmed Al-Fahd. Subsequent to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Iraq claimed to have found a memorandum pertaining to their conversation. The Washington Post reported that Kuwait’s foreign minister fainted when confronted with this document at an Arab summit in August. Later, Iraq cited this memorandum as evidence of a CIA - Kuwaiti plot to destabilize Iraq economically and politically. The CIA and Kuwait have described the meeting as routine and the memorandum as a forgery. The purported document reads in part: 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... William Hedgcock Webster (born March 6, 1924) was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1978 to 1987 and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1987 to 1991. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

We agreed with the American side that it was important to take advantage of the deteriorating economic situation in Iraq in order to put pressure on that country's government to delineate our common border. The Central Intelligence Agency gave us its view of appropriate means of pressure, saying that broad cooperation should be initiated between us on condition that such activities be coordinated at a high level.

Saddam Hussein detained several Westerners, with video footage being shown on state television.

On 23 August 1990 Saddam Hussein appeared on state television with Western hostages to whom he had refused exit visas. They were seen as human shields, though Saddam Hussein denied the claim. In the video he is seen ruffling the hair of a young boy named Stuart Lockwood and asks through the interpreter if he is "getting his milk". He went on to say "We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long. Your presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of war."[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Human shield is a military and political term describing the presence of civilians in or around combat targets to deter an enemy from attacking those targets. ...


Diplomacy and Operation Desert Shield

Three C-130s for EAF , USAF , RSAF.
Three C-130s for EAF , USAF , RSAF.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Egyptian Air Force, or EAF (Arabic: , ), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian armed forces. ... USAF redirects here. ... The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: ‎, ), is the air force branch of Saudi Arabian armed forces. ...

UN resolution

On August 2, 1990 Saddam launched the invasion of Kuwait. After two days of intense combat, most of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or escaped to neighboring Saudi Arabia. Within hours of the invasion, Kuwaiti and US delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council, which passed Resolution 660, condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. On August 3, the Arab League passed its own resolution. The resolution also called for a solution to the conflict from within the League, and warned against foreign intervention. On August 6, UN Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Before the Gulf War, Kuwait maintained a small military force consisting of army, navy, and air force and national guard units. ... Iraqi President Saddam Hussein talks with elite Republican Guard officers in Baghdad on March 1, 2003. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 was adopted by the UN Security Council on 2 August 1990. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RESOLUTION 661 (1990) Adopted by the Security Council at its 2933rd meeting on 6 August 1990 The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990, Deeply concerned that that resolution has not been implemented and that the invasion by Iraq of Kuwait continues with further loss of...


Possible attack on Saudi Arabia

The decision by the US and its allies to fight the Iraqi invasion had as much to do with preventing an attack on Saudi Arabia, a nation of considerable importance owing to its oil reserves, as it did with liberating Kuwait itself. The rapid success of the Iraqi army had brought it within easy striking distance of the Hama oil fields, one of Saudi Arabia’s largest. Iraqi control of these fields as well as Kuwait and Iraqi reserves would have given it control of the majority of the world's reserves. The Iraqi armored divisions would have encountered the same difficulties that Saudi forces faced defending the oil fields, namely traversing large distances across inhospitable desert. This would have been exacerbated by intense bombing by the Saudi Air Force, by far the most well-equipped (if not so well-trained) arm of the Saudi military. RSAF Tornado during Gulf War Boeing F-15S Eagle, the multirole backbone fighter of the RSAF RSAF Lockheed C-130H Hercules RSAF Boeing E-3A Sentry RSAF BAe Hawk The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: , ), is the air force of Saudi Arabia. ...


Iraq had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia. The Saudis had lent Saddam Hussein some 26 billion dollars to prosecute his invasion of Iran, as they feared the influence of mainly Shia Iran's Islamic revolution on its own Shia minority (most of the Saudi oil fields are in territory populated by Shias). The long desert border was also ill-defined. Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Saddam Hussein began verbally attacking the Saudi kingdom. He argued that the US-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Saddam Hussein combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


Operation Desert Shield

Main article: Operation Desert Shield (Iraq)

Acting on the policy of the Carter Doctrine, and out of fear the Iraqi army could launch an invasion of Saudi Arabia, US President George H. W. Bush quickly announced that the US would launch a "wholly defensive" mission to prevent Iraq from invading Saudi Arabia—Operation Desert Shield was when US troops were moved into Saudi Arabia on August 7, 1990 (or August 8 depending on time zone used).[15] This "wholly defensive" doctrine was to be quickly abandoned. On August 8, Iraq declared parts of Kuwait to be extensions of the Iraqi province of Basra and the rest to be the 19th province of Iraq.[16] The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ...


The United States Navy mobilized two naval battle groups, the aircraft carriers USS Dwight D. Eisenhower and USS Independence and their escorts, to the area, where they were ready by August 8. A total of 48 US Air Force F-15s from the 1st Fighter Wing at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, landed in Saudi Arabia and immediately commenced round the clock air patrols of the Saudi-Kuwait-Iraq border areas to prevent further Iraqi advances. The U.S. also sent the battleships USS Missouri and USS Wisconsin to the region. Military buildup continued from there, eventually reaching 500,000 troops, twice the number used in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Much of the material was airlifted or carried to the staging areas via fast sealift ships, allowing a quick buildup. The consensus among military analysts is nonetheless that until October, the US military forces in the area would have been insufficient to stop an invasion of Saudi Arabia had Iraq attempted one. USN redirects here. ... Two aircraft carriers, USS (left), and HMS Illustrious (right), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier and a light V/STOL aircraft carrier. ... USS (CVAN-69/CVN-69), nicknamed Ike, is the second of 10 Nimitz-class supercarriers in the United States Navy, named after the thirty-fourth President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... For other ships of the same name, see USS Independence. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1st Fighter Wing (1 FW) is an air combat unit of the United States Air Force and the host unit at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Two F-22A turn in on final approach to Langley Air Force Base Langley Air Force Base (IATA: LFI, ICAO: KLFI) is the home of the United States Air Forces 1st Fighter Wing (1 FW) and the 480th Intelligence Wing (480 IW). ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... USS Wisconsin (BB-64) is an Iowa-class battleship, and is the second ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Building a coalition

A long series of UN Security Council resolutions and Arab League resolutions were passed regarding the conflict. One of the most important was Resolution 678, passed on November 29, giving Iraq a withdrawal deadline of January 15, 1991, and authorizing “all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660,” a diplomatic formulation authorizing the use of force[citation needed]. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is the organ of the United Nations charged with maintaining peace and security among nations. ... UN Security Council Resolution 678 authorizes member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions (resolution 661, resolution 662, resolution 664, resolution 665, resolution 666, resolution 667, resolution 669, resolution 670, resolution 674 and resolution 667), and to restore international peace... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The United States, especially Secretary of State James Baker, assembled a coalition of forces to join it in opposing Iraq, consisting of forces from 34 countries: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States itself.[17] Although they did not contribute any forces, Japan and West Germany did make financial contributions totaling $10 billion and $6.6 billion respectively. US troops represented 73% of the coalition’s 956,600 troops in Iraq. Many of the coalition forces were reluctant to join; some felt that the war was an internal Arab affair, or feared increasing American influence in Kuwait. In the end, many nations were persuaded by Iraq’s belligerence towards other Arab states, and offers of economic aid or debt forgiveness.[citation needed] The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930) served as the Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ...

H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.

George H.W. Bush riding in an armored jeep with General Schwarzkopf in Saudi Arabia, November 22, 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... George H.W. Bush riding in an armored jeep with General Schwarzkopf in Saudi Arabia, November 22, 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. ... For other uses, see President (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ...

Reasons for intervention

The United States and the United Nations gave several public justifications for involvement in the conflict. The most prominent reason was the Iraqi violation of Kuwaiti territorial integrity. In addition, the United States moved to support its ally of Saudi Arabia, whose importance in the region and as a key supplier of oil made it of considerable geopolitical importance. During a speech given on September 11, 1990, U.S. President George H.W. Bush summed up the reasons with the following remarks: "Within three days, 120,000 Iraqi troops with 850 tanks had poured into Kuwait and moved south to threaten Saudi Arabia. It was then that I decided to act to check that aggression."[18] The Pentagon claimed that satellite photos showing a buildup of Iraqi forces along the border were the source of this information, but this was later shown to be false when a reporter for the St. Petersburg Times acquired commercial satellite images made at the time in question, which showed nothing but empty desert. [19] Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Polls showed that upwards of 80% of the American public supported the troop deployment.[20] The anti-war movement and its “No Blood For Oil” slogan did not achieve the levels of support it would get 12 years later.


Other justifications for foreign involvement included Iraq’s history of human rights abuses under Saddam Hussein. Iraq was also known to possess biological weapons and chemical weapons, which Hussein had used against Iranian troops during the Iran-Iraq War and against his own county's Kurdish population in the Al-Anfal Campaign. Iraq was known to have a nuclear weapons program as well. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Although there were human rights abuses committed in Kuwait by the invading Iraqi military, the ones best known in the U.S. were an invention of the public relations firm hired by the government of Kuwait to influence U.S. opinion in favor of military intervention. Shortly after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the organization Citizens for a Free Kuwait was formed in the U.S. It hired the public relations firm Hill & Knowlton for about $11 million, paid by the Kuwaiti government.[21] Among many other means of influencing U.S. opinion (distributing books on Iraqi atrocities to U.S. soldiers deployed in the region, 'Free Kuwait' T-shirts and speakers to college campuses, and dozens of video news releases to television stations), the firm arranged for an appearance before a group of members of Congress in which a woman identifying herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait City hospital described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor. The story was an influence in tipping both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate. The Senate supported the military actions in a 52-47 vote. A year after the war, however, this allegation was revealed to be a fabrication. The woman who had testified was found to be a member of the Kuwaiti Royal Family, in fact the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the U.S. [5] She had not been living in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion. The details of the Hill & Knowlton public relations campaign, including the incubator testimony, were published in a John R. MacArthur's Second Front: Censorship and Propaganda in the Gulf War (Berkeley, CA: University of CA Press, 1992), and came to wide public attention when an op-ed by MacArthur was published in the New York Times. This prompted a re-examination by Amnesty International, which had originally promoted an account alleging even greater numbers of babies torn from incubators than the original fake testimony; after finding no evidence to support it, the organization issued a retraction. Citizens for a Free Kuwait (CFK) was a front group established by the Hill & Knowlton PR firm to promote the 1991 U.S. war in the Persian Gulf (Operation Desert Storm). ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... // Hill & Knowlton Who are they? One of the world’s five largest public relations firms, was founded in 1927 by former journalist John Hill. ... Nurse Nayirah was a creation of public relations firm Hill & Knowlton for promoting the 1991 Gulf War. ... The House of Al-Sabāh (Arabic: الصباح) are the Royal Family of Kuwait. ...


Final peace proposals

Various peace proposals were floated, but none were agreed to. The United States insisted that the only acceptable terms for peace were Iraq's full, unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. Iraq insisted that withdrawal from Kuwait would have to be “linked” to a simultaneous adherence by neighbouring countries to similar UN resolutions, which would necessitate the withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and Israeli troops from the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and southern Lebanon. Morocco and Jordan were persuaded by this proposal, but Syria, Israel, and the anti-Iraq coalition denied that there was any connection to the Kuwait issue, despite the UN resolutions. Syria joined the coalition to expel Saddam Hussein but Israel remained officially neutral despite rocket attacks on Israeli civilians. The US made a concerted effort to prevent Israel from getting involved so as not to inflame Arab countries angry with its policies. The Bush administration persuaded Israel to remain that the Special Air Service were working behind enemy-lines in Iraq in search of SCUD missile launchers that were being targeted towards Israeli cities. The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-Å«lān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... SAS in their armed jeeps, during the North African campaign The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army. ...


On January 12, 1991 the United States Congress authorized the use of military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. The votes were 52-47 in the US Senate and 250-183 in the US House of Representatives. These were the closest margins in authorizing force by the Congress since the War of 1812. Soon after, the other states in the coalition also followed suit. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ...


Air campaign

See also: Operation Instant Thunder

The Persian Gulf War started with an extensive aerial bombing campaign. The coalition flew over 100,000 sorties, dropping 88,500 tons of bombs,[22][23] killing numerous civilians, and widely destroying military and civilian infrastructure.[24] The remains of German town of Wesel after intensive allied area bombing in 1945 (destruction rate 97% of all buildings) The aerial bombing of cities began in 1911, developed through World War I, grew to a vast scale in World War II, and continued to the present day. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of aircraft or ships for the purposes of a specific mission. ...


Main air campaign starts

EF-111 Raven - No Coalition aircraft were lost to a radar-guided missile during Desert Storm while an EF-111 was on station.
EF-111 Raven - No Coalition aircraft were lost to a radar-guided missile during Desert Storm while an EF-111 was on station.

A day after the deadline set in Resolution, the coalition launched a massive air campaign codenamed Operation Desert Storm with more than 1,000 sorties launching per day. It all began on January 17, 1991, when eight U.S. AH-64 Apache helicopters, and two MH-53 Pave Low helicopters destroyed Iraqi radar sites near the Iraqi-Saudi Arabian border at 2:38 A.M. Baghdad time, which could have warned Iraq of an upcoming attack. At 2:43 A.M. two EF-111 Ravens with terrain following radar led 22 F-15E Strike Eagles against H-2 and H-3 - airfields in Western Iraq. Minutes later one of the EF-111 crews – Captain James Denton and Captain Brent Brandon – killed an Iraqi Dassault Mirage F-1, when their low altitude maneuvering led the F-1 into the ground. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (834x601, 53 KB) Granted permission by 390th ECS Squadron photographer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (834x601, 53 KB) Granted permission by 390th ECS Squadron photographer. ... The EF-111A Raven was an electronic warfare aircraft designed to replace the elderly and obsolescent Douglas EB-66 in the United States Air Force. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of aircraft or ships for the purposes of a specific mission. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The AH-64 Apache is an all-weather day-night military attack helicopter and is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The Sikorsky HH-53 Super Jolly Green Giant is a USAF version of the CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter for long-range combat search and rescue (CSAR) helicopters. ... A U.S. Air Force F-111 The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark (the nickname was unofficial for most of its lifespan, but it was officially named Aardvark at its retirement ceremony for the United States Air Force) is a long-range strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and tactical strike aircraft. ... The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...


At 3 A.M., ten U.S. F-117 Nighthawk Stealth Fighters under the protection of a three-ship formation of EF-111s bombed Baghdad, the capital. This article is about the stealth fighter. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Within hours of the start of the coalition air campaign, a P-3 Orion called “Outlaw Hunter” developed by the Navy’s Space & Naval Warfare Systems Command, which was testing a highly specialized OTH-T (over the horizon targeting system package), detected a large number of Iraqi patrol boats and naval vessels attempting to make a run from Basra and Um Qasar to Iranian waters. “Outlaw Hunter” vectored in strike elements which attacked the flotilla near Bubiyan Island destroying 11 vessels and damaging scores more. Bubiyan Island is the largest island in the Kuwaiti coastal island chain. ...


Concurrently, US Navy BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise Missiles struck targets in Baghdad, and other coalition aircraft struck targets throughout Iraq. Government buildings, TV stations, Iraqi Air Force fields and presidential palaces were destroyed. Five hours after the first attacks, Baghdad state radio broadcast a voice identified as Saddam Hussein declaring that “The great duel, the mother of all battles has begun. The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins.” The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) is the military branch in Iraq responsible for aerial warfare. ...


The Persian Gulf War is sometimes called the “computer war” because of the advanced weapons used in the air campaign which included precision-guided munitions (or “smart bombs”) and cruise missiles, although these were very much in the minority when compared with "dumb bombs". Cluster munitions and BLU-82 “Daisy Cutters” were also used. Iraq responded by launching eight Iraqi modified Scud missiles into Israel the next day. These missile attacks on Israel were to continue throughout the six weeks of the war. The first priority for Coalition forces was destruction of the Iraqi air force and anti-aircraft facilities. EA-6Bs, EF-111 radar jammers and F-117A stealth planes were heavily used in this phase to elude Iraq’s extensive SAM systems and anti-aircraft weapons. The sorties were launched mostly from Saudi Arabia and the six Coalition aircraft carrier battle groups (CVBG) in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea. Persian Gulf CVBGs included USS Midway (CV 41), USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and USS Ranger (CV-61). USS America (CV-66), USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), and USS Saratoga (CV-60) operated from the Red Sea (USS America transitioned to the Persian Gulf midway through the air war). BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster munitions or cluster bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Al Hussein or al-Husayn is a designation of an Iraqi missile During 1988-90, the Iraqis made strides in their indigenous rocket program, which was centered on upgrading the performance of the Scud. ... AGM-88 HARM missile on a U.S. Navy aircraft SEAD (pronounced: see-add or seed), or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as Wild Weasels and Iron Hand, operations are military actions to suppress enemy surface-based air defences (Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and anti-aircraft artillery... The EA-6B Prowler is the United States Navys and the United States Marine Corpss primary electronic warfare aircraft. ... Stealth can refer to several things: Look up stealth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... USS Midway (CVB/CVA/CV-41) was an aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, the lead ship of her class, and the first to be commissioned after the end of World War II. Active in the Vietnam War and in Operation Desert Storm, as of 2006 she is a... USS (CVA/CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... The seventh USS Ranger (CVA-61) (later CV-61) was a United States Navy Forrestal-class supercarrier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) (known affectionately as the Big Stick or TR) is the fourth Nimitz-class supercarrier and its call sign is Rough Rider, the name of President Theodore Roosevelts volunteer cavalry unit during the Spanish-American War. ... USS Saratoga (CV-60), formerly CVB-60 and CVA-60, is the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the American Revolutionary War Battle of Saratoga, was a Forrestal-class supercarrier. ...


Iraqi antiaircraft defenses, including shoulder-launched ground-to-air missiles, were surprisingly effective against coalition aircraft and the coalition suffered 75 aircraft losses.[25] In particular, RAF and US Navy aircraft which flew at low altitudes to avoid radar were particularly badly hit, since Iraqi defenses relied very little on radar, and to a large extent on small scale weapons which were well targeted against low-flying aircraft.[26]


The next coalition targets were command and communication facilities. Saddam Hussein had closely micromanaged the Iraqi forces in the Iran-Iraq War and initiative at the lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control.

USAF A-10A Thunderbolt-II ground attack plane over circles of irrigated crops during Desert Storm.
USAF A-10A Thunderbolt-II ground attack plane over circles of irrigated crops during Desert Storm.

Image File history File links A-10A_Thunderbolt_II_Desert_Storm. ... Image File history File links A-10A_Thunderbolt_II_Desert_Storm. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...

Iraq's air force escapes to Iran

F-14 Tomcats from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf await their turn refuelling from a KC-10A over Iraq during Desert Storm while conducting a MIGCAP mission to stop fleeing Iraqi fighters.
F-14 Tomcats from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf await their turn refuelling from a KC-10A over Iraq during Desert Storm while conducting a MIGCAP mission to stop fleeing Iraqi fighters.

The first week of the air war saw a few Iraqi sorties; but these did little damage, and 38 Iraqi MiGs were shot down by Coalition planes. Soon after, the Iraqi Air Force began fleeing to Iran, with 115 to 140 aircraft flown to Iran.[27] The mass exodus of Iraqi aircraft to Iran took coalition forces by surprise as the Coalition had been expecting the aircraft to flee to Jordan, a nation friendly to Iraq rather than Iran, Iraq's long-time enemy. The Coalition had placed aircraft over Western Iraq to try and stop such a retreat into Jordan. This meant they were unable to react before most of the Iraqi aircraft had made it "safely" to Iranian airbases. The coalition eventually established a virtual "wall" of F-15 Eagle and F-14 Tomcat fighters on the Iraq border with Iran (called MIGCAP) thereby stopping the exodus of fleeing Iraqi fighters. Iran has never returned the aircraft to Iraq and did not release the aircrews home until years later. However, most Iraqi planes remained in Iraq. They were devastated by Coalition aircraft throughout the war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1860x2810, 2620 KB) Photo by HJ by Navy through DOD on DVIC website I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1860x2810, 2620 KB) Photo by HJ by Navy through DOD on DVIC website I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Mig may refer to: Mikoyan or MiG, formerly Mikoyan-Gurevich, a Russian military aircraft manufacturer Gas metal arc welding, also called MIG welding Mig Greengard, an online chess columnist (Mig on Chess) Main Industrial Groupings classification in trade statistics Mig Ayesa, an Australian singer-songwriter. ...


Infrastructure bombing

The third and largest phase of the air campaign ostensibly targeted military targets throughout Iraq and Kuwait: Scud missile launchers, weapons of mass destruction sites, weapons research facilities and naval forces. About one-third of the Coalition airpower was devoted to attacking Scuds, which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate. Some US and British special forces teams had been covertly inserted into western Iraq to aid in the search and destruction of Scuds. However, the lack of adequate terrain for concealment hindered their operations, and many of them were killed or captured. Iraqi fighters tried to stop these attacks, but they suffered many losses.[citation needed] For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ...


Civilian infrastructure

Allied bombing raids were successful in destroying Iraqi civilian infrastructure. 11 of Iraq's 20 major power stations and 119 substations were totally destroyed, while a further six major power stations were damaged.[28][29] At the end of the war, electricity production was at four percent of its pre-war levels. Bombs destroyed the utility of all major dams, most major pumping stations and many sewage treatment plants, turning Iraq from one of the most advanced Arab countries into one of the most backward. Telecommunications equipment, port facilities, oil refineries and distribution, railroads and bridges were also destroyed. This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...

RAF Tornado during Gulf War.
RAF Tornado during Gulf War.

The Iraqi targets were located by aerial photography and were referenced to the GPS coordinates of the US Embassy in Baghdad, which were determined by a USAF officer in August 1990: he arrived at the airport carrying a briefcase with a GPS receiver in it, then an embassy car took him to the embassy. He walked to the embassy courtyard, opened the briefcase, took one GPS reading, and put the machine back in the case. Then he returned to the US gave the GPS receiver to the appropriate intelligence agency in Langley, Virginia, where the position of the US Embassy was officially determined. This position served as the origin for a coordinate system used to designate targets in Baghdad. [30] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixels Full resolution (838 × 563 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gulf War Royal Saudi Air... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixels Full resolution (838 × 563 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gulf War Royal Saudi Air... RAF redirects here. ... The Georgian terrace of Royal Crescent (Bath, England) from a hot air balloon Intersection of E42 and E451 from an aircraft soon after takeoff from Frankfurt International Airport Moreton Island in Queensland, Australia Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground while not supported by a ground-based... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Langley is a surname, often a habitational name from any of the numerous places named with Old English lang ‘long’ + lēah ‘wood’, ‘glade’; or a topographic name with the same meaning. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Jordan's neutrality in the war prompted US fighter jets to bomb highways connecting Iraq and Jordan, crippling infrastructure on both sides.


Civilian casualties

The Iraqi government reported the high rate of Iraqi civilian casualties to gain support throughout the Muslim world. The US claimed the Iraqi government fabricated numerous attacks on Iraqi holy sites in order to rally the Muslim community. One such instance had Iraqis reporting that coalition forces attacked the holy cities of Najaf and Karbala. The final number of Iraqi civilians killed was 2,278, while 5,965 were reported wounded.[31] Almost all of these casualties were from US bombing and missile raids. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km (60 mi) southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...


On February 13, 1991, two laser-guided smart bombs destroyed the Amiriyah blockhouse, which was a civilian air shelter, killing hundreds of civilians. US officials claimed that the blockhouse was also a military communications center, a claim validated by Iraqi military leaders after the war.[citation needed] The White House claims, in a report titled Apparatus of Lies: Crafting Tragedy, that US intelligence sources reported the blockhouse was being used for military command purposes.[32] In his book, Saddam's Bombmaker, the former director of Iraq’s nuclear weapon program, who defected to the west, supports the theory that the facility was used for both purposes, as does Iraqi general Georges Sada, who was in charge of POWs taken during combat. is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Amiriyah shelter was destroyed by USAF two laser-guided smart bombs on 13 February 1991 during the Gulf War. ... A 19th-century-era block house in Fort York, Toronto In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... General Georges Hormiz Sada (Arabic:جورجس سعدا)(aka Gewargis or George Hormis) (born ?1939) is a member of the Iraqi government. ...


Iraq launches missile strikes

Targeting camera showing US missile or bomb strike during Desert Storm - such images became familiar to Western television audiences, and were compared to video games.
Targeting camera showing US missile or bomb strike during Desert Storm - such images became familiar to Western television audiences, and were compared to video games.

If Iraq was to be forced to obey UN resolutions, the Iraqi government made it no secret that it would respond by attacking Israel, who was allowed to ignore them without any action from the UN. Before the war started, Tariq Aziz, Iraqi Foreign Minister and Deputy Prime Minister, was asked, “if war starts…will you attack Israel?” His response was, “Yes, absolutely, yes.”[33] The Iraqis hoped that attacking Israel would draw them into the war. It was expected that this would then lead to the withdrawal of the US' Arab allies, who would be reluctant to fight alongside the state that was, according to their views, colonising Palestinian land. Israel did not join the coalition, and all Arab states stayed in the coalition. The Scud missiles generally caused fairly light damage, although their potency was felt on February 25 when 28 US soldiers were killed when a Scud destroyed their barracks in Dhahran. The Scuds targeting Israel were ineffective due to the fact that increasing the range of the Scud resulted in the dramatic reduction in accuracy and payload (a common joke in the United States during the war, reflecting on both the SCUD's inaccuracy and the near-constant press coverage of the war, was "How many Iraqis does it take to launch a SCUD? — Two: one to launch the missile and another to watch CNN to see where it lands"). Nevertheless, the total of 39 missiles that landed on Israel caused extensive property damage and two direct deaths, and caused the United States to deploy two Patriot missile battalions in Israel, and the Netherlands to send one Patriot Squadron in an attempt to deflect the attacks. Allied air forces were also extensively exercised in "Scud hunts" in the Iraqi desert, trying to locate the camouflaged trucks before they fired their missiles at Israel or Saudi Arabia. Three SCUDs missiles, along with an Allied Patriot that malfunctioned, hit Ramat Gan in Israel on January 22, 1991, injuring 96 people, and indirectly causing the deaths of three elderly people who died of heart attacks. The Israeli policy for the previous forty years had been retaliation, but at the urging of the U.S. and theater commanders, they decided that discretion was the better part of valour in this instance. After initial hits by SCUD missiles, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir hesitantly refused any retaliating measures against Saddam Hussein, due to increasing pressure from the United States to remain out of the conflict.[34] The U.S. was concerned that any Israeli action would escalate the conflict simply by its occurring, and an air strike by the IAF would have required overflying hostile Jordan or Syria, which could have provoked them to enter the war in Iraq or to attack Israel. Image File history File links Gulf_war_target_cam. ... Image File history File links Gulf_war_target_cam. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... Mikhail Yuhanna, later and more popularly known as Tariq Aziz or Tareq Aziz, (Arabic: طارق عزيز, Syriac: ܜܪܩ ܥܙܝܙ) (born 1936 in Tel Keppe) was the Foreign Minister (1983 – 1991) and Deputy Prime Minister (1979 – 2003) of Iraq, and a close advisor of former President Saddam Hussein for decades. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ... Ramat Gan (רמת-גן) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just east of Tel Aviv, and part of the metropolis known as Gush Dan, in the Tel Aviv District. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


Vulnerability of Iraq against air power

On January 29, Iraq attacked and occupied the lightly-defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry. However, the Battle of Khafji ended when Iraqis were driven back by Saudi and Qatari forces supported by U.S. Marines with close air support over the following two days. Khafji was a strategic city immediately after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The Iraqi reluctance to commit several armoured divisions to the occupation and subsequent use of Khafji as a launching pad into the initially lightly defended Eastern portion of Saudi Arabia is considered by many academics as a grave strategic error. Not only would Iraq have secured a majority of Middle Eastern oil supplies, it would have found itself better able to threaten the subsequent U.S. deployment along superior defensive lines. is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ras Al Khafji was historically the principle town in the neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. ... Belligerents Saudi Arabia, United States, Qatar1 Iraq Commanders Sultan Al-Mutairi 2 Salah Abud Mahmud 3 Casualties and losses 36 dead, 32 wounded, 2 POW 2000+, 400 POW4 The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...


The effect of the air campaign was to devastate entire Iraqi brigades deployed in the open desert in combat formation. The air campaign also prevented effective Iraqi resupply to forward deployed units engaged in combat, as well preventing a large number (450,000) of Iraqi troops from achieving the force concentration essential to victory.


The air campaign had a significant effect on the tactics employed by opposing forces in subsequent conflicts. No longer were entire divisions dug in the open facing U.S. forces, but were instead dispersed, as with Serbian forces in Kosovo. Opposing forces also reduced the length of their supply lines and the total area defended. This was seen during the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan when the Taliban preemptively abandoned large swaths of land and retreated into their strongholds. This increased their force concentration and reduced long vulnerable supply lines. This tactic was also observed in the invasion of Iraq when the Iraqi forces retreated from northern Iraqi Kurdistan into the cities. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ...


Ground campaign

Ground troop movements from February 24-28th 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
Ground troop movements from February 24-28th 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.

The coalition forces dominated the air with their technological advantages, but the ground forces were considered to be more evenly matched up between Iraqis and coalition infantry. The coalition ground forces had the significant advantage of being able to operate under the protection of coalition Air superiority that had been achieved by the Air Forces prior to start of the main ground offensive. Coalition forces also had two key technological advantages: Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ...

  1. The Coalition Main Battle Tanks such as the American M1 Abrams, British Challenger 1 and Kuwaiti M-84AB were vastly superior to the export version Soviet-built T-72 tanks used by the Iraqis, with crews better trained and armored doctrine better developed;
  2. The use of GPS made it possible for Coalition forces to navigate without reference to roads or other fixed landmarks. This allowed them to fight a battle of maneuver rather than a battle of encounter: they knew where they were and where the enemy was, so they could attack a specific target, rather than wandering around aimlessly and firing at whatever hostile forces they bumped into.

The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The British FV4030/4 Challenger 1 was the main battle tank (MBT) of the British Army from 1983 until it was superseded by the Challenger 2. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Monkey Model was the unofficial designation given by the Soviet Military to modified military equipment (Armored vehicles, airplanes, Missiles) of significant inferior capabilities to the original designs and intended only to be shipped overseas. ... For the videogame, see T-72: Balkans On Fire!. The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... GPS redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, also spelled manoeuvre warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ...

Initial moves into Iraq

The first units into Iraq were three patrols of B squadron of the British Special Air Service, callsigns Bravo One Zero, Bravo Two Zero, and Bravo Three Zero in late January. These eight man patrols landed behind enemy lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Soviet Scud mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as during the day they would hide under bridges and camouflage netting. Other objectives included the destruction of fibre optic communications arrays that lay in pipelines, relaying coordinates to the TEL operators launching attacks against Syria. SAS in their armed jeeps, during the North African campaign The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army. ... Bravo Two Zero (B20) was the callsign of an eight-man British Special Air Service (SAS) patrol that was tasked with observing the M.S.R. (Main Supply Route) between Baghdad and north-west Iraq and finding and destroying Iraqi Scud missile launchers and their fibre optic comms lines in... For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ... A Russian SA-4 TEL. Photo by GulfLINK. A Russian SA-8 TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ...


Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division performed a covert recon into Iraq on 9 February 1991, followed by a recon in force on February 20 that destroyed an Iraqi battalion. On February 22, 1991, Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed cease-fire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total cease-fire, and called for monitoring of the cease-fire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council. The Coalition rejected the proposal but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave twenty-four hours for Iraq to begin withdrawing forces. HHC, 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division Regimental insignia The United States 2nd Cavalry Brigade (The Black Jack Brigade) is a cavalry unit of the United States Army based in Fort Hood, Texas and currently serving in Iraq. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... CCCP redirects here. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ...


Coalition forces enter Iraq

M-84AB MBT of Kuwaiti 35th Fatah (Martyr’s) Armoured Brigade. During the war, Kuwaiti army has purchased 150 M-84AB MBT's from Yugoslavia.

Shortly afterwards, the U.S. VII Corps assembled in full strength and launched an armoured attack into Iraq early Sunday, February 24, just to the west of Kuwait, taking Iraqi forces by surprise. Simultaneously, the U.S. XVIII Airborne Corps launched a sweeping “left-hook” attack across the largely undefended desert of southern Iraq, led by the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) and the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized). The left flank of this movement was protected by the French 6th Light Armored Division (which included units of the French Foreign Legion). The fast-moving French force quickly overcame the Iraqi 45th Infantry Division, suffering only a handful of casualties, and took up blocking positions to prevent any Iraqi force from attacking the Allied flank. The right flank of the movement was protected by the British 1st Armoured Division. Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the Republican Guard. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... For the VII Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see VII Corps (ACW). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Patch of the XVIII Airborne Corps. ... Top Left: Branch Insignia of the 3d ACR Top Right: Shoulder Sleve Insignia of the 3d ACR Bottom Right: Distinctive Unit Insignia of the 3d ACR (nicknamed the BUG) The 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army currently stationed at Fort Carson, southwest of Colorado... The 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized)—also known as the Victory Division—was an infantry division of the United States Army with base of operations at Fort Riley, Kansas originally organized out of the old Hawaiian Division. ... Legionnaire redirects here. ... The British 1st Armoured Division is the title of an armoured division of the British Army. ... Republican Guard is the organization of a republic which serves to protect the President and the government. ...

General Colin Powell briefs President George H. W. Bush and his advisors on the progress of the ground war.
The "Highway of Death".
The "Highway of Death".

The Coalition advance was much swifter than U.S. generals had expected. On February 26, Iraqi troops began retreating out of Kuwait, setting fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they left. A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq-Kuwait highway. This convoy was bombed so extensively by the Allies that it came to be known as the Highway of Death. Critics of the action contend that the column also contained prisoners and other fleeing Iraqi civilians, such as families of Iraqi military units.[who?] Forces from the United States, the United Kingdom, and France continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, moving to within 150 miles (240 km) of Baghdad before withdrawing. http://teachpol. ... http://teachpol. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2837x1901, 1298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gulf War Highway of Death Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2837x1901, 1298 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gulf War Highway of Death Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. ... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ...


One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, President Bush declared a cease-fire and on February 27 declared that Kuwait had been liberated. An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post-war military analysis

Although it was said at the time that Iraqi troops numbered approximately 545,000 (even 600,000) today most experts think that both the qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the Iraqi Army at the time were exaggerated, as they included both temporary and auxiliary support elements. Many of the Iraqi troops were also young, under-resourced and poorly trained conscripts. The Coalition committed approximately 540,000 troops. In addition to these, a further 100,000 Turkish troops were deployed along the common border of Turkey and Iraq. This caused significant force dilution of the Iraqi military by forcing it to deploy its forces along all its borders. This allowed the main thrust by the Americans to not only possess a significant technological advantage but also a superiority in force numbers.


Saddam Hussein bought military equipment from almost every major dealer of the World's weapons market. This resulted in a lack of standardization in this large heterogeneous force, which additionally suffered from poor training and poor motivation. The majority of Iraqi armoured forces still used old Chinese Type-59s and Type-69s, Soviet-made T-55s from the 1950s and 1960s, and some T-72s from the 1970s in 1991. These machines were not equipped with up-to-date equipment, such as a thermal sight or laser rangefinder, and their effectiveness in modern combat was very limited. The Iraqis failed to find an effective countermeasure to the thermal sights and the sabot rounds used by the M1 Abrams, Challenger 1 and the other Coalition tanks. This equipment enabled Coalition tanks to effectively engage and destroy Iraqi tanks from more than three times the distance that Iraqi tanks could engage. The Iraqi tank crews used old, cheap steel penetrators against the advanced Chobham Armour of these American and British tanks, with disastrous results. The Iraqi forces also failed to utilize the advantage that could be gained from using urban warfare — fighting within Kuwait City — which could have inflicted significant casualties on the attacking forces. Urban combat reduces the range at which fighting occurs and can negate some of the technological advantage that well equipped forces enjoy. Iraqis also tried to copy the Soviet doctrine from the 1950s of mass attacks, but the implementation failed due to the lack of skill of their commanders and the preventive air strikes of the U.S. Air Force on communication centres and bunkers. A kinetic energy penetrator, long-rod penetrator, or armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of ammunition which, like a bullet, does not contain explosives, but uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The FV4030/4 Challenger 1 was the main battle tank (MBT) of the British Army from 1983 until it was superseded by the Challenger 2. ... Chobham armour is a composite armour developed in the 1960s at the British tank research centre on Chobham Common. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ... USAF redirects here. ...


The end of active hostilities

A peace conference was held in Iraqi territory occupied by the coalition. At the conference, Iraq won the approval of the use of armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian transportation. Soon after, these helicopters, and much of the Iraqi armed forces, were refocused toward fighting against a Shiite uprising in the south. The rebellions were encouraged on 2 February 1991 by a broadcast on CIA run radio station The Voice of Free Iraq broadcasting out of Saudi Arabia. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was large and that they soon would be liberated from Hussein.[35] Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ...


In the North, Kurdish leaders took heart in American statements that they would support an uprising and began fighting, in the hopes of triggering a coup. However, when no American support was forthcoming, Iraqi generals remained loyal and brutally crushed the Kurdish troops. Millions of Kurds fled across the mountains to Kurdish areas of Turkey and Iran. These incidents would later result in no-fly zones being established in both the North and the South of Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over 400,000 people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians (due to their support of and collaboration with Hussein). Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Coup redirects here. ... A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


There was some criticism of the Bush administration for its decision to allow Saddam Hussein to remain in power, rather than pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government. In their co-written 1998 book, A World Transformed, Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it. A World Transformed is a book by George H. W. Bush in which he explains why he didnt have the US conquer Iraq at the end of the earlier Gulf war: Extending the ground war into an occupation of Iraq . ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...


In 1992, the United States Secretary of Defense during the war, Dick Cheney, made the same point: The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ...

I would guess if we had gone in there, I would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.

And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional U.S. casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the (1991) conflict, for the 146 Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war. And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam (Hussein) worth? And the answer is, not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.[36]

Instead of greater involvement of its own military, the United States hoped that Saddam Hussein would be overthrown in an internal coup. The Central Intelligence Agency used its assets in Iraq to organize a revolt, but the Iraqi government defeated the effort. Coup redirects here. ... CIA redirects here. ...


On March 10, 1991, Operation Desert Storm began to move 540,000 American troops out of the Persian Gulf. is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Coalition involvement

C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby (British name for the Gulf War), 6 January 1991.
C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby (British name for the Gulf War), 6 January 1991.

Members of the Coalition included Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States of America.[7] Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware instead of direct military assistance, which was later to be known as a "checkbook diplomacy". United States asked Israel not to participate in the war despite missile strikes on Israeli citizens. India extended military support to the United States in the form of refueling facilities situated in the Arabian Sea. Company C, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division live fire training exercise to assault mock village and trench complex, Medics moving to treat simulated casualty. ... Company C, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division live fire training exercise to assault mock village and trench complex, Medics moving to treat simulated casualty. ... The Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales) or Staffords is an infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales Division. ... A M4 Carbine is in the forground and the M16A2 in the background in the hands of these two Marines during a live fire exercise in 2003 A live fire exercise is any exercise in which a realistic scenario for the use of specific equipment is simulated. ... C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom was numerically the largest European nation to partake in combat operations during the war. Operation Granby was the name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. British Army regiments (mainly with the British 1st Armoured Division), Royal Navy vessels, and Royal Air Force squadrons were mobilized to the Gulf. The Royal Air Force, using various aircraft, operated from airbases in Saudi Arabia. Almost 2,500 armoured vehicles and 43,000 troops[7] were shipped for action. C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The 1st Armoured Division is the title of an armoured division of the British Army. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... RAF redirects here. ... Lajes Airbase in the Azores islands, Portugal An Airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. ...


Chief Royal Navy vessels deployed to the gulf included a number of Broadsword-class frigates, and Sheffield-class destroyers, other RN and RFA ships were also deployed. The light aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal was not deployed to the Gulf area, but was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea. The Type 22 Broadsword class frigates are a class of warships built for the Royal Navy. ... Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... HMS Ark Royal (R07), the last Invincible-class light aircraft carrier to be completed, is the fifth ship of the Royal Navy named in honour of the flagship of the English fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


France

The second largest European contingent was from France, with 18,000 troops.[7] Operating on the left flank of the US XVIII Airborne Corps, the main French army force was the 6th Light Armoured Division, including troops from the French Foreign Legion. Initially, the French operated independently under national command and control, but coordinated closely with the Americans, Saudis and CENTCOM. In January, the Division was placed under the tactical control of the US XVIII Airborne Corps. France also deployed combat aircraft and naval units. The French called their contribution Opération Daguet. Legionnaire redirects here. ... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ... An AMX-30 of the French 6th Light Armored Division bivouaced near Al-Salman during Operation Desert Storm. ...


Canada

A column of M-113 APCs and other military vehicles of the Royal Saudi Land Force travels along a channel cleared of mines during Operation Desert Storm, Kuwait, 1 March 1991.
A column of M-113 APCs and other military vehicles of the Royal Saudi Land Force travels along a channel cleared of mines during Operation Desert Storm, Kuwait, 1 March 1991.

Canada was one of the first nations to agree to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and it quickly agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition. In August 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney committed the Canadian Forces to deploy the destroyers HMCS Terra Nova and HMCS Athabaskan to join the maritime interdiction force. The supply ship HMCS Protecteur was also sent to aid the gathering coalition logistics forces in the Persian Gulf. A fourth ship, HMCS Huron arrived in-theatre after hostilities ceased and visited Kuwait. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... Al-Fahd vehicle Saudi AMX-30 during the Battle of Khafji Saudi Arabian Army (Arabic: الجيش العربي السعودي) is a branch of the Saudi Armed Forces. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... The Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes (FC)) are the unified armed forces of Canada, governed by the National Defence Act, which states: The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces. ... HMCS Terra Nova is a Canadian Restigouche-class destroyer escort. ... HMCS Athabaskan (DDH 282) is an Iroquois class destroyer of the Canadian Navy. ... HMCS Protecteur is a Canadian Protecteur-class Auxillary Oiler Replenishment ship. ... HMCS Huron (DDG 281) was an Iroquois-class destroyer of the Canadian Navy, decommissioned in 2005. ...


After the UN authorized full use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF-18 squadron with support personnel as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war. When the air war began, Canada's CF-18s were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War that the Canadian military had participated in offensive combat operations. The CF-18 Hornet is a Canadian Forces aircraft, based on the American F/A-18 Hornet. ... 47th Combat Support Hospital, 2000 A field hospital is a large mobile medical unit that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to more permanent hospital facilities. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


Norway

In recent years, the work of Norwegian intelligence personnel of during the Gulf War has become public.


Norwegian intelligence personnel, at a listening post in the North of Norway, were in secrecy presented with high ranking awards for their work in saving shot down American pilots during the Gulf War.


During the Gulf War, 63 American pilots were shot down. Rescuing the 12 downed pilots trapped behind enemy lines was a very high priority and the United States devoted a large amount of resources to doing so. The pilots were fitted with emergency beepers, so that the Americans, via satellite could locate them.


However, the USA satellite coverage was not always present and American officials, refusing to leave any man behind, started looking around for other methods of locating their pilots. It was then that a small listening post located in Norway, above the Arctic Circle proved helpful. The Norwegian listening post continually listened to Soviet spy satellites, which received the signals from the American pilots without a problem. The Norwegian intelligence personnel "stole" the information they got by spying on the Soviet satellites and forwarded it to American personnel which could then get into the war theater at the correct location and save the pilots.


Several American pilots were saved because of this listening post in Norway. The personnel received diplomas signed by US President George H. W. Bush himself.[37]


Norway also deployed a Field Medical Company as part of Operation Granby from January to May 1991. About 230 strong, this Army unit was stationed in Al Jubayl for the duration of the war supporting the British units. Luckily, the unit had very little medical work to do with allies, but some Iraqi injured were sent there. There was plenty of scope for preventive public health work for which the unit was also equipped.[38]

Coalition forces.
Coalition forces.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 49 KB, MIME type: image/png) (All user names refer to en. ...

Coalition military personnel deployment[39]

Main article: Coalition of Gulf War
List of Coalition forces by number of troops
Country Number of Troops Comments / Major Events
Flag of the United States United States 575,000 - 697,000 Operation Desert Shield
Battle of Khafji
Battle of 73 Easting
Battle of Al Busayyah
Battle of Phase Line Bullet
Battle of Medina Ridge
Battle of Wadi Al-Batin
Battle of Norfolk
Operation Desert Storm.
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 52,000 - 100,000 Operation Desert Shield
Battle of Khafji
Operation Desert Storm
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 43,000 - 45,400 Operation Desert Shield
Operation Granby
Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Egypt Egypt 33,600 - 35,000 Operation Desert Storm
Flag of France France 18,000 Opération Daguet
Flag of Syria Syria 14,500 Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Morocco Morocco 13,000
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait 9,900 Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Oman Oman 6,300 Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 4,900 - 5,500
Flag of the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 4,300 Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Qatar Qatar 2,600 Battle of Khafji
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 2,200
Flag of Canada Canada 2,000 Operation FRICTION
Flag of Australia Australia 1,800 Australian contribution to the 1991 Gulf War
Flag of Italy Italy 1,200 Deployed Panavia Tornado strike attack aircraft
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 600
Flag of Niger Niger 600
Flag of Senegal Senegal 500
Flag of Spain Spain 500 Naval blockade
Flag of Bahrain Bahrain 400
Flag of Belgium Belgium 400
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan 300
Flag of Argentina Argentina 300
Flag of Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia 200 Operation Desert Shield
Operation Desert Storm
Flag of Greece Greece 200
Flag of Poland Poland 200 Operation Simoom
Flag of South Korea South Korea 200
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 200[citation needed] Medical personnel
Flag of Denmark Denmark 100
Flag of Hungary Hungary 50
Flag of Norway Norway 280

The Coalition of Gulf War were the countries officially opposed to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait during the 1990 / 1991 Gulf War. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Belligerents Saudi Arabia, United States, Qatar1 Iraq Commanders Sultan Al-Mutairi 2 Salah Abud Mahmud 3 Casualties and losses 36 dead, 32 wounded, 2 POW 2000+, 400 POW4 The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. ... Combatants United States Army British Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Saddam Hussein Casualties U.S. 12 KIA and FF, 57 wounded 600 killed and wounded The Battle of 73 Easting was a decisive tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between United States and... The Battle of Al Busayyah was a tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Army. ... Combatants US Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders Paul E. Funk Ayad Futayih Al-Rawi Casualties 2 KIAs 12 WIAs 4 Bradleys destroyed 10 Bradleys damaged Unknown number of KIAs and WIAs 6 T-72s tanks destroyed or abandoned 17 APCs destroyed The Battle of Phase Line Bullet was one of... Combatants United States Iraq Commanders Montgomery Meigs Saddam Hussein Strength 1st Armored Division 2nd Brigade of Medina Luminous Division Casualties 1 killed (friendly fire), 30 wounded, 4 tanks damaged 186 tanks destroyed, 127 AFVs destroyed Gulf War Kuwait – Khafji – 73 Easting – Al Busayyah – Phase Line Bullet – Medina Ridge – Wadi Al... Combatants US Army Iraqi Republican Guard Commanders General Norman Schwarzkopf F.General Ayad Al-Rawi Casualties Unknown Unknown Battle of Wadi Al-Batin or Battle of Ruqi Pocket or Operation Red Storm was one of the battles which happeneds before the begining of the Desert Storm operations in February 15... The Battle of Norfolk was a tank battle fought on 27 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Belligerents Saudi Arabia, United States, Qatar1 Iraq Commanders Sultan Al-Mutairi 2 Salah Abud Mahmud 3 Casualties and losses 36 dead, 32 wounded, 2 POW 2000+, 400 POW4 The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... An AMX-30 of the French 6th Light Armored Division bivouaced near Al-Salman during Operation Desert Storm. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kuwait. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Oman. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Qatar. ... Belligerents Saudi Arabia, United States, Qatar1 Iraq Commanders Sultan Al-Mutairi 2 Salah Abud Mahmud 3 Casualties and losses 36 dead, 32 wounded, 2 POW 2000+, 400 POW4 The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Operation FRICTION was the Canadian Forces military operation contribution of 4,500 troops to the Gulf War of 1991. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... HMAS Sydney in the Persian Gulf in 1991. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine combat aircraft, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Niger. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Czechoslovakia. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Combatants U.S.-led coalition Iraq Commanders George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel Strength 660,000 ~545,000 Casualties 345 dead, 1,000 wounded 25,000 - 100,000 dead, 100,000 - 300,000 wounded The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Operation Simoom[1] (Polish: ) was a top secret Polish intelligence operation conducted in Iraq in 1990. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ...

Casualties

Coalition losses

The DoD reports that U.S. forces suffered 148 battle-related deaths, plus one pilot listed as MIA (further 145 Americans died in out-of-combat accidents). The UK suffered 24 combat deaths, France 2, and the Arab countries suffered 39 casualties.[6] Scott Speicher (July 12, 1957–January 17, 1991?) was a U.S. Navy pilot, whose F/A-18 Hornet fighter was shot down during the Gulf War on January 17, 1991. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ...


The largest single loss of Coalition forces happened on February 25, 1991, when an Iraqi Al-Hussein missile hit an American military barrack in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 28 U.S. Army Reservists from Pennsylvania. is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the comics character Scud, see Scud: The Disposable Assassin. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The number of coalition wounded in combat seems to have been 776, including 458 Americans.[7]


However, as of the year 2000, 183,000 U.S. veterans of the Gulf War, more than a quarter of the U.S. troops who participated in War, have been declared permanently disabled by the Department of Veterans Affairs [8]. About 30% of the 700,000 men and women who served in U.S. forces during the Gulf War still suffer an array of serious symptoms whose causes are not fully understood.[9]


Friendly fire

While the death toll among Coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other allied units. Of the 148 American troops who died in battle, 24% were killed by friendly fire, a total of 35 service personnel. A further 11 died in detonations of allied munitions. Nine British service personnel were also killed in a friendly fire incident when a USAF A-10A Thunderbolt-II attacked a group of two Warrior IFVs. For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... USAF redirects here. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... A Warrior vehicle with UN markings, on the making of the eponymous film. ...


Pre-war estimates

Before the war Pentagon officials were estimating 30,000-40,000 coalition casualties.[citation needed]


The Dupuy Institute stood alone and in front of Congress predicted coalition casualties below 6,000. They used the TNDM model which makes use of historical data from previous wars to predict casualties (the model makes use of 'human' factors such as morale and they predicted that very few Iraqi divisions would put up resistance).[citation needed]


Iraqi deaths

Immediate estimates said up to 100,000 Iraqis were killed. Some now estimate that Iraq sustained between 20,000 and 35,000 fatalities. However other figures still maintain fatalities as high as 200,000.[40]


A report commissioned by the U.S. Air Force, estimated 10,000-12,000 Iraqi combat deaths in the air campaign and as many as 10,000 casualties in the ground war.[41] This analysis is based on Iraqi prisoner of war reports.


The Iraqi government claimed that 2,300 civilians died during the air campaign.


According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, 3,664 Iraqi civilians and between 20,000 and 26,000 military personnel were killed in the conflict.


Other losses

Several Scud missiles were fired by Iraq into Israel during the seven weeks of the war. One Israeli person died due to these attacks, in addition to approximately 78 injured. The attacks caused damage to property, and demoralized the Israeli population.


Civilian deaths

The increased importance of air attacks from both warplanes and cruise missiles led to much controversy over the level of civilian deaths caused during the initial stages of the war. Within the first 24 hours of the war, more than 1,000 sorties were flown, many of them against targets in Baghdad. The city received heavy bombing due to being the seat of power for President Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi forces' command and control. However, this also led to substantial civilian casualties. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... In the military: The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. ...


During the long bombing campaign prior to the ground war, many aerial attacks led to civilian casualties. In one particularly notable event, stealth bombers attacked a bunker in Amirya, causing the deaths of between 200 and 400 civilians who were taking refuge there at the time. Subsequently, scenes of burned and mutilated bodies were broadcast and controversy raged over the status of the bunker, with some stating that it was a civilian shelter while others contended that it was a centre of Iraqi military operations and the civilians had been deliberately moved there to act as human shields. Some estimates 2,300 to 200,000 Iraqi civilians were killed during the war. Other research, such as an investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte, has speculated on civilian fatalites as high as 100,000. [42] Notably, the deaths of civilians and damage to civilian areas was expressly avoided by coalition forces, unlike previous campaigns such as the Bombing of Tokyo in World War II. Human shield is a military term describing the use of civilians to deter an enemy from attacking certain targets—in particular military targets. ... The bombing of Tokyo by the United States Army Air Forces took place at several times during the Pacific campaigns of World War II and included the most destructive conventional bombing raid in all of history. ...


Gulf War controversies

Gulf War illness

Main article: Gulf War syndrome

Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their participation in the Gulf War, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness. There has been widespread speculation and disagreement about the causes of the illness and reported birth defects. Some factors considered as possibly causal include exposure to depleted uranium, chemical weapons, anthrax vaccine given to deploying soldiers, and/or infectious diseases. Major Michael Donnelly, a former USAF officer during the Gulf War, helped publicize the syndrome and advocated for veterans' rights in this regard. Gulf War syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War illness (GWI) is the name given to an illness with symptoms including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Anthrax vaccine is a vaccine against the infectious disease Anthrax. ... For the Irish Priest, see Michael Donnelly Maj. ...


Effects of depleted uranium

Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used.
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used.
Main article: Depleted uranium#Health considerations

Depleted uranium (DU) was used in the Gulf War in tank kinetic energy penetrators and 20-30mm cannon ordnance. DU is a pyrophoric, genotoxic, and teratogenic heavy metal. Its use during the First Gulf War has been cited by many as a contributing factor in a number of instances of health issues in both veterans of the conflict as well as the surrounding civilian populations, although scientific opinion on the risk is mixed.[43][44][45] Image File history File links GWI_DU_map. ... Image File history File links GWI_DU_map. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... Depleted uranium storage yard. ... French anti-tank round with its sabot APFSDS at point of separation of sabot. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... Plutonium pyrophoricity can cause it to look like a glowing ember under certain conditions. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster-making, which derives from teratology, the study of the frequency, causation, and development of congenital malformations—misleadingly called birth defects. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ...


Highway of death

Main article: Highway of death

On the night of February 26-27, 1991, defeated Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1400 vehicles, some military and some civilian and commandeered from the Kuwaiti population. United States Air Force and U.S. Navy jets pursued and destroyed the convoy in a controversial attack, subjecting it to sustained bombing for several hours. The convoy also contained some stolen vehicles loaded up with stolen 'loot' from Kuwait.[citation needed] The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... USAF redirects here. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Bulldozer assault

Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the “bulldozer assault”, wherein two brigades from the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) used anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to bury Iraqi soldiers defending the fortified "Saddam Line." One newspaper story reported that the U.S. commanders estimated thousands of Iraqi soldiers surrendered, escaping burial during the two-day assault February 24-25, 1991. However, like all other troop estimates made during the war, the estimated 8,000 Iraqi defenders was probably greatly inflated. After the war, the Iraqi government claimed to have found 44 bodies.[46] For other uses, see Bulldozer (disambiguation). ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ...


Abuse of coalition POWs

Iraq displayed POWs on TV with visible signs of abuse who were disavowing the coalition's warfare. It has also been alleged that coalition POWs were tortured by the Iraqis.[citation needed] Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Crossing Iraqi borders

Having driven Iraqi forces over the border from Kuwait, some coalition troops stood down, but forces from the USA, UK, and France continued to pursue the retreating remnants of the Iraq forces across into Iraqi territory. Disagreements arose over whether the UN mandate to eject Saddam Hussein's forces from Kuwait allowed the coalition to enter Iraqi sovereign territory or not, with some military officials arguing that it was necessary to prevent them from regrouping and attempting a counter-attack.


Gulf War oil spill

On January 23, Iraq was accused of dumping 400 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf, causing the largest oil spill in history.[10] It was reported as a deliberate natural resources attack to keep U.S. Marine forces from coming ashore. This was denied by the Iraqi government, who claimed that the allied bombing campaign had damaged and destroyed Iraqi oil tankers that were docked at the time.[citation needed] is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gulf War oil spill was one of the worst oil spills in history, resulting from actions taken during the Gulf War in 1991. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ...


Views on Saddam Hussein after the war

After the hostilities between Hussein's regime and the West, he was sometimes viewed as a hero by Arabs and Muslims. Until the invasion in 2003, he became an idol around the Arab World[citation needed]. However, this view was always disputed by some Iraqis and Muslims because of his involvement in war crimes such as in Halabja. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arab States redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Halabja (Kurdish: Helepçe or , Arabic: or Turkish: Halepçe ) is a Kurdish town in Iraq or Southern Kurdistan about 150 miles (240 km) northeast of Baghdad and 8-10 miles from the Iranian border. ...


Cost

The cost of the war to the United States was calculated by the United States Congress to be $61.1 billion.[47]. About $52 billion of that amount was paid by different countries around the world: $36 billion by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf States; $16 billion by Germany and Japan (which sent no combat forces due to terms contained in the treaty that ended World War II).[48] About 25% of Saudi Arabia's contribution was paid in the form of in-kind services to the troops, such as food and transportation.[49] U.S. troops represented about 74% of the combined force, and the global cost was therefore higher. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the movement of people or objects, see transport. ...


By comparison, the cost of the 2003 Iraq War was at least an order of magnitude higher.


Media

The Persian Gulf War was a heavily televised war. For the first time people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off from aircraft carriers. Allied forces were keen to demonstrate the accuracy of their weapons. For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ...


In the United States, the "big three" network anchors led the network news coverage of the war: ABC's Peter Jennings, CBS's Dan Rather, and NBC's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts when air strikes began on January 16, 1991. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the quietness of the city. But, moments later, Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground. On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, who was also reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. Rather, after the report was finished, announced that there were unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia. On the "NBC Nightly News", correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. It has been suggested that Cable News be merged into this article or section. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-American journalist and news anchor. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... Daniel Irvin Rather, Jr. ... This article is about the television network. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... ABC News is a division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). ... Air Traffic are an English indie rock band from Bournemouth. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ...


Still, it was CNN which gained the most popularity for their coverage, and indeed its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the development of the network. CNN correspondents John Holliman and Peter Arnett and CNN anchor Bernard Shaw relayed audio reports from the Al-Rashid Hotel as the air strikes began. The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all of the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN was the only service able to provide live reporting. After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq. CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1]. It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. ... John Hollimans widow, Dianne, and son, Jay, participating in the dedication of the press site auditorium at the Kennedy Space Center in 1999. ... Peter Arnett (born November 13, 1934 in Riverton, New Zealand) is a New Zealand-American journalist. ... Multiple people share the name Bernard Shaw: George Bernard Shaw, the celebrated Irish playwright (1856 - 1950) Bernard Shaw, a journalist and longtime CNN anchorman (1940 - ) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Al-Rashid Hotel is an 18-story hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, favored by journalists and media personnel. ...


Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and TIME Magazine published a special issue dated January 28, 1991, the headline "WAR IN THE GULF" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began. TIME redirects here. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


U.S. policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, which it believed it had lost due to public opposition within the United States. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Annex Foxtrot was the name given to a 10-page memo written by Captain Ron Wildermuth, the chief Public Affairs Officer for U.S. Central Command, to outline theretofore unprecedented Pentagon restrictions on news reporting. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


At the same time, the coverage of this war was new in its instantaneousness. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and American journalists returned en masse to Baghdad. Tom Aspell of NBC, Bill Blakemore of ABC, and Betsy Aaron of CBS filed reports, subject to acknowledged Iraqi censorship. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately. A British crew from CBS News (David Green and Andy Thompson), equipped with satellite transmission equipment traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the following day. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 32,403 (2005 Census), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah governorate. ...


Consequences

Following uprisings in the north and south, Iraqi no-fly zones were established, ostensibly to help protect the Shi'ite and Kurdish rebels in southern and northern Iraq, respectively. These no-fly zones (originally north of the 36th parallel and south of the 32nd parallel) had no UN approval (being a clear violation of Iraqi national sovereignty) and were exclusively carried out by the United States and the United Kingdom. France also participated briefly but withdrew when it became clear that the US was abusing the "no-fly zones" to launch unprovoked air strikes, many of which killed civilians. Combined, they flew more sorties over Iraq in the eleven years following the war than were flown during the war. These sorties dropped bombs nearly every other day, officially against surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft guns which engaged the patrolling aircraft but in reality against a variety of infrastructure targets. The greatest amount of bombs was dropped during two sustained bombing campaigns: Operation Desert Strike, which lasted a few weeks in September 1996, and Operation Desert Fox, in December 1998. Operation Northern Watch, the no-fly zone covering the Kurdish regions, helped to give the KDP leverage to negotiate an autonomous Kurdish mini-state in northern Iraq which allowed the region's population to focus on developing security and infrastructure (in return for this recognition, the KDP helped Iraq to partially evade the oil embargo). Operation Southern Watch, on the other hand, did not provide the Shi'ite rebels with the same leverage, serving instead as a pretext for American and British air strikes which extended all the way to Baghdad. The 1991 uprisings in Iraq were rebellions in Southern and Northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War. ... No-fly zone detail The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Operation Desert Strike was a military operation that lasted for a few weeks in September 1996 during one of the Iraqi disarmament crises. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Operation Northern Watch, the successor to Operation Provide Comfort, was a US European Command Combined Task Force (CTF) charged with enforcing the United Nations mandated no-fly zone above the 36th parallel in Iraq. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... Oil embargo may refer to: The 1973 oil crisis; The 1979 energy crisis; or, The oil embargo placed on Japan by China, the United States, Britain, and the Dutch during the Sino-Japanese War, preceding World War II. Category: ... Two F-16 Falcon aircraft prepare to depart on a patrol as part of Operation Southern Watch in 2000 Operation Southern Watch was a operation conducted by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) with the mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 33rd Parallel in Iraq, following... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Widespread infrastructure destruction during the war hurt the Iraqi civilian population. Years after the war, electricity production was less than a quarter of its pre-war level. The destruction of water treatment facilities caused sewage to flow directly into the Tigris River, from which civilians drew drinking water, resulting in widespread disease and the deaths of hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of Iraqi civilians, mostly young children. Moreover, after the war, the United States refused to allow Iraq to import or produce chlorine (since it can be used to make an extremely ineffective form of poison gas) which further compounded the problem and ensured that civilians, especially babies people with vulnerable immune systems, continued to die in large numbers. The destruction of Iraqi civilian infrastructure during the war is widely considered to have been a war crime since the destruction of essential civilian infrastructure is banned by the Geneva Convention. A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Tap water Mineral Water Water of sufficient quality to serve as drinking water is termed potable water whether it is used as such or not. ... This article is about the medical term. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Execution of Russian civilians by a shot in the back of the head. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


Economic sanctions were kept in place following the war, pending a weapons inspection. The weapons inspections were supposed to end after certain items had been confirmed destroyed but the Americans found it in their interest to continue both the inspections and sanctions indefinitely, both to weaken Iraq and to provide a cover for espionage. Iraq was later allowed to import certain products under the UN's Oil for Food program. A study by the Harvard School of Public Health found evidence that there was a threefold increase in the mortality of Iraqi children under five years of age caused by the Gulf War and trade sanctions. The estimate from the study indicates more than 46,900 children died between January and August 1991 alone.[50] A 1998 UNICEF report found that the sanctions resulted in an increase to 90,000 deaths per year. Many argue that the sanctions on Iraq and the American military presence in Saudi Arabia contributed to an increasingly negative image of the United States in the Arab world.[weasel words] United Nations sanctions against Iraq were imposed by the United Nations in 1990 following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and continued until the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


A United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) on weapons was established, to monitor Iraq's compliance with restrictions on weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles. Iraq accepted some and refused other weapons inspections. The team found some evidence of biological weapons programs at one site and non-compliance at many other sites. United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organisation performing arms inspections in Iraq after the Gulf War. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ...


In 1997, Iraq expelled all U.S. members of the inspection team, alleging that the United States was using the inspections as a front for espionage; members of UNSCOM were in regular contact with various intelligence agencies to provide information on weapons sites back and forth. The team returned for an even more turbulent time period between 1997 and 1999; one member of the weapons inspection team, U.S. Marine Scott Ritter, resigned in 1998, alleging that the Clinton administration was abusing the weapons inspection regime, using it as front to spy on Iraq and even gather intelligence for assassination attempts against Saddam Hussain (allegations which were later confirmed by a UN investigation). Bill Clinton was later found to have manipulated the UNSCOM team into withdrawing, ostensibly because of a failure to cooperate on the part of the Iraqis, but in reality in order to provide Bill Clinton with an excuse for air-strikes which he hoped to use to distract the American public from the Monica Lewinsky scandal. This led to the end of UNSCOM (now widely regarded as a disgrace to the UN) but American president George W. Bush's efforts to justify an invasion of Iraq with the claim that Iraq was building weapons of mass-destruction led Iraq to open up to a new UN inspection team called the UNMOVIC, which began inspections in 2002. Iraq also invited journalists to tour the sites which Bush alleged were being used for the weapons program. In spite of a clear verdict that Iraq was not building weapons of mass destruction and the findings of the September 11th Commission which showed that Iraq was not connected to terrorism against the United States, Iraq — and especially Saddam Hussein — became targets in the invasion of 2003 which George W. Bush attempted to link to the so-called "War on Terrorism." For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Scott Ritter speaks at SUNY New Paltz on March 16, 2006. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... While working as an intern at the White House, Monica Lewinsky had a short-term sexual relationship with President Bill Clinton. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq without the explicit backing of the United... The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks including preparedness for and the immediate response to the... This article is about the U.S.-led campaign against the spread of terrorism. ...


Despite confident predictions by George W. Bush and his neo-conservative advisers that Americans would be greeted as "liberators" while Iraq's oil wealth would offset the economic cost of the war, the Iraq War quickly turned into a guerrilla conflict which has so far proved to be the most expensive war (as a percentage of GNP) that America has fought since World War II and the costliest in terms American dead and wounded since Vietnam. Indeed, both in terms of money and loss-of-life, the Iraq war has cost America more than the Terror Attacks of September 11th (which Iraq had no involvement in as confirmed by the September 11th Commission. Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Commissions seal The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up in late 2002 to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11, 2001 attacks including preparedness for and the immediate response to the...


The People's Republic of China (whose army used military equipment similar to the Iraqi army) was surprised at the performance of US technology on the battlefield. The swiftness of the coalition victory resulted in an overall change in Chinese military thinking and began a movement to technologically modernize the People's Liberation Army. Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ...


The events of the Gulf War fueled anti-Western feeling among Muslims. The change of face by Hussein's secular regime did little to draw support from Islamist groups. This action, combined with the Saudi Arabian alliance with the United States and Saudi Arabia being seen as being on the same side of Israel dramatically eroded that regime's legitimacy. The level of activity of Islamist groups acting against the Saudi regime increased dramatically. The presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia, the invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent blockade were some of the grievances listed by Osama bin Laden in his 1998 Fatwa. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Osama bin Laden wrote what is referred to as a fatwa in August 1996[1], and was one of several signatories of another and shorter fatwa in February of 1998[2]. Both documents appeared initially in the Arabic-language London newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi[1][2]. At the time...


In part to win back favour with Islamist groups, Saudi Arabia greatly increased funding to those that would support the regime. Throughout the newly independent states of Central Asia the Saudis paid for the distribution of millions of Qur'ans and the building of hundreds of mosques for extremist groups. In Afghanistan the Saudi regime became a leading patron of the Taliban in that nation's civil war, and one of the few foreign countries to officially recognize the government. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ...


Technology

Missouri launches a Tomahawk missile.
Missouri launches a Tomahawk missile.

Precision guided munitions (PGMs, also "smart bombs"), such as the United States Air Force guided missile AGM-130, were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars. Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed whilst journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by. PGMs amounted to approximately 7.4% of all bombs dropped by the coalition. Other bombs included cluster bombs, which break up into clusters of bomblets and often cause civilian casualties years after conflicts finish, and daisy cutters, 15,000-pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... USAF redirects here. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... A US B-1 Lancer releasing its payload of cluster bombs Cluster munitions or cluster bombs are air-dropped or ground-launched munitions that eject a number of smaller submunitions (bomblets). The most common types are intended to kill enemy personnel and destroy vehicles. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Scud is a tactical ballistic missile that the Soviet Union developed and deployed among the forward deployed Red Army divisions in East Germany. The role of the Scuds which were armed with nuclear and chemical warheads was to destroy command, control, and communication facilities and delay full mobilization of Western German and Allied Forces in Germany. It could also be used to directly target ground forces. Scud missiles utilise inertial guidance which operates for the duration that the engines operate. Iraq used Scud missiles, launching them into both Saudi Arabia and Israel. Some missiles caused extensive casualties, while others caused little damage. Concerns were raised of possible chemical or biological warheads on these rockets, but if they existed they were not used. Scud missiles are not as effective at delivering chemical payloads as is commonly believed because intense heat during the Scud's flight at approximately Mach 5 denatures most of the chemical payload. Chemical weapons are inherently better suited to being delivered by cruise missiles or fighter bombers. The Scud is best suited to delivering tactical nuclear warheads, a role for which it is as capable today as it was when it was first developed. For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... The Mach Go (Known outside Japan as the Mach Five) is the racing car Speed Racer drives in the anime series of the same name. ...


The USA's Patriot missile was used for the first time in combat. The U.S. military claimed a high effectiveness against Scuds at the time. Later estimates of the Patriot's effectiveness range widely. Further, there is at least one incident of a software error causing a Patriot missile to fail, resulting in deaths. [11] Unclassified evidence on Scud interception is lacking. The higher estimates are based on the percentage of Scud warheads which were known to have impacted and exploded compared to the number of Scud missiles launched, but other factors such as duds, misses and impacts which were not reported confound these. Some Scud variations were re-engineered in a manner outside their original tolerance, and said to have frequently failed or broken up in flight. The lowest estimates are typically based upon the number of interceptions where there is proof that the warhead was hit by at least one missile, but due to the way the Al-Hussein (Scud derivative) missiles broke up in flight, it was often hard to tell which piece was the warhead, and there were few radar tracks which were actually stored which could be analyzed later. Realistically the actual performance will not be known for many years. The U.S. Army and the manufacturers maintain the Patriot delivered a "miracle performance" in the Gulf War.[51] Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


Global Positioning System units were key in enabling coalition units to navigate easily across the desert. GPS redirects here. ...


Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and satellite communication systems were also important. 2 examples of this is the E-2 Hawkeye US Navy and the E-3 Sentry USAF. Both were used in command and control area of operations. They provided essential communications link between the ground forces, air forces, and the navy. It is one the many reasons why the air war during the Gulf war was dominated by the Coalition Forces. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Seal of the Air Force. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ Palestinian Expulsion from Kuwait - TV news report - YouTube
  2. ^ Gulf War, the Sandhurst-trained Prince Khaled bin Sultan al-Saud was co commander with General Norman Schwarzkopf www.casi.org.uk/discuss
  3. ^ General Khaled was Co-Commander, with U.S. General Norman Schwarzkopf, of the allied coalition that liberated Kuwait www.thefreelibrary.com
  4. ^ Gulf War Coalition Forces (Latest available) by country www.nationmaster.com
  5. ^ Geoffrey Regan, p.214
  6. ^ Geoffrey Regan, p.214
  7. ^ a b c d Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum, 386. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  8. ^ Frontline Chronology (PDF). Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  9. ^ CNN, 16 January 2001 [1]
  10. ^ CNN.com In-depth specials - Gulf War. CNN (2001).
  11. ^ AP News at ABC Inc., WABC-TV/DT New York News website article Iraq to Reopen Embassy in Kuwait published September 04, 2005
  12. ^ "Rescue Operations in the Second Gulf War", Air & Space Power Journal, Spring 2005. 
  13. ^ Douglas A. Borer (2003). Inverse Engagement: Lessons from US-Iraq Relations, 1982–1990. U.S. Army Professional Writing Collection. U.S. Army. Retrieved on 2006-10-12.
  14. ^ BBC News. "1990: Outrage at Iraqi TV hostage show". Accessed 2 September 2007.
  15. ^ The Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm Timeline. Retrieved on March 29, 2007.
  16. ^ 15 Years After Desert Storm, U.S. Commitment to Region Continues. Retrieved on March 29, 2007.
  17. ^ The Unfinished War: A Decade Since Desert Storm. CNN In-Depth Specials (2001). Retrieved on 2008-04-05.
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ USATODAY.com - Poll results show support for Iraq pullout, flag-burning amendment
  21. ^ How PR Sold the War in the Persian Gulf | Center for Media and Democracy
  22. ^ In the Gulf war, every last nail was accounted for, but the Iraqi dead went untallied. At last their story is being told
  23. ^ War in the Gulf, 1990-1991: The Iraqi-Kuwait Conflict and It's Implications: Views from the Other Side
  24. ^ Operation Desert Storm
  25. ^ CNN.com In-depth specials - Gulf War. CNN (2001).
  26. ^ Atkinson, Rick (2003). frontline: the gulf war: chronology. SBS.
  27. ^ Iraqi Air Force Equipment - Introduction. Retrieved on January 18, 2005.
  28. ^ IRAQ & AFGHANISTAN: DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN
  29. ^ John Sweeney Responds on Mass Death in Iraq
  30. ^ Clancy, Tom (1994). Armored Cav. Berkley Books, 180. ISBN 0425158365. 
  31. ^ Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, 1990-1991 (Princeton, 1993), 324-29.(
  32. ^ Apparatus of Lies: Crafting Tragedy. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  33. ^ Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, 1990-1991 (Princeton, 1993), 332.
  34. ^ Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, 1990-1991 (Princeton, 1993), 331-41.
  35. ^ Robert Fisk. The Great War for Civilization, Vintage (2007 reprint), at p. 646.
  36. ^ "Cheney changed his view on Iraq", by Charles Pope, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 29, 2004. Retrieved on January 7, 2005.
  37. ^ NRK.no - Brennpunkt
  38. ^ Military records from the deployment, Norwegian Armed Forces, Joint Medical Service
  39. ^ Nationmaster.com - Gulf War Coalition - Troops by country
  40. ^ Robert Fisk, The Great War For Civilisation; The Conquest of the Middle East (Fourth Estate, 2005), p.853.
  41. ^ Keaney, Thomas; Eliot A. Cohen (1993). Gulf War Air Power Survey. United States Dept. of the Air Force. ISBN 0-16-041950-6. 
  42. ^ Robert Fisk, The Great War For Civilisation; The Conquest of the Middle East (Fourth Estate, 2005), p.853.
  43. ^ Schröder H, Heimers A, Frentzel-Beyme R, Schott A, Hoffman W (2003). "Chromosome Aberration Analysis in Peripheral Lymphocytes of Gulf War and Balkans War Veterans". Radiation Protection Dosimetry 103: 211–219. 
  44. ^ Hindin, R. et al. (2005) "Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective," Environmental Health, vol. 4, pp. 17.
  45. ^ An Analysis of Uranium Dispersal and Health Effects Using a Gulf War Case Study, Albert C. Marshall, Sandia National Laboratories
  46. ^ frontline: the gulf war: appendix: Iraqi death toll. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.
  47. ^ How much did the Gulf War cost the US?
  48. ^ How much did the Gulf War cost the US?
  49. ^ How much did the Gulf War cost the US?
  50. ^ Ascherio, A; Chase R, Coté T, Dehaes G, Hoskins E, Laaouej J, Passey M, Qaderi S, Shuqaidef S, Smith MC, et al. (1992-09-24). "Effect of the Gulf War on infant and child mortality in Iraq.". The New England Journal of Medicine 327 (13): 931–936. Massachusetts Medical Society. Retrieved on 2007-03-21. 
  51. ^ Conclusions. Retrieved on December 4, 2005.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... Robert Fisk during a lecture at Carleton University, Canada, 2004 Robert Fisk (born July 12, 1946 in Maidstone, Kent) is a British journalist and is currently a Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

A military satellite is an artificial satellite used for a military purpose, often for gathering intelligence, as a communications satellite for military purposes, or as a military weapon. ... Christopher Cerf (born August 19, 1941) is an author, composer-lyricist, and record and television producer. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

See also

This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... // Values are shown in millions of US dollars at constant (1990) estimated values. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Geographic distance is a key factor in military affairs. ... The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, a book by Jean Baudrillard, is a translation of three essays published in Libération between January and March 1991. ... After the Gulf War, several of the coalition forces issued service and campaign awards: Argentina Medal for the Gulf War 1991 Australia Australian Active Service Medal Bahrain Kuwait Liberation Medal (Bahrain) Canada Canada Gulf and Kuwait Medal Egypt Kuwait Liberation Medal (Egypt) Italy Commemorative Cross for the Operations in the... Gulf War syndrome (GWS) or Gulf War illness (GWI) is the name given to an illness with symptoms including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by combat veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. ... Timeline of the Gulf War Begins in May 1990 and ends in March 1991 May 28-30: Iraqi president Saddam Hussein says that oil overproduction by Kuwait and United Arab Emirates is economic warfare against Iraq. ... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis 1990 July 24, 1990 Nine days before Iraqs invasion of Kuwait US State Department spokeswoman, Margaret Tutweiller encourages Iraq with the statement: We do not have any defence treaties with Kuwait, and there are no special defence or security commitments... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis Continued from Iraq disarmament crisis timeline 1990-1996 February, 1997 Iraq allows UNSCOM to remove the missile parts found last September March 26, 1997 US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright delivers a speech at Georgetown University in which she argues that... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis Continued from Iraq disarmament crisis timeline 1997-2000 February, 2001 British and US forces carry out bombing raids in an attempt to disable Iraqs air defense network. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... In the last 60 years, there have been a number of conflicts in the Middle East. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Lion of Babylon tank or Asad Babil (Arabic: اسد بابل) was an Iraqi-built version of the Soviet T-72 MBT (main battle tank), assembled in a factory established in the 1980s near Taji, north of Baghdad. ... Operation Provide Comfort was a military operation by the United States, starting on 24 July 1991, to defend Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War. ... Operation Simoom[1] (Polish: ) was a top secret Polish intelligence operation conducted in Iraq in 1990. ...

Films about the Gulf War

Bravo Two Zero is a 1999 film based on the British SAS patrol of the same name charged with finding Iraqi Scud missile launchers during the Gulf War. ... Courage Under Fire is a motion picture, released in 1996, starring Denzel Washington, Meg Ryan, Lou Diamond Phillips and Matt Damon. ... The Finest Hour is a 1991 war-drama film. ... Jarhead is a 2005 film based on U.S. Marine Anthony Swoffords 2003 Gulf War memoir Jarhead: A Marines Chronicle of the Gulf War and Other Battles, starring Jake Gyllenhaal as Swofford. ... Lessons of Darkness Lessons of Darkness (Lektionen in Finsternis) is a 1992 film by German director Werner Herzog. ... Live from Baghdad is a television movie produced in 2002 by HBO. Directed by Mick Jackson and written by Robert Wiener (based on the book of the same title by Robert Wiener). ... The Heroes of Desert Storm is a 1991 documentary /drama that told the story of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm from the point of view of several participants. ... Three Kings is a 1999 American film written and directed by David O. Russell from a story by John Ridley about a gold heist in the style of Kellys Heroes. ... The Manchurian Candidate is a 2004 U.S. American film based on the 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon, and a reimagining of the previous 1962 film. ...

Video games related to the Gulf War

Desert Storm was a military strategy title for the Macintosh programmed by Alex Seropian in 1991, self-published and duplicated. ... // Premise Super Battletank takes place during Operation Desert Storm. ... Patriot is a strategy game about the Gulf War, developed by Artech and published by Three-Sixty Pacific. ...

External links

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“The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a United Nations sanctioned effort to assist in stabilising Somalia in the face of widespread lawlessness and a severe famine. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... Belligerents United States Sweden(until 1802) Barbary States (Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Murad Reis Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers Christian Mercenaries Arab Mercenaries 4000 Casualties and losses 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded Christian/Arab Mercenaries killed... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Combatants United States British Empire (from 1815) Barbary states: Algiers Tripoli Tunis Commanders Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Strength 461 soldiers 2,140 soldiers Casualties None None The Pig War (also called the Pig Episode, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute) was a confrontation in 1859 between American and British authorities, resulting from a dispute over the boundary between... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932 The Banana Wars is an unofficial term that refers to the United States military interventions into Central and South America. ... Combatants United States Insurgency Strength 8,509 U.S. Army soldiers 5,670 USMC marines U.S. Sixth Fleet Casualties Four dead (Three by accident, one from hostile fire) Operation Blue Bat was the name given to the 1958 operation in which the United States intervened in the Lebanon crisis. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Belligerents Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties and losses 100-1,000 killed 24 killed, 325 wounded 300-4,000 civilians killed The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the invasion of Panama by the United States... This article is about military actions only. ... Shays Rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Map of the Toledo Strip, the disputed region. ... The Dorr Rebellion was a short-lived armed insurrection in Rhode Island in 1841 and 1842, led by Thomas Wilson Dorr who was agitating for changes to the states electoral system. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... The Honey Lands were a strip of territory disputed between the U.S. state of Missouri and the Iowa Territory. ... Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri... Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Republican Party nicknamed The Minstrels mostly Northerners at first loyal to Powell Clayton, later Democrats Liberal Republican Party nicknamed The Brindle Tails initially supported by state militia, later mostly African American volunteers Commanders Elisha Baxter Joseph Brooks Robert F. Catterson (Arkansas state militia) Strength more than 2,000 approximately... The Green Corn Rebellion took place in 1917 in rural Oklahoma. ... The Battle of Blair Mountain was the largest organized armed uprising in American labor history and led almost directly to the labor laws currently in effect in the United States of America. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Fort Caroline List of conflicts in the United States is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks, massacres, and other related items that have occurred in the United Statess current geographical area, including overseas territories. ... This is a list of wars, conflicts, operations, and battles, in chronological order, that involve the United States during and after the American Revolutionary War. ... From 1776 to 2007, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Palestinian government redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... ALF symbol Arab Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير العربية, jabha at-tahrir al-arabia) is a minor Palestinian political movement, politically tied to the Baath Party of Saddam Hussein. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Image File history File links DFLP_flag. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... Image File history File links Hamas_flag2. ... Ḥamas (; acronym: , or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hezbollah. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Palestinian group. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwat al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia, which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a militant Palestinian group which is designated by the United States and European Union [1] as a terrorist organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... PPSF symbol The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF, occasionally abbr. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Emblem of the Popular Resistance Committees The Popular Resistance Committees (PRC) are various Palestinian militant organizations which operate in the Gaza Strip and are regarded as terrorist organizations by Israel and the United States. ... As Saiqa can mean: Commando (military) forces of the various Arab military and para-military forces. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: ; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«bi. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... The Army of the Holy War or Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) was a force of Palestinian irregulars in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War led by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. ... Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... The Black Hand (Arabic: ‎) was an underground Islamist militant organization that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_OIC.svg Beschreibung The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). ... The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_United_Arab_Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Abdel Hakim Amer (Arabic: عبد الحكيم عامر) ‎ (December 11, 1919– September 14, 1967) was an Egyptian military general and political leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ...  [1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the sixth and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای, pronounced []) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[3] has been Supreme Leader of Iran since 1989 and before that was president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (Persian:  , RÅ«ullāh MÅ«sawÄ« KhumaynÄ«) (September 24, 1902[1][2] – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian politician and religious figure, and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: ‎, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Myerson from 1917-1956) was the fourth prime minister, and a founder, of the State of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Olmert (‎; Arabic: ‎; pronounced , born 30 September 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Abdullah I of Jordan as-Sayyid Abdullah I, King of Jordan, GCMG, GBE, (1882 – July 20, 1951 by assassination) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as as-Sayyid Abdullah bin al-Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن الحسين `as=Sayyid Abd Allāh ibn al-Ḥusayn), was, successively, Emir of Transjordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... King Abdullah II bin Al Hussein (Arabic: ‎, al-Malik Ê¿Abdullāh aṯ-ṯānÄ« bin al-Ḥusayn) is the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎, ) (November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999) was the ruler of Jordan since his father, King Talal, abdicated in 1952, until his death. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Émile Lahoud General Émile Geamil Lahoud (Arabic: اميل لحود) (born January 12, 1936) is the current President of Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah (Arabic: ) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Mona Juul is an official in the Norwegian Foreign Affairs Ministry. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Johan Jørgen Holst Bust by Per Ung 1999 Johan Jørgen Holst (November 29, 1937 - January 13, 1994) was a Norwegian politician, best known for his involvement with the Oslo Accords. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Terje Rød-Larsen (born November 22, 1947) is a Norwegian diplomat and sociologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1963) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Dr. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (in the Arabic script عبدالعزيز الرنتيسي) (October 23, 1947 - April 17, 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization Hamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also Al-Shuqeiry, Shukeiry, etc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z Ä€l Sa`Å«d, King of Saudi Arabia, GCIE ( 1876 – November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney walks with newly crowned King Abdullah, former U.S. President George H.W. Bush, and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell during a retreat at King Abdullahs Farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, August 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: ‎, 1921 – August 1, 2005) was the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Official portrait of Shukri al Quwatli when he assumed the Syrian Presidency in Aug 1947 at the age of 51 Shukri al-Quwatli (Born 1891, Damascus, Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 to April 1974) was a British politician and writer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Dr. Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1903 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist, diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Palestine. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917–January 12, 2002), was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-1948 Civil War in the Mandate Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... Arab violence was rampant during wave of anti-Jewish riots in 1920-21, during the pogroms of 1929 (which included the massacre of the Jewish community in Hebron and Safed), during the Arab Revolt of 1936-39 (which included the massacre of Jewish community in Tiberias), and in many other... The Qibya massacre was carried out in October 1953 by Israeli troops on the Jordanian West Bank village of that name. ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Commanders Yoav Shalam Levi Eshkol Bahjat al-Muhsin Hussein I bin Talal Strength 400 troops 40 half-tracks 10 tanks 100 troops 20 convoy vehicles Casualties 1 killed 10 wounded 16 Jordanian Armed Forces killed 54 Jordanian Armed forces wounded 15 vehicles... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the... Belligerents Israel PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen Uganda Commanders Yekutiel Kuti Adam Dan Shomron Yonatan Netanyahu† Moshe Muki Betser Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse† Idi Amin Strength Approximately 100 Commandos, plus air crew and support personnel Unknown Casualties and losses Yonatan Netanyahu killed 5 commandos wounded 7 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Belligerents Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties and losses 1282 250 IDF, 1000 SLA During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Casualties 3 killed. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Palestinian militants (Israeli claim) Strength Several F-16s Unknown Casualties 1 injured The Ain es Saheb airstrike occured on October 5, 2003 and was the first Israeli military operation in Syria since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hamas Casualties 5 killed (3 Of them civilians) 104 - 133 killed (42 of them civilians) Operation Days of Penitence (In Hebrew, מבצע ימי תשובה) was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces operation in the northern Gaza Strip, conducted between September 30, 2004 and October... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Belligerents Israeli Air Force Syria Strength F-15I fighters F-16 fighters 1 ELINT aircraft Total: As many as 8 aircraft Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery of the Syrian Air Defence Forces Casualties and losses None Reported. ... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Damascus Protocol was a document defining the independent Arab territories in the Middle East after the conspired Arab Revolt had taken place. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Arthur James Balfour. ... The Declaration to the Seven was a document written by Sir Mark Sykes and released by the British Government on 16 June 1918 in response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables in Cairo who were members of the newly-formed Party of Syrian Unity, which had been... ANGLO-FRENCH DECLARATION November 7, 1918 The goal envisaged by France and Great Britain in prosecuting in the East the War let loose by German ambition is the complete and final liberation of the peoples who have for so long been oppressed by the Turks, and the setting up of... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... London Conference, St. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 (S/RES/339) was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a cease fire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed after Israeli forces broke the terms of the cease fire and made substantial military gains. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 350, adopted on 31 May 1974, established the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, to monitor the ceasefire between Israel and Syria in the wake of the Yom Kippur War. ... On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted, calling on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon and establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 446 concerned the issue of Israeli settlements in the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem. This refers to the Palestinian territories of the West Bank including East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 452 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to rescind its annexation of the Golan Heights. ... The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 is a counter-terrorism measure adopted September 28, 2001 following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. ... Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 was a resolution adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 2, 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 is an anti-terrorism resolution adopted on 8 October 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1583 calls on Lebanon to assert full control over its border with Israel (See: Hezbollah). ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The Prisoners document is a document drawn up by Palestinian prisoners who are currently being held in Israeli jails. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... The Annapolis Conference is being held on November 27, 2007 at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, United States. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The Premiership of Margaret Thatcher began on 4 May 1979, with a mandate to reverse the UKs economic decline and to reduce the role of the state in the economy. ... The Ministry Categories: British ministries ... Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... The Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2004 Night View of the Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2006 The Brighton hotel bombing was the attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the Grand Hotel in the English resort city of Brighton in the early morning of October 12, 1984. ... Opposition to trade unions comes from a variety of groups in society and there are many different types of argument on which this opposition is based. ... The Sermon on the Mound is the name given by the British press to an address made by Margaret Thatcher to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1988. ... Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party Leadership Election was held during early February, 1975. ... The 1989 Conservative Party leadership election took place on 5 December 1989. ... The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... Major Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE, TD (10 May 1915 – 26 June 2003) was a businessman, and the husband of the former British Prime Minister, Baroness Thatcher. ... Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Baroness Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister, and twin brother of Carol Thatcher. ... Carol Thatcher (born 15 August 1953), styled The Hon. ...


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Gulf War Syndrome - Gulf War Syndrome Symptoms And Information (3142 words)
Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), which is also known as "Desert Storm Diseases" or simply "Gulf War Veterans Illnesses", is a collection of symptoms reported by veterans (and civilians like press and government employees) of the first Gulf war since August 1990.
In the study Gulf war syndrome was compared to chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, multiple chemical sensitivities and other similar illnesses to determine if the current definition for those illnesses could adequately describe Gulf war syndrome.
Although there is little research involving this chemical in gulf war veterans, it is possible or even probably that it contributed to the symptoms experienced by veterans.
The Unseen Gulf War by Peter Turnley - The Digital Journalist (703 words)
As we approach the likelihood of a new Gulf War, I have an idea and it occurs to me that the Digital Journalist may be the place for it.
I was in the Gulf for many weeks as the build-up of troops took place, and then sat out the "air war", and flew from Paris to Riyadh as soon as the ground war began.
War is at best a necessary evil, and I am certain that anyone that feels differently has never experienced or been in it.
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