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Encyclopedia > Gujarati language
Gujarati
ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī 
Pronunciation: /gudʒ.(ə)'ɾat̪i/
Spoken in: India, Pakistan, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Canada, Zimbabwe
Total speakers: 46.1 million[1] 
Ranking: 26
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Indo-Aryan
   Western Indo-Aryan
    Gujarati 
Writing system: Gujarati script 
Official status
Official language of: Gujarat (India)[1][2]
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: gu
ISO 639-2: guj
ISO 639-3: guj
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is native to the Indian state of Gujarat, and is its chief language, as well as of the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ GujarātÄ« Lipi), which like all NāgarÄ« writing systems is strictly speaking an abugida rather than an alphabet, is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Example. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ...


There are about 46 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world. Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan" and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India". This is a list of languages placed in order by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah (referred to in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam, or Great Leader, which is a legally defined title) (December 25, 1876 - September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim nationalist, who led the movement demanding a separate homeland for Muslims in... Vallabhbhai Patel (Gujarati: , Hindi: ; IPA: ) (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950) was a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the countrys struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. ...

Contents

History

Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi sharing a laugh together in Bombay, 1944, for (what would end up as failed) political talks. These two prime political figures of the Indian subcontinent in the 20th century were Gujaratis and thus native speakers of the Gujarati language. For Jinnah, Gujarati did not factor beyond that of a mother tongue. He was neither born nor raised in Gujarat, and Gujarat did not end up a part of Pakistan, the state he espoused. He went on to advocate for solely Urdu in his politics. For Gandhi, Gujarati served as a medium of literary expression. He helped to inspire a renewal in its literature, and in 1936 he introduced the current spelling convention at the Gujarati Literary Society's 12th meeting.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi sharing a laugh together in Bombay, 1944, for (what would end up as failed) political talks. These two prime political figures of the Indian subcontinent in the 20th century were Gujaratis and thus native speakers of the Gujarati language. For Jinnah, Gujarati did not factor beyond that of a mother tongue. He was neither born nor raised in Gujarat[4], and Gujarat did not end up a part of Pakistan, the state he espoused. He went on to advocate for solely Urdu in his politics. For Gandhi, Gujarati served as a medium of literary expression. He helped to inspire a renewal in its literature[5], and in 1936 he introduced the current spelling convention at the Gujarati Literary Society's 12th meeting[6].

Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language evolved from Sanskrit. The traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages[3]: Image File history File links Jinnah_Gandhi. ... Image File history File links Jinnah_Gandhi. ... Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu:  ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhÄ«, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Happy Tree Friends character, see Giggles (Happy Tree Friends). ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The Gujarati people, or Gujaratis, (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો GujarātÄ« loko, or ગુજરાતીઓ GujarātÄ«o), is an umbrella term used to describe traditionally Gujarati speaking peoples who can trace their ancestry to the Gujarat region in India. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریک پاکستان) is a name given to the Movement carried out by the Muslims of British India to create a separate homeland. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gujarati Sahitya Parishad is a literary institution for the promotion of Gujarati literature located in the city of Ahmedabad, India. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

  1. Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit)
  2. Middle IA (various Prakrits and Apabhramshas)
  3. New IA (modern languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, etc.)

Another view accords successive family, tree splits, in which Gujarati is assumed to have separated from other IA languages in four stages[7]: Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, which are the earliest sacred texts of India,. The Vedas were first passed down orally and therefore have no known date. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The term Apabhramsha refers to the dialects of North India before the rise of modern North Indian languages. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... “Punjabi” redirects here. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  1. IA languages split into Northern, Eastern, and Western divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as stops becoming voiced in the Northern (Skt. danta "tooth" > Punj. dānd) and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern (Skt. sandhya "evening" > Beng. śājh).[8]
  2. Western, into Central and Southern.
  3. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.[3]
  4. Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century.[9]

The principal changes from Sanskrit are the following[7]: A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... A humans visible teeth. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative, made by speeding up air through a narrow channel and directing it over the sharp edge of the teeth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Informally, the evening is the period in which the daylight is decreasing, between the late afternoon and night; it extends from the latter portion of the daylight (before sunset) until dark (after sunset). ... Rajasthani (राजस्थानी) is a macrolanguage of the Indo-Aryan languages family. ... Braj, though never a clearly defined political region, is considered to be the land of Krishna and is derived from the Sanksrit word vraja. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... A postposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that expresses some sort of relationship between a noun phrase (its object) and another part of the sentence; an adpositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb. ... Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, one of which possesses (owns, rules over, has as a part, has as a relative, etc. ... In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word or sentence. ...

English Sanskrit Prakrit Gujarati Ref
hand hasta hattha th [10]
seven sapta satta sāt [11]
eight aṣṭā aṭṭha āṭh [12]
snake sarpa sappa sāp [13]

Gujarati is customarily divided into the following three historical stages[3]: Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In linguistics, a consonant cluster is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. ... In phonetics, consonant length is when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The hands (med. ... 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ... 8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. ... blue: sea snakes, black: land snakes Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae A snake is a scaly, limbless, elongate reptile from the order Squamata. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Periphrasis is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is expressed by many or several words. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Split ergativity is shown by languages that have a partly ergative behaviour, but employ another syntax or morphology (usually accusative) in some contexts. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ...

Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave, 19th century literary figure, wrote the first Gujarati essay, Maniaḷī Maḷvāthī thātā Lābh (1851), and autobiography, Mārī Hakīkat (1866).
  • Old Gujarati (11001500 AD), ancestor of Gujarati and Rajasthani,[5] was spoken by the Gurjars in northern Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Texts of this era display characteristic Gujarati features such as direct/oblique noun forms, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs.[7] It had 3 genders as Gujarati does today, and by around the time of 1300 CE a fairly standardized form of this language emerged. While generally known as Old Gujarati, some scholars prefer the name of Old Western Rajasthani, based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani were not yet distinct at the time. Also factoring into this preference was the belief that modern Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, based on the incorrect conclusion that the /ũ/ that came to be pronounced in some areas for masculine /o/ after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati's neuter /ũ/.[14] A formal grammar of the precursor to this language (Gurjar Apabhraṃśa) was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandra-charya in the reign of Rajput king Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilwara (Patan). It was called Siddhahaima Apabhraṃśa Vyākaraṇa.[15][16]
  • Middle Gujarati (1500 — 1800 AD), split off from Rajasthani, and developed the phonemes ɛ and ɔ, the auxiliary stem ch-, and the possessive marker -n-.[17]
  • Modern Gujarati (1800 AD — ). The third quarter of the 19th century saw a series of milestones for Gujarati, which previously had had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition.[16]
    • 1840s, personal diary composition; Nityanondh, Durgaram Mahetaji.
    • 1851, first essay; Maniaḷī Maḷvāthi thātā Lābh, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.
    • 1866, first novel; Karaṇ Ghelo, Nandashankar Mehta.
    • 1866, first autobiography; Mārī Hakīkat, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave (Gujarati: ) (August 24, 1833 – February 26, 1886), popularly known as Narmad, was a Gujarati author, poet, scholar and public speaker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... This article is under construction. ... Hemachandra Surī (Sanskrit: ) (1089–1172) was an Indian Jain scholar, poet, and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy, prosody, and contemporary history. ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Patan is a city in Gujarat state of western India. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...

Demographics and Distribution

Indo-Aryan languages spoken in South Asia
Indo-Aryan languages spoken in South Asia

Of the approximately 46 million speakers of Gujarati, roughly 45.5 million reside in India, 150 000 in Uganda, 250 000 in Tanzania, 50 000 in Kenya and roughly 100 000 in Pakistan.[1] There is also a large Gujarati community in Mumbai, India. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (877 × 919 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Image:Indoarische Sprachen Verbreitung. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (877 × 919 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/png) Other versions Image:Indoarische Sprachen Verbreitung. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ...


The United Kingdom has 300 000 speakers, many of them situated in the London areas of Wembley, Harrow and Newham and in Leicester, Coventry and Bradford. A considerable population exists in North America as well. A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly-independent resident countries (especially Uganda, where Idi Amin expelled 50 000 Asians), were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled in the UK.[5][18] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Wembley, until 1965 a borough in its own right, forms the northern part of the London Borough of Brent. ... The London Borough of Harrow is a London borough of outer north-west London. ... The London Borough of Newham is a London borough in East London. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... For other places with the same name, see Coventry (disambiguation). ... The larger City of Bradford Metropolitan District includes other settlements in the surrounding area. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... For other types of travel document, see Travel document. ...


Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people, non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state of Gujarat also count as speakers, among them Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan, the Kutchis (as a literary language)[5], and the Parsis (adopted as a mother tongue). The Gujarati people, or Gujaratis, (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો GujarātÄ« loko, or ગુજરાતીઓ GujarātÄ«o), is an umbrella term used to describe traditionally Gujarati speaking peoples who can trace their ancestry to the Gujarat region in India. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ... A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... A Parsi (Gujarati: PārsÄ«, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


Official status

Gujarati is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. It is officially recognized in the state of Gujarat, India. An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...


Dialects

Map of Gujarat
Map of Gujarat

As with most languages, Gujarati comes in numerous regional dialects that differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and/or grammar. Some dialects have many Arabic and Persian borrowings, while others, such as the southern dialects, take more from Portuguese and English, while others take more from Hindi. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x749, 65 KB) Summary Gujarat State (India) with district boundries and city marks - Self Made - w:User:Miljoshi - December 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Gujarat User:Miljoshi ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x749, 65 KB) Summary Gujarat State (India) with district boundries and city marks - Self Made - w:User:Miljoshi - December 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Gujarat User:Miljoshi ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... For the topic in theoretical computer science, see Formal grammar Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ...

A newspaper extract written in Parsi Gujarati, in or before 1892. It is about Englishmen who speak French.[19]

Ethnologue lists the following dialects and subdivisions.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 654 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/png) p 148, http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 654 pixel, file size: 282 KB, MIME type: image/png) p 148, http://www. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Languages English Religions Christianity (Anglicanism, Roman Catholicism and other minority denominations), and other faiths. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...

  • Standard Gujarati
    • Saurashtra Standard
    • Nagari
    • Bombay Gujarati
    • Patnuli
  • Gamadia
    • Gramya
    • Surati
    • Anawla
    • Brathela
    • Eastern Broach Gujarati
    • Charotari
    • Patidari
    • Vadodari
    • Ahmedabad Gamadia
    • Patani
  • Parsi
  • Kathiyawadi
    • Jhalawadi
    • Sorathi
    • Holadi
    • Gohilwadi
    • Bhavnagari
  • Kharwa
  • Khakari
  • Tarimukhi
    • Ghisadi

Closely related languages

Kutchi, also known as Khojki, is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi. The Kutchi language originates from Kutch, India. ... Khojki was a special script adopted and used almost exclusively by the Khoja community of the Indian subcontinent. ... Sindhī (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ...


Phonology

Main article: Gujarati phonology
Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e ə o
ɛ ɔ
Open a
Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alveolar/
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Stops and
affricates
p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
ʧ
ʧʰ
ʤ
ʤʱ
k
g
Nasals m n ɳ
Fricatives s ʃ h
Tap or Flap ɾ
Semivowels ʋ j
Lateral
approximants
l ɭ

Gujarati phonology is the study of the inventory and patterns of the consonants, vowels, and prosody of the Gujarati language. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Retroflex consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue curled up and back so the bottom of the tip touches the roof of the mouth. ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... The vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the human larynx. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ...

Writing system

Main article: Gujarati script

Similar to other Nāgarī writing systems, the Gujarati script is an abugida. It is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of Devanāgarī script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a small number of modifications in the remaining characters. The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ GujarātÄ« Lipi), which like all NāgarÄ« writing systems is strictly speaking an abugida rather than an alphabet, is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... Kachhi (also spelled, Cutchi or Kachchhi) is an Indo-Aryan Language spoken in the Kutch region of the Indian state of Gujarat, with approximately 866,000 speakers. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ...


Gujarati and closely related languages, including Kutchi, can be written in the Arabic or Persian scripts. This is traditionally done by many in Gujarat's Kutch district. The Kutchi language originates from Kutch, India. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Old Persian: Old Persian cineiform script, Middle Persian (or Pahlavi): Pahlavi, Manichean script—by Persian-speaking Manichees, Modern Persian: Persian variant of the Arabic alphabet. ... Kutch (Kuchchh) District, State of Gujarat Kutch (also spelled Cutch, Kachh, Kachch and even Kachchh) is a district of Gujarat state in western India. ...


There are many possible romanization schemes for Gujarati, initially created to represent Sanskrit/Devanagari. Used here and with all specimens of Gujarati on Wikipedia unless otherwise noted, is the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST), most often in italicized form. Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Vocabulary

Categorization and Sources

These are the three general categories of words in modern Indo-Aryan: tatsam, tadbhav, and loanwords.[20]


Tadbhav

તદ્ભવ્ tadbhav, "of the nature of that". Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit, and this category pertains exactly to that: words of Sanskritic origin that have demonstratively undergone change over the ages, ending up characteristic of modern Indo-Aryan languages specifically as well as in general. Thus the "that" in "of the nature of that" refers to Sanskrit. They tend to be non-technical, everday, crucial words; part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a table of a few Gujarati tadbhav words and their Old Indo-Aryan sources: The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

Sanskrit Gujarati Ref
falls, slips khasati khasvuṃ to move [21]
causes to move arpayati āpvuṃ to give [22]
school nayaśālā niśāḷ [23]
attains to, obtains prāpnoti pāmvuṃ [24]
tiger vyāghra vāgh [25]
equal, alike, level sama samuṃ right, sound [26]
all sarva sau [27]

Students in Rome, Italy. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Historical distribution of tigers (pale yellow) and 2006 (green). ...

Tatsam

તત્સમ્ tatsam, "same as that". While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after. This category consists of these borrowed words of (more or less) pure Sanskrit character. They serve to enrich Gujarati and modern Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and religious vocabulary. They are recognizable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they are thus often treated as a separate grammatical category unto themselves. The Middle Indo-Aryan (Middle Indic) languages are the medieval dialects of the Indo-Aryan languages, the descendants of the Old Indo-Aryan dialects such as Sanskrit, and the predecessors of the medieval languages such as Apabhramsha or Abahatta, which eventually evolved into the contemporary Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ...

Tatsam Word English Participle Notes Gujarati equivalent
પરિક્ષા parikā test Feminine gender marker
પરિક્ષિત parikit tested -it "-ed" -elu
પરિક્ષણ parika testing -a "-ing" -vānu

Many old tatsam words have changed their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for modern times. પ્રસારણ prasāra means "spreading", but now it's used for "broadcasting". In addition to this are neologisms, often being calques. An example is telephone, which is Greek for "far talk", translated as દુરભાષ durbhā. Though most people just use ફોન phon and thus neo-Sanskrit has varying degrees of acceptance. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


So, while having unique tadbhav sets, modern IA languages have a common, higher tatsam pool. Also, tatsams and their derived tadbhavs can also co-exist in a language; sometimes of no consequence: dharma-dharam, other times with differences in meaning, with the former holding a "higher" one:   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ...

Tatsam Tadbhav
karma Work — Dharmic religious concept of works or deeds whose divine consequences are experienced in this life or the next. kām Simply... work.
kṣetra Field — Abstract sense, such as a field of knowledge or activity; khāngī kṣetra → private sector. Physical sense, but of higher or special importance; raṇǎkṣetra → battlefield. khetar Regular old field, such as to farm on.

What remains are words of foreign origin (videśī), as well as words of local origin that cannot be pegged as belonging to any of the three prior categories (deśaj). The former consists mainly of Persian, Arabic, and English, with trace elements of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is relatively new, Perso-Arabic has many centuries of history behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are/were nation-wide, in a way paralleling tatsam as a common vocabulary set or bank. What's more is how, beyond a transposition into general Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has also been assimilated in a manner characteristic and relevant to the specific Indo-Aryan language it's being used in, bringing to mind tadbhav. For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ... The word Dharmic is an adjective of the word Dharma. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Perso-Arabic

Gujarat was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims. As a consequence the language was changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian's conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially of a differing grammar (or language), and that in comparison while Perso-Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized. Owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, (1) Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or known as loans, and (2) more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. dāvo - claim, fāydo - benefit, natījo - result, and humlo - attack, all carry Gujarati's masculine gender marker, o. khānu - compartment, has the neuter u. Aside from easy slotting with the auxiliary karvu, a few words have made a complete transition of verbification: kabūlvu - to admit (fault), kharīdvu - to buy, kharǎcvu - to spend (money), gujarvu - to pass. The last three are definite part and parcel. The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ...


Thus, while Indo-Aryan languages like Marathi, Nepali, and Bengali are conservative in their lexicons, central and western/northwestern tongues like Punjabi, Hindustani, Sindhi, and Gujarati have been Persianized. The most resounding occurrence of this was that of the Delhi dialect of Hindustani; Delhi being the seat of Muslim power. Its Persianization and subsequent dePersianization and Sanskritization lead to the reality of the two registers if not languages of Urdu and Hindi, which became the national languages of Pakistan and India. Gujarati is not split in this way, but nonetheless its loaning is to be noted. Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India (Maharashtrians). ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Persianization or Persianisation is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Persian (or Iranian) is made to become Persian (or Iranian) It is commonly used in connection with Kurds, Arabs, as well as various Turkic peoples. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Punjabi: , Urdu: ) sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ...


Below is a table displaying a number of these loans. Currently some of the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary, so it should be noted that Gujarati's singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu ā, neuter uṃ groups into ā as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu's Persian z is not upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j or jh. In contrast to modern Persian, the pronunciation of these loans into Gujarati and other Indo-Aryan languages, as well as that of Indian-recited Persian, seems to be in line with Persian spoken in Afghanistan and Central Asia, perhaps 500 years ago[28]. This article contains a trivia section. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...

NOUNS ADJECTIVES
MASC NEU FEM
fāydo gain, advantage, benefit A [29] khānuṃ compartment P [30] kharīdī purchase(s), shopping P [31] tājuṃ fresh P [32]
humlo attack A [33] makān house, building A [34] śardī cold P [35] juduṃ different, separate P [36]
dāvo claim A [37] nasīb luck A [38] bāju side P [39] najīk near P [40]
natījo result, outcome A [41] śaher city P [42] cījh thing P [43] kharāb bad A [44]
gusso anger P [45] medān plain P [46] jindgī life P [47] lāl red P [48]

Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some instances with its cognates[49]: Fiona, often known as the The Maher Man, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... “Good luck” redirects here. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anger may be a (physiological and psychological) response to a perceived threat to self or important others, present, past, or future. ... In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors evoked by light consisting predominantly of the longest wavelengths of light discernible by the human eye, in the wavelength range of roughly 625–750 nm. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ...

Persian INDO-ARYAN English
marǎd martya man, mortal
stān sthān place, land
ī īya <adjectival suffix>
band bandh closed, fastened

Zoroastrian Persian refugees known as Parsis also speak an accordingly Persianized form of Gujarati.[50] Also, the Dawoodi Bohra community of India and Pakistan speak an Arabicised version of Gujarati, devised in the last 30 years or so, with an Arabic-style script. The suffix -stan (spelled ـستان in the Perso-Arabic script) is Persian for place of, and -sthan (स्थान in the Devanāgarī script) is a cognate Sanskrit suffix with the same meaning. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A Parsi (Gujarati: Pārsī, IPA: ), sometimes spelled Parsee, is a member of the close-knit Zoroastrian community based in the Indian subcontinent. ...


English

śrī sarasvatī fruṭ jyuś senṭar - Shri Saraswati Fruit Juice Center. Note that "Fruit Juice Center" are English words. A Sanskritic alternative would be phaḷ ras kendra, or phaḷnā rasno kendra. It (kendra in particular) would however sound quite pedantic and out of place.
śrī sarasvatī fruṭ jyuś senṭar - Shri Saraswati Fruit Juice Center. Note that "Fruit Juice Center" are English words. A Sanskritic alternative would be phaḷ ras kendra, or phaḷnā rasno kendra. It (kendra in particular) would however sound quite pedantic and out of place.

With the end of Perso-Arabic inflow, English became the current foreign source of new vocabulary. English had and continues to have a considerable influence over Indian languages. Loanwords include new innovations and concepts, first introduced directly through British colonialism, and then streaming in on the basis of continued Anglosphere dominance in the post-colonial period. Besides the category of new ideas is the category of English words that already have Gujarati counterparts which end up replaced or existed alongside with. The major driving force behind this latter category has to be the continuing role of English in modern India as a language of education, prestige, and mobility. In this way, Indian speech can be sprinkled with English words and expressions, even switches to whole sentences.[51] See Hinglish, Code-switching. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 299 pixelsFull resolution (1878 × 702 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 299 pixelsFull resolution (1878 × 702 pixel, file size: 246 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... An acronym SRI may refer to one of the following: Socially Responsible Investment. ... In Hinduism, Saraswati (Sanskrit ) is one of the goddesses, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga, that form the female counterpart of the Trimurti. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Orange juice Juice is a liquid naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. ... For the medical term see rigor (medicine) Rigour (American English: rigor) has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hinglish, a portmanteau of the words Hindi and English, is the arbitrary usage of Hindi and English, combining both, in one sentence. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


In matters of sound, English alveolar consonants map as retroflexes rather than dentals. Two new characters were created in Gujarati to represent English /æ/'s and /ɔ/'s. Levels of Gujarati-ization in sound vary. Some words don't go far beyond this basic transpositional rule, and sound much like their English source, while others differ in ways, one of those ways being the carrying of dentals. See Indian English. Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Indian English refers to the dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ...


As English loanwards are a relatively new phenomenon, they adhere to English grammar, as tatsam words adhere to Sanskrit. Though that isn't to say that the most basic changes have been underway: many English words are pluralized with Gujarati o over English "s". Also, with Gujarati having 3 genders, genderless English words must take one. Though often inexplicable, gender assignment may follow the same basis as it is expressed in Gujarati: vowel type, and the nature of word meaning.

bâṅk bank phon phone ṭebal table bas bus rabbar eraser ṭorc flashlight dôkṭar doctor rasīd receipt minaṭ
miniṭ
minute
helo
halo
hālo
hello hôspiṭal
aspitāl
ispitāl
hospital sṭeśan
ṭeśan
station sāykal (bi)cycle rum room āis krīm ice cream rôbaṭ robot ṭāym time ṭikiṭ
ṭikaṭ
ticket
aṅkal1 uncle āṇṭī1 auntie pākīṭ wallet kavar envelope noṭ banknote skūl school ṭyuśan tuitoring esī AC sleṭ slate
  • 1 These English forms are often used (prominently by NRIs) for those family friends and elders that aren't actually uncles and aunts but are of the age.

“Banker” redirects here. ... Look up phone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A wooden dining table and chairs. ... For other uses, see Bus (disambiguation). ... A pencil eraser. ... For the Soviet military jet with the NATO designation Flashlight, see Yakovlev Yak-25. ... A receipt is a written acknowledgement that a specified article or sum of money has been received. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Look up hello in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... “Velo” redirects here. ... A room, in architecture, is any distinguishable space within a structure. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... ASIMO, a humanoid robot manufactured by Honda. ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cheap Tickets redirects here. ... Uncle may refer to: A family relationship, see Cousin chart A cry of surrender An idiom: Dutch uncle, a person who delivers stern lectures Uncle Sam, a national personification of the United States Uncle Tom, a pejorative term for a black person Uncle Tom Cobley, a British folk saying meaning... The word auntie can mean:- A pet form for the word aunt Among elephants, a female elephant who helps a mother elephant to defend and protect her calf. ... An example of a wallet A wallet is a small (usually pocket-sized) storage device used to keep personal items such as credit cards, cash, drivers licenses for frequent quick access. ... Front of an envelope mailed in the U.S. in 1906 contains postage stamp and address. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... A writing slate is a piece of flat material used as a medium for writing. ... A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country. ...

Portuguese

The smaller foothold the Portuguese had in wider India had linguistic effects. Gujarati took up a number of words, while elsewhere the influence was great enough to the extent that creole languages came to be (See Portuguese India, Portuguese-based creole languages#India and Sri Lanka). Comparatively, the impact of Portuguese has been greater on coastal languages[52] and their loans tend to be closer to the Portuguese originals[53]. The source dialect of these loans imparts an earlier pronunciation of ch as an affricate instead of the current standard of [ʃ].[28] Portuguese India (Portuguese: or Estado da Índia) was the aggregate of Portugals colonial holdings in India. ... Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have been significantly influenced by Portuguese. ...

Gujarati Meaning Portuguese
istrī iron estirar1
mistrī 2 carpenter mestre3
sābu soap sabão
cāvī key chave
tamāku tobacco tabaco
kobī cabbage couve
cāju cashew caju
pāuṃ bread pão
baṭāko potato batata
anānas pineapple ananás
pādrī 'father' padre
aṅgrej(ī) English inglês
1 "Lengthen".
2 Common occupational surname.
3 "Master".

An iron Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from washed clothes. ... Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942. ... SOAP (see below for name and origins) is a protocol for exchanging XML-based messages over computer networks, normally using HTTP/HTTPS. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the Web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Anacardium occidentale L. The Cashew (Anacardium occidentale; syn. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ...

Kinship Terms

Gujarati is extensively detailed in its kinship terminology[54]

father bāp(u),
pitā
father's brother kāka
father's brother's wife kākī
father's sister foī
father's sister's husband fuo-ji
mother mā,
mātā
mother's brother māma
mother's brother's wife māmī
mother's sister māsī
mother's sister's husband māsa-ji
brother bhāī
brother's wife bhābhī
brother or spouse's
brother's son
bhatrījo
brother or spouse's
brother's daughter
bhatrījī
sister bahen
sister's husband banhevī
sister's or spouse's
sister's son
bhāṇo
sister's or spouse's
sister's daughter
bhāṇī
husband var,
pati
husband's older brother jeṭh
husband's older brother's wife jeṭhāṇī
husband's younger brother diyar
husband's younger brother's wife diyarāṇī
husband's sister naṇand
husband's sister's husband naṇandoī
wife vahu,
patnī
wife's brother sāḷo
wife's brother's wife sāḷāvelī
wife's sister sāḷī
wife's sister's husband sāḍu
son dīkro,
chokro,
putra,
beṭo
son's wife putravadhū,
vahu
daughter dīkrī,
chokrī,
putrī,
beṭī
daughter's husband jamāī
grandson pautra
granddaughter pautrī
child's father-in-law vevāī
child's mother-in law vevāṇ
grandfather dada,
bapa
grandmother bā, dādī
father-in-law, spouse's father sasro
mother-in-law, spouse's mother sāsu
grandfather-in-law,
spouse's grandfather,
an in-law's father
vaḍsasro
grandmother-in-law,
spouse's grandmother,
an in-law's mother
vaḍsāsu
  • The āī in bhāī, jamāī, and vevāī is pronounced ai.
  • All o endings on the titles of male elders turn into ā (honorific plural) as a matter of respect. Vocatively, all o endings turn into ā regardless of age.
  • In English, you can say "Dad", "Uncle George", "Grandma Mildred" etc.; while you can't say "Nephew Tim", "Husband Bob", "Brother-in-law Michael, "Mother-in-law Agnes", etc. The same thing is there in Gujarati, where you can use some titles in address and cannot use others.
    • Those one or more generations older are addressed by their unique titles.
      • In-laws are addressed as parents. sasrā, sāsubāp/pitā, mā/mātā.
      • The parents of in-laws are addressed as grandparents. vaḍsasrā, vaḍsāsudādā, bā/dādī.
    • Those of the same generation or younger are not addressed by their unique titles.
      • bhāī, bahen, bhābhī, beṭā, and beṭī can be used as addresses.
      • Of the rest, those older and/or deserving of courtesy are addressed as bhāī/bahen.
  • The titles come after names. Uncle Jerry → Jagdīś Kākā.

The vocative case (also called the fifth case) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ...

Numerals

Cardinal

Gujarati numbers are somewhat irregular compared to English. The following look to be the standard spellings[55], though pronunciation varies.

0 mīṇḍuṃ
1 ek
2 be
3 traṇ
4 cār
5 pāṃc
6 cha
7 sāt
8 āṭh
9 nav
10 das
11 agiyār
12 bār
13 ter
14 caud
15 pandar
16 soḷ
17 sattar
18 aḍhār
19 ogaṇīs
20 vīs
21 ekvīs
22 bāvīs
23 trevīs
24 covīs
25 paccīs
26 chavīs
27 sattāvīs
28 aṭhṭhāvīs
29 ogaṇtrīs
30 trīs
31 ekatrīs
32 betrīs
33 tetrīs
34 cotrīs
35 pāṃtrīs
36 chatrīs
37 sāḍatrīs
38 āḍatrīs
39 ogaṇcāḷīs
40 cāḷīs
41 ektāḷīs
42 betāḷīs
43 tetāḷīs
44 cummāḷīs
45 pistāḷīs
46 cheṃtāḷīs
47 suḍtāḷīs
48 aḍtāḷīs
49 ogaṇpacās
50 pacās
51 ekāvan
52 bāvan
53 trepan
54 copan
55 pañcāvan
56 chappan
57 sattāvan
58 aṭhṭhāvan
59 ogaṇsāṭh
60 sāṭh
61 eksaṭh
62 bāsaṭh
63 tresaṭh
64 cosaṭh
65 pāṃsaṭh
66 chāsaṭh
67 saḍsaṭh
68 aḍsaṭh
69 ogaṇoter
70 sitter
71 ekoter
72 boṃter
73 toṃter
74 cummoter
75 pañcoter
76 choṃter
77 sītoter
78 īṭhoter
79 ogaṇeṃsī
80 eṃsī
81 ekyāsī
82 byāsī
83 tyāsī
84 coṃrāsī
85 pañcyāsī
86 chyāsī
87 satyāsī
88 aṭhyāsī
89 nevvāsī
90 nevuṃ
91 ekṇuṃ
92 bāṇuṃ
93 trāṇuṃ
94 corāṇuṃ
95 pañcāṇuṃ
96 chāṇṇuṃ
97 sattāṇuṃ
98 aṭhṭhāṇuṃ
99 navāṇuṃ

After one hundred, numbers are regular and strung together in the same order as English, except that there is no "and". After one thousand, groupings are in hundreds. In gender, cardinals below nineteen are masculine, and nineteen and above are feminine.[56]

100 so
1 000 hajār
1 00 000 lākh
1 0 000 000 kroḍ
1 000 000 000 abaj

Ordinal[57]

1st paheluṃ
2nd bījuṃ
3rd trījuṃ
4th cothuṃ
6th chaṭhṭhuṃ

For everything else it's the cardinal appended with muṃ.


Fractions[58]

Gujarati has a colloquial set of fractions. For precision and mathematics, the Sanskritic system is used.

Fraction Noun Adjectival modification of
1, 2 3-99 so, hajār, lākh Non-number
0.25 25%
ardhuṃ 0.50 50%
poṇuṃ -0.25 -25%
savā +0.25 +25%
sāḍā +0.50
doḍh 1.5 150%
aḍhī 2.5 250%

Loans into English

Bungalow A row of bungalows in Virginia A bungalow (Gujarati: , Hindi: ) is a type of single-story house. ...

1676, from Gujarati bangalo, from Hindi bangla "low, thatched house," lit. "Bengalese," used elliptically for "house in the Bengal style."[59]

Coolie Coolie labourer circa 1900 in Zhenjiang, China. ...

1598, "name given by Europeans to hired laborers in India and China," from Hindi quli "hired servant," probably from kuli, name of an aboriginal tribe or caste in Gujarat.[60]

Tank

c.1616, "pool or lake for irrigation or drinking water," a word originally brought by the Portuguese from India, ult. from Gujarati tankh "cistern, underground reservoir for water," Marathi tanken, or tanka "reservoir of water, tank." Perhaps from Skt. tadaga-m "pond, lake pool," and reinforced in later sense of "large artificial container for liquid" (1690) by Port. tanque "reservoir," from estancar "hold back a current of water," from V.L. *stanticare (see stanch). But others say the Port. word is the source of the Indian ones.[61]

Grammar

Main article: Gujarati grammar

Gujarati is a head-final, or left-branching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come before verbs, and there are postpositions. The word order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root followed by suffixes marking aspect and agreement in what is called a main form, with a possible proceeding auxiliary form derived from to be, marking tense and mood, and also showing agreement. Causatives (up to double) and passives have morphological basis'.[62] The grammar of the Gujarati language (ગુજરાતી વ્યાકરણ Gujarātī Vyākaraṇ) is the study of the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Gujarati language, an Indo-European language native to the Indian state of Gujarat, also spoken abroad where Gujaratis have carried it... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... A postposition is a type of adposition, a grammatical particle that expresses some sort of relationship between a noun phrase (its object) and another part of the sentence; an adpositional phrase functions as an adjective or adverb. ... In linguistic typology, word order is the order in which words appear in sentences. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... An article is a word that is put next to a noun to indicate the type of reference being made to the noun. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ... In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ...


Sample Text

Gujarati sample (Sign about Gandhi's hut)
Gujarati sample (Sign about Gandhi's hut)

Gujarati script Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixel Image in higher resolution (2008 × 1182 pixel, file size: 468 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gujarati language Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixel Image in higher resolution (2008 × 1182 pixel, file size: 468 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gujarati language Metadata... A grammatically incorrect sign, posted at the back door of a pizza shop in Niagara Falls, Canada. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 &#8211; January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: &#2350;&#2379;&#2361;&#2344;&#2342;&#2366;&#2360; &#2325;&#2352;&#2350;&#2330;&#2344;&#2381;&#2342; &#2327;&#2366;&#2306;&#2343;&#2368;, Gujarati &#2734;&#2763;&#2745;&#2728;&#2726;&#2750;&#2744; &#2709;&#2736;&#2734;&#2714;&#2690;&#2726; &#2711;&#2750;&#2690;&#2727;&#2752;), called... A typical jungle hut in Brazilian Amazonia, made of straw and supported by stilts. ... The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujarātī Lipi), which like all Nāgarī writing systems is strictly speaking an abugida rather than an alphabet, is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. ...

ગાંધીજીની ઝૂંપડી-કરાડી
જગ પ્રસિદ્ધ દાંડી કૂચ પછી ગાંધીજીએ અહીં આંબાના વૃક્ષ નીચે ખજૂરીનાં છટિયાંની એક ઝૂંપડીમાં તા.૧૪-૪-૧૯૩૦થી તા.૪-૫-૧૯૩૦ સુધી નિવાસ કર્યો હતો. દાંડીમાં છઠ્ઠી એપ્રિલે શરૂ કરેલી નિમક કાનૂન ભંગની લડતને તેમણે અહીંથી વેગ આપી દેશ વ્યાપી બનાવી હતી. અહીંથીજ તેમણે ધરાસણાના મીઠાના અગરો તરફ કૂચ કરવાનો પોતાનો સંકલ્પ બ્રિટિશ વાઈસરૉયને પત્ર લખીને જણાવ્યો હતો.
તા.૪થી મે ૧૯૩૦ની રાતના બાર વાગ્યા પછી આ સ્થળેથી બ્રિટિશ સરકારે તેમની ધરપકડ કરી હતી.

Transliteration Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

gāndhījīnī jhūṃpḍī-Karāḍī
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījīe ahīṃ āmbānā vṛkṣ nīce khajūrīnāṃ chaṭiyāṃnī ek jhūṃpḍīmāṃ tā.14-4-1930thī tā.4-5-1930 sudhī nivās karyo hato. dāṇḍīmāṃ chaṭhṭhī eprile śarū karelī nimak kānūn bhaṅgnī laḍatne temṇe ahīṃthī veg āpī deś vyāpī banāvī hatī. ahīṃthīj temṇe dharāsaṇānā mīṭhānā agaro taraph kūc karvāno potāno saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôyne patra lakhīne jaṇāvyo hato.
tā.4thī me 1930nī rātnā bār vāgyā pachī ā sthaḷethī briṭiś sarkāre temnī dharpakaḍ karī hatī.

Simple gloss A gloss is a note made in the margins or between the lines of a book, in which the meaning of the text in its original language is explained in another language. ...

gandhiji's hut-karadi
world famous dandi march after gandhiji here mango's tree under palm date's bark's one hut-in date.14-4-1930-from date.4-5-1930 until residence done was. dandi-in sixth april-at started done salt law break's fight(-to) he here-from speed gave country wide made was. here-from he dharasana's salt's mounds towards march doing's self's resolve british viceroy-to letter written-having notified was.
date.4-from may 1930's night's twelve struck after this place-at-from british government his arrest done was.

Transliteration and detailed gloss

gāndhījī-n-ī jhūṃpḍ-ī-Ø Karāḍī
gandhiji–GEN–FEM hut–FEM–SG karadi
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījī-e ahīṃ āmb-ā-Ø-n-ā vṛkṣ(-a) nīce
world famous dandi march after gandhiji–ERG here mango–MASC.OBL–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL tree–MASC.SG under
khajūr-ī-Ø-n-āṃ chaṭiy-āṃ-n-ī ek jhūṃpḍ-ī-Ø-māṃ tā. 14 4 1930thī tā. 4 5 1930 sudhī
palmdate–FEM–SG–GEN–NEUT.OBL bark–NEUT.PL.OBL–GEN–FEM.OBL one hut–FEM–SG–in da(te) 14 4 1930from da(te) until
nivās kar-y-o ha-t-o . dāṇḍī-māṃ chaṭhṭhī epril-e śarū kar-el-ī nimak kānūn
residence.MASC.SG.OBJ.NOM do–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG dandi–in sixth April–at started do–PAST.PTCP–FEM salt law
bhaṅg-n-ī laḍat-Ø-ne te-m-ṇe ahīṃ-thī veg āp-Ø-ī deś vyāpī
break–GEN–FEM.OBL fight.FEM.OBJ.ACC–SG–the 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG here–from speed–OBJ give–PERF–having country wide
ban-āv-Ø-ī ha-t-ī . ahīṃ-thī-j te-m-ṇe dharāsaṇā-n-ā
become–CAUS–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM here–from–INTENSIFIER 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG dharasana–GEN–MASC.PL
mīṭh-ā-n-ā agar-o taraph kūc kar-v-ā-n-o potā-n-o
salt–NEUT.SG.OBL–GEN–MASC.PL mound.MASC–PL towards march.MASC.SG do–INF–OBL–GEN–MASC.SG REFL–GEN–MASC.SG
saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôy-Ø-ne patra lakh-Ø-īne jaṇ-āv-y-o ha-t-o . tā.
resolve.MASC.SG.OBJ.ACC British viceroy.OBJ–SG–DAT letter write–PERF–having know–CAUS–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG da(te)
4-thī me 1930-n-ī rāt-Ø-n-ā bār vāg-y-ā pachī ā sthaḷ-e-thī briṭiś
4-from may 1930–GEN–FEM.OBL night.FEM–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL twelve strike–PERF–OBL after 3.PROX place–at–from British
sarkār-e te-m-n-ī dharpakaḍ kar-Ø-ī ha-t-ī .
government–ERG 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–GEN–FEM arrest.FEM.SG.OBJ.ACC do–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM

Translation (by Wikipedia) — Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Gandhiji's hut-Karadi
After the world-famous Dandi March Gandhiji resided here in a date palm bark hut underneath a/the mango tree, from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930. From here he gave speed to and spread country-wide the anti-Salt Law struggle, started in Dandi on April the 6th. From here, writing in a letter, he notified the British Viceroy of his resolve in marching towards the salt mounds of Dharasana.
The British government arrested him at this location, after twelve o'clock on the night of the 4th of May, 1930.

Translation (provided at location) — Scenes on the eve of the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhis famous 240 mile march on foot to the sea at Dandi. ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other meanings of bark, see Bark (disambiguation). ... Species About 35 species, including: Mangifera altissima Mangifera applanata Mangifera caesia Mangifera camptosperma Mangifera casturi Mangifera decandra Mangifera foetida Mangifera gedebe Mangifera griffithii Mangifera indica Mangifera kemanga Mangifera laurina Mangifera longipes Mangifera macrocarpa Mangifera mekongensis Mangifera odorata Mangifera pajang Mangifera pentandra Mangifera persiciformis Mangifera quadrifida Mangifera siamensis Mangifera similis Mangifera... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Look up mound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Gandhiji's hut-Karadi
Here under the mango tree in the hut made of palm leaves (khajoori) Gandhiji stayed from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930 after the world famous Dandi march. From here he gave impetus to the civil disobedience movement for breaking the salt act started on April 6 at Dandi and turned it into a nation wide movement. It was also from this place that he wrote a letter to the British viceroy expressing his firm resolve to march to the salt works at Dharasana.
This is the place from where he was arrested by the British government after midnight on May 4, 1930.

Common Words, Phrases, and Idioms

Gujarati Transliteration English Notes
કેમ છો? kem cho? How are you? The Gujarati greeting.
નમસ્તે, નમસ્કાર namaste, namaskār Greetings Formal pan-Indian (or rather perhaps, pan-Hindu) greetings.
તમે ગુજરાતી બોલો છો? tame gujarātī bolo cho? Do you speak Gujarati? The pronoun tame and the os following bol and ch are honorific. They'd be equivalent to French's vous and parlez.
હું ગુજરાતી બોલું છું hu gujarātī bolu chu I speak Gujarati
મને ગુજરાતી (બોલતા) આવડે છે mane gujarātī (boltā) āve che I know (how to speak) Gujarati
અંગ્રેજી agrejī English Traditional Portuguese loan; ઇંગ્લિશ igliś is equally well understood.
સારું sāruṃ Good The end vowel uṃ signifies that this adjective is variable. It agrees with what it describes. The root is sār and the appropriate agreement vowel is slotted in behind it. Right now that vowel is singular neuter uṃ, default for when the variable is alone and not describing (agreeing with) something.
ખરાબ kharāb Bad Arabic loan.
તમારું નામ શું છે? tamāru nām śu che? What is your name? tamāru "Your" is honorific. French: votre.
મારું નામ ___ છે māru nām ___ che My name is ___ Name is a neuter noun.
ગુજરાતીમાં ___(ને) શું કેવાય? gujarātīmāṃ ___(ne) śuṃ kevāy? What is ___ called in Gujarati?
હા, હાંજી , Yes In increasing formality.
ના, નાજી , nājī No
આવજો āvjo Bye lit. Do come
ને? ne? Eh?, Right?, Isn't it?
બસ bas That's it!, Enough!, Just... Persian loan.
શું થયું? śu thayu? What happened?
મને ___ ગમે છે mane ___ game che I like ___ approx. lit. ___ is (being) likeable to me; note the OSV word order.
કેટલાં વાગ્યાં? ke vāgyāṃ? What time is it? lit. How many did it strike?
સંભાળજો sambhājo Take care
મારું માથું ન ખા māru māthu na khā Don't bother me lit. Do not eat my head
... કે ન પૂછવાની વાત ke na pūchvānī vāt ... that you wouldn't believe it lit. an un-ask-able talk or a talk not to (be) ask(ed)

See also

The grammar of the Gujarati language (ગુજરાતી વ્યાકરણ Gujarātī Vyākaraṇ) is the study of the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Gujarati language, an Indo-European language native to the Indian state of Gujarat, also spoken abroad where Gujaratis have carried it... The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujarātī Lipi), which like all Nāgarī writing systems is strictly speaking an abugida rather than an alphabet, is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. ... Gujarati phonology is the study of the inventory and patterns of the consonants, vowels, and prosody of the Gujarati language. ... Map of South Asia in native languages. ... India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. ... Indian languages spoken by more than ten million people are given below. ... The Gujarati people, or Gujaratis, (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી લોકો Gujarātī loko, or ગુજરાતીઓ Gujarātīo), is an umbrella term used to describe traditionally Gujarati speaking peoples who can trace their ancestry to the Gujarat region in India. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Gordon 2005
  2. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 5
  3. ^ a b c d Mistry 2001, pp. 274
  4. ^ Timeline: Personalities, Story of Pakistan. "Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)". Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  5. ^ a b c d Dalby 1998, p. 237
  6. ^ Mistry 1997, p. 654
  7. ^ a b c Mistry 2003, p. 115
  8. ^ Mistry 1997, pp. 654-655
  9. ^ Mistry 1997, p. 655
  10. ^ Turner 1966, p. 811. Entry 14024.
  11. ^ Turner 1966, p. 760. Entry 13139.
  12. ^ Turner 1966, p. 41. Entry 941.
  13. ^ Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13271.
  14. ^ Smith, J.D. (2001) "Rajasthani." Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593.
  15. ^ Gujarati – Language from the Land of the Gujjars. BhashaIndia.com
  16. ^ a b Yashaschandra, S. (1995) "Towards Hind Svaraj: An Interpretation of the Rise of Prose in Nineteenth-Century Gujarati Literature." Social Scientist. Vol. 23, No. 10/12. pp. 41-55.
  17. ^ Mistry 2003, pp. 115-116
  18. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 273
  19. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 148
  20. ^ Snell, R. (2000) Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 83-86.
  21. ^ Turner 1966, p. 203. Entry 3856.
  22. ^ Turner 1966, p. 30. Entry 684.
  23. ^ Turner 1966, p. 401. Entry 6969.
  24. ^ Turner 1966, p. 502. Entry 8947.
  25. ^ Turner 1966, p. 706. Entry 12193.
  26. ^ Turner 1966, p. 762. Entry 13173.
  27. ^ Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13276.
  28. ^ a b Masica 1991, p. 75
  29. ^ Platts 1884, p. 776
  30. ^ Platts 1884, p. 486
  31. ^ Platts 1884, p. 489
  32. ^ Platts 1884, p. 305
  33. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 168
  34. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1057
  35. ^ Platts 1884, p. 653
  36. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 170
  37. ^ Platts 1884, p. 519
  38. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1142
  39. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 160
  40. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 177
  41. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1123
  42. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 184
  43. ^ Platts 1884, p. 471
  44. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 172
  45. ^ Platts 1884, p. 771
  46. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 175
  47. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 169
  48. ^ Platts 1884, p. 947
  49. ^ Masica 1991, p. 71
  50. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 15
  51. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 49-50
  52. ^ Masica 1991, p. 49
  53. ^ Masica 1991, p. 73
  54. ^ Ratilal Chandaria's Online Language Resources
  55. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 324
  56. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 171
  57. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 172
  58. ^ Dwyer 1995, pp. 172-174
  59. ^ Bungalow. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  60. ^ Coolie. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  61. ^ Tank. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  62. ^ Mistry 2001, pp. 276-277

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Web content. ...

Bibliography

Dictionaries

Deshpande is a common surname in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka, India. ... Babu Suthar is a Gujarati Lecturer in South Asia Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, currently the only full-time instructor in this language in North America at the university level. ... Sir Ralph Lilley Turner MC (5 October 1888–22 April 1983) was an English Indian languages philologist and university administrator. ...

Grammars

  • Cardona, George (1965), A Gujarati Reference Grammar, University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Taylor, G.P. (1908), The Student's Gujarati Grammar, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services.
  • Tisdall, W.S. (1892), A Simplified Grammar of the Gujarati Language.

George Cardona is an American professor of linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania. ...

Courses

  • Dave, Jadish (1995), Colloquial Gujarati (2004 ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0415091969.
  • Dwyer, Rachel (1995), Teach Yourself Gujarati, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
  • Lambert, H.M. (1971), Gujarati Language Course, Cambridge University Press.

Phonology

  • Dave, T.N. (1931), "Notes on Gujarati Phonology", Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 6(3): 673-678.
  • Firth, J.R. (1957), "Phonetic Observations on Gujarati", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 20(1): 231-241.
  • Mistry, P.J. (1997), "Gujarati Phonology", in Kaye, A.S, Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns.
  • Pandit, P.B. (1961), "Historical Phonology of Gujarati Vowels", Language 37(1): 54-66.
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1921), "Gujarati Phonology", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 505-544.
  • Turner, Ralph Lilley (1915), "Indo-Aryan Nasals in Gujarati", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society: 1033-1038.

Overviews

  • Dalby, A. (1998), "Gujarati", Dictionary of languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231115687.
  • Mistry, P.J. (2003), "Gujarati", in Frawley, William, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, vol. 2 (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Mistry, P.J. (2001), "Gujarati", in Garry, Jane & Carl Rubino, An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present, New England Publishing Associates.

Old Gujarati

  • Bender, E. (1992) The Salibhadra-Dhanna-Carita: A Work in Old Gujarati Critically Edited and Translated, with a Grammatical Analysis and Glossary. American Oriental Society: New Haven, Conn. ISBN 0-940490-73-0
  • Brown, W.N. (1938) "An Old Gujarati Text of the Kalaka Story." Journal of the American Oriental Society. Vol. 58, No. 1. pp. 5-29.
  • Dave, T.N. (1935) A Study of the Gujarati Language in the XVth Century. The Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 0947593306
  • Tessitori, L.P. (1914-1916) "Notes on the Grammar of Old Western Rajasthani." Indian Antiquary. 43-45.

Other

  • Cardona, George & Dhanesh Jain (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages (Paperback ed.), Routledge, ISBN 041577294X.
  • Gajendragadkar, S.N. (1972), Parsi Gujarati, Bombay: University of Bombay.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005), "Gujarati", Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.), Dallas: SIL International.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages (Paperback ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521299446.
  • Mistry, P.J. (1996), "Gujarati Writing", in Daniels & Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Colin P. Masica (1931-) is professor emeritus in the Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations and the Department of Linguistics at the University of Chicago. ...

External links

Wikibooks
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Wikipedia
Gujarati language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Linguistic resources

Newspapers

Religious

  • Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavat, Ramayan, Mahabharat, Upanishad, Yog Sutra, Bhajans and more in Gujarati (Hinduism)
  • Religious and Spiritual Texts in Gujarati (Islam)
  • World Bible Translation Center: Gujarati New Testament (Christianity)
  • Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives: Khorda Avesta (Zoroastrianism)

Other

  • Gujarati Language and Literature
  • Gujarati Samaj of Minnesota
  • Gujarati Samaj of Western Australia
  • A brief history of the Gujarati language
  • The UK Gujarati Teachers Association
  • Gujarati Writers Guild UK
  • SBS Gujarati Radio (Australia)
  • The South Asian Literary Recordings Project, The Library of Congress. Gujarati Authors.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Gujarati language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2792 words)
It is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India, and one of the minority languages of neighboring Pakistan.
Gujarati is the chief language of India's Gujarat state, as well as the adjacent union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
Gujarati was the mother-tongue of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan" and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the "iron man of India".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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