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Encyclopedia > Guitar
Classical Guitar
Classical Guitar
Classification

String instrument (plucked, nylon stringed guitars usually played with fingerpicking, and steel-, etc. usually with a pick.) Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Guitar may refer to: Guitar, a fretted and stringed musical instrument Guitar, a song by Cake from their 1998 album Prolonging the Magic Category: ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 305 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (870 × 1708 pixel, file size: 286 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Di Giorgio classic guitar, model Amazonia, made in Brazil. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Pizzicato is a method of playing a bowed string instrument by plucking the strings with the fingers, rather than using the bow. ... Various guitar picks. ...

Playing range
(a regularly tuned guitar)
Related instruments

The guitar is a musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles. It typically has six strings, but four, seven, eight, ten, and twelve string guitars also exist. The playing range of a musical instrument is the region of pitch in which it can play, i. ... Image File history File links Range_guitar. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... Guitar and lute This ilustration in a French Psalter from the 9th century (c. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. ... Seven-string acoustic guitar as it is used in Brazilian choro music. ... LGM 8 string electric guitar An eight string guitar is a guitar with eight strings. ... The guitar player (c. ... The twelve string guitar is an acoustic or electric guitar with twelve strings, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six string guitar. ...


Guitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments in blues, country, flamenco, rock music, and many forms of pop. There is also a solo classical instrument. Guitars may be played acoustically, where the tone is produced by vibration of the strings and modulated by the hollow body, or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone. Such electric guitars were introduced in the 20th century and continue to have a profound influence on popular culture. Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ... For other uses, see Rock music (disambiguation). ... For popular forms of music in general, see Popular music. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Acoustic guitar can refer to the following musical instruments: Nylon and gut stringed guitars: Renaissance guitar Baroque guitar Romantic guitar Classical guitar, the modern version of the original guitar, with nylon strings Flamenco guitar Steel stringed guitars: Steel-string acoustic guitar, also known as western, folk or country guitar Twelve... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...


Traditionally guitars have usually been constructed of combinations of various woods and strung with animal gut, or more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers. An engravers impression of Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument. ...

Contents

History

Figurines playing tanburs. Excavated in Susa, Elam, now Iran. Dated 2000-1500 B.C. kept at the National Museum of Iran.

Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, ribs, and a flat back, most often with incurved sides".[1] Instruments similar to the guitar have been popular for at least 5,000 years. The guitar appears to be derived from earlier instruments known in ancient India and Central Asia as the Sitara. The oldest known iconographic representation of an instrument displaying all the essential features of a guitar being played is a 3300 year old stone carving of a Hittite bard.[2] The modern word, guitar, was adopted into English from Spanish guitarra, derived from the Latin word cithara, which in turn was derived from the earlier Greek word kithara. Prospective sources for various names of musical instruments that guitar could be derived from appear to be a combination of two Indo-European roots: guit-, similar to Sanskrit sangeet meaning "music", and -tar a widely attested root meaning "chord" or "string". Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Figurines playing the ancestor of the guitar. ... Tanbur The tanbur (var. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Ancient India and Central Asia have long traditions of socio-cultural, political and economic contact since remote antiquity. ... Diagram of some sitar parts. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...

Illustration from a Carolingian Psalter from the 9th century, showing a Guitar-like plucked instrument.
Illustration from a Carolingian Psalter from the 9th century, showing a Guitar-like plucked instrument.

The modern guitar is descended from the Roman cithara brought by the Romans to Hispania around 40 AD, and further adapted and developed with the arrival of the four-string oud, brought by the Moors after their invasion of the Iberian peninsular during the 8th century AD.[3] By 1200 AD, the four string guitar had evolved into two types: the guitarra morisca (Moorish guitar) which had a rounded back, wide fingerboard and several soundholes, and the guitarra latina (Latin guitar) which resembled the modern guitar with one soundhole and a narrower neck.[4] Image File history File links Guitar-like_plucked_instrument,_Carolingian_Psalter,_9th_century_manuscript. ... Image File history File links Guitar-like_plucked_instrument,_Carolingian_Psalter,_9th_century_manuscript. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Front and rear views of an oud. ...

The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer
The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer

The Spanish vihuela or "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 16th century, appears to be an aberration in the transition from the renaissance instrument to the modern guitar. It had lute-style tuning and a guitar-like body. Its construction had as much in common with the modern guitar as with its contemporary four-course renaissance guitar. The vihuela enjoyed only a short period of popularity; the last surviving publication of music for the instrument appeared in 1576. It is not clear whether it represented a transitional form or was simply a design that combined features of the Arabic oud and the European lute. In favor of the latter view, the reshaping of the vihuela into a guitar-like form can be seen as a strategy of differentiating the European lute visually from the Moorish oud. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1820, 203 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Gitarrenspielerin en: The Guitar Player Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 × 46,3 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Kenwood House, Lord... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1820, 203 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Gitarrenspielerin en: The Guitar Player Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 53 × 46,3 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande (Holland) Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Kenwood House, Lord... Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31, 1632, died December 15, 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. ... Orpheus playing a vihuela. ... A medieval era lute. ... In music, tuning is the process of producing or preparing to produce a certain pitch in relation to another, usually at the unison but often at some other interval. ... A medieval era lute. ...


The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin, and may have built the earliest extant six string guitar. Gaetano Vinaccia (1759 - after 1831)[5] has his signature on the label of a guitar built in Naples, Italy for six strings with the date of 1779.[6][7] This guitar has been examined and does not show tall-tale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar although fakes are known to exist of guitars and identifying labels from that period. A mandolin is a small, stringed musical instrument which is plucked, strummed or a combination of both. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ...


Modern dimensions of the classical instrument were established by Antonio Torres Jurado (1817-1892), working in Seville in the 1850s. Torres and Louis Panormo of London (active 1820s-1840s) were both responsible for demonstrating the superiority of fan strutting over transverse table bracing.[8] Antonio de Torres Jurado (June 13, 1817–November 19, 1892), more commonly known to guitarists as Torres, was the father of the modern classical guitar. ...


The electric guitar was patented by George Beauchamp in 1936. Beauchamp co-founded Rickenbacher which used the horseshoe-magnet pickup. However, it was Danelectro that first produced electric guitars for the wider public. Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... George D. Beauchamp (1899 - 1941), inventor of musical instruments and co-founder of National Stringed Instument Corporation and Rickenbacker. ... Steve Howe playing a Rickenbacker guitar with the progressive rock band Yes in 1977 Rickenbacker is one of the oldest brand names in the manufacture of electric guitars. ... Danelectro DC-3 reissue. ...


Types of Guitar

Guitars can be divided into two broad categories, acoustic and electric:


Acoustic guitars

An acoustic guitar is one not dependent on an external device to be heard. The acoustic guitar is quieter than other instruments commonly found in bands and orchestras so when playing within such groups it is often externally amplified. Many acoustic guitars available today feature a variety of pickups which enable the player to amplify and modify the raw guitar sound.


There are several notable subcategories within the acoustic guitar group: classical and flamenco guitars; steel string guitars, which include the flat top or "folk" guitar; twelve string guitars and the arch top guitar. The acoustic guitar group also includes unamplified guitars designed to play in different registers such as the acoustic bass guitar which has a similar tuning to that of the electric bass guitar.

Renaissance and Baroque guitars
These are the gracile ancestors of the modern classical guitar. They are substantially smaller and more delicate than the classical guitar, and generate a much quieter sound. The strings are paired in courses as in a modern 12 string guitar, but they only have four or five courses of strings rather than six. They were more often used as rhythm instruments in ensembles than as solo instruments, and can often be seen in that role in early music performances. (Gaspar Sanz' Instrucción de Música sobre la Guitarra Española of 1674 constitutes the majority of the surviving solo corpus for the era.) Renaissance and Baroque guitars are easily distinguished because the Renaissance guitar is very plain and the Baroque guitar is very ornate, with inlays all over the neck and body, and a paper-cutout inverted "wedding cake" inside the hole.
Classical guitars
These are typically strung with nylon strings, played in a seated position and are used to play a diversity of musical styles including classical music. The classical guitar is designed to allow for the execution of solo polyphonic arrangements of music in much the same manner as the pianoforte can. This is the major point of difference in design intent between the classical instrument and other designs of guitar. Flamenco guitars are very similar in construction, but are associated with a more percussive tone. In Mexico, the popular mariachi band includes a range of guitars, from the tiny requinto to the guitarron, a guitar larger than a cello, which is tuned in the bass register. In Colombia, the traditional quartet includes a range of instruments too, from the small bandola (sometimes known as the Deleuze-Guattari, for use when travelling or in confined rooms or spaces), to the slightly larger tiple, to the full sized classical guitar. The requinto also appears in other Latin-American countries as a complemental member of the guitar family, with its smaller size and scale, permitting more projection for the playing of single-lined melodies. Modern dimensions of the classical instrument were established by Antonio Torres Jurado (1817-1892). Classical guitars are sometimes referred to as classic guitars.
Portuguese guitar
Is a 12 string guitar used in Portugal for the traditional Fado song. Its true origins are somewhat uncertain but there is a general agreement that it goes back to the medieval period. It is often mistakenly thought of to be based on the so-called "English guitar" - a common error as there is no such thing. For some time the best instruments of this and other types were made in England, hence the confusion. "English guitar" refers to a quality standard, not really an instrument type. This particular instrument is most likely a merge of medieval "cistre" or "citar" and the Arabic lute.
Flat-top (steel-string) guitars
Similar to the classical guitar, however, within the varied sizes of the steel-stringed guitar the body size is usually significantly larger than a classical guitar and it has a narrower, reinforced neck and stronger structural design, to sustain the extra tension of steel strings which produce a brighter tone, and according to many players, a louder sound. The acoustic guitar is present in all genres to include folk, country, bluegrass,pop, jazz and blues.
Archtop guitars
These are steel string instruments which feature a violin-inspired f-hole design in which the top (and often the back) of the instrument are carved in a curved rather than a flat shape. Lloyd Loar of the Gibson Guitar Corporation invented this variation of guitar after designing a style of mandolin of the same type. The typical Archtop is a deep,hollow body guitar whose form is much like that of a mandolin or violin family instrument and may be acoustic or electric. Some solid body electric guitars are also considered archtop guitars although usually 'Archtop guitar' refers to the hollow body form. Archtop guitars were immediately adopted upon their release by both jazz and country musicians and have remained particularly popular in jazz music, usually with flatwound strings The electric semi-hollow body archtop guitar has a distinct sound among electric guitars and is consequently appropriate for many styles of pop music. Many electric archtop guitars intended for use in rock and roll even have a Tremolo Arm.
Resonator, resophonic or Dobro guitars
Similar to the flat top guitar in appearance, but with sound produced by a metal resonator mounted in the middle of the top rather than an open sound hole, so that the physical principle of the guitar is actually more similar to the banjo. The purpose of the resonator is to amplify the sound of the guitar; this purpose has been largely superseded by electrical amplification, but the resonator is still played by those desiring its distinctive sound.

Resonator guitars may have either one resonator cone or three resonator cones. Three cone resonators have two cones on the left above one another and one cone immediately to the right. The method of transmitting sound resonance to the cone is either a "biscuit" bridge, made of a small piece of hardwood, or a "spider" bridge, made of metal and larger in size. Three cone resonators always use a specialised metal spider bridge. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The guitar player (c. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... (Redirected from 12 string guitar) The twelve string guitar is an acoustic or electric guitar with twelve strings, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six string guitar. ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ... Gaspar Sanz (April 4, 1640 - 1710) was a Spanish composer and priest born in Calanda in the region of Aragon. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A flamenco guitar is a type of guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music. ... Mariachi is a type of musical group, originally from Mexico. ... When applied to musical instruments, the term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller, higher-pitched version of another instrument. ... Modern acoustic bass guitars The acoustic bass guitar is a popular modern term to describe an acoustic musical instrument based on the configuration of basses pioneered by Leo Fenders electric Precision Bass. ... Antonio de Torres Jurado (June 13, 1817–November 19, 1892), more commonly known to guitarists as Torres, was the father of the modern classical guitar. ... The Portuguese guitar was developed based on the English guitar, which was created in England in the late 18th century out of a Renaissance instrument called cittern. ... Fado (translated as destiny or fate) is a music genre which can be traced from the 1820s in Portugal, but probably with much earlier origins. ... Playing a steel-string guitar without a pick (fingerpicking). ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Epiphone Emperor, an archtop design. ... Lloyd Loar was a Gibson sound engineer and master luthier in the early part of the 20th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A mandolin is a small, stringed musical instrument which is plucked, strummed or a combination of both. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... A tremolo arm, tremolo bar, vibrato bar, whammy bar, or twang bar is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the tailpiece of an electric guitar or archtop guitar to enable the player to quickly vary the tension and sometimes the length of the strings temporarily, changing the pitch... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ellis Guitars is a company based in Perth, Western Australia producing handmade acoustic guitars and acoustic stompboxes . ... Mustapick Deep Baritone Guitar Baritone guitar It was actually the Danelectro Company that first introduced the Baritone Guitar to the music world in the late 1950’s. ... A modern tricone resonator guitar, with electric pickup A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar whose sound is produced by one or more metal resonators rather than by a wooden guitar belly. ... A modern tricone resonator guitar, with electric pickup A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar whose sound is produced by one or more metal resonators rather than by a wooden guitar belly. ... A modern Gibson Dobro Dobro is a trade name now owned by Gibson Guitar Corporation and used for a particular design of resonator guitar. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ...


The type of resonator guitar with a neck with a square cross-section -- called "square neck" -- is usually played face up, on the lap of the seated player, and often with a metal or glass slide. The round neck resonator guitars are normally played in the same fashion as other guitars, although slides are also often used, especially in blues. Example of a bottleneck, with fingerpicks and resonator guitar. ...

12 string guitars
These usually have steel strings and are widely used in folk music, blues and rock and roll. Rather than having only six strings, the 12-string guitar has pairs, like a mandolin. Each pair of strings is tuned either in unison (the two highest) or an octave apart (the others). They are made both in acoustic and electric forms.
Russian guitars
These are seven string acoustic guitars which were the norm for Russian guitarists throughout the 19th and well into the 20th centuries. The guitar is traditionally tuned to an open G major tuning.
Acoustic bass guitars
Have steel strings or gut strings and often the same tuning as an electric bass guitar.
Tenor guitars
There's very sketchy background information about tenor guitars on the World Wide Web. A number of classical guitarists call the Niibori prime guitar a "Tenor Guitar" on the grounds that it sits in pitch between the alto and the bass. Elsewhere, the name is taken for a 4-string guitar, with a scale length of 23" (585 mm) - about the same as a Terz Guitar. But the guitar is tuned in fifths - C G D A - like the tenor banjo or the cello. Indeed it is generally accepted that the tenor guitar was created to allow a tenor banjo player to follow the fashion as it evolved from Dixieland Jazz towards the more progressive Jazz that featured guitar. It allows a tenor banjo player to provide a guitar-based rhythm section with nothing to learn. A small minority of players close tuned the instrument to D G B E to produce a deep instrument that could be played with the 4-note chord shapes found on the top 4 strings of the guitar or ukulele. In fact, though, the deep pitch warrants the wide-spaced chords that the banjo tuning permits, and the close tuned tenor does not have the same full, clear sound.
Harp guitars
Harp Guitars are difficult to classify as there are many variations within this type of guitar. They are typically rare and uncommon in the popular music scene. Most consist of a regular guitar, plus additional 'harp' strings strung above the six normal strings. The instrument is usually acoustic and the harp strings are usually tuned to lower notes than the guitar strings, for an added bass range. Normally there is neither fingerboard nor frets behind the harp strings. Some harp guitars also feature much higher pitch strings strung below the traditional guitar strings. The number of harp strings varies greatly, depending on the type of guitar and also the player's personal preference (as they have often been made to the player's specification). [1] The Pikasso guitar; 4 necks, 2 sound holes, 42 strings] and also the Oracle Harp Sympitar; 24 strings (with 12 sympathetic strings protruding through the neck) are modern examples.
Drumtars
Drumtars are guitars constructed out of snare drums, which resonate the sound of the strings. They are similar in appearance to banjos.
Extended-range guitars
For well over a century guitars featuring seven, eight, nine, ten or more strings have been used by a minority of guitarists as a means of increasing the range of pitch available to the player. Usually this entails the addition of extra bass strings.
Guitar battente
The battente is smaller than a classical guitar, usually played with four or five metal strings. It is mainly used in Calabria (a region in southern Italy) to accompany the voice.
This Fender Stratocaster has features common to many electric guitars: multiple pickups, a whammy bar, volume and tone knobs.
This Fender Stratocaster has features common to many electric guitars: multiple pickups, a whammy bar, volume and tone knobs.

The twelve string guitar is an acoustic or electric guitar with twelve strings, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six string guitar. ... Folk music can have a number of different meanings, including: Traditional music: The original meaning of the term folk music was synonymous with the term Traditional music, also often including World Music and Roots music; the term Traditional music was given its more specific meaning to distinguish it from the... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... A mandolin is a small, stringed musical instrument which is plucked, strummed or a combination of both. ... The Russian guitar, a seven-string acoustic guitar tuned to the Open G tuning, arrived in the beginning of the 19th century in Russia, most probably as a development of the kobza and the baroque lute. ... The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass) is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to, though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string acoustic guitar. ... The electric bass guitar (or electric bass) is a bass string instrument played with the fingers by plucking, slapping, or using a pick. ... The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller, four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or electric guitar. ... The harp guitar (also spelled “harp-guitar”) is a stringed instrument with an incredibly rich history of well over two centuries. ... Two harp sympitars together. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings. ... The banjo is a string instrument, derived from banjar, an African string instrument. ... Seven-string acoustic guitar as it is used in Brazilian choro music. ... LGM 8 string electric guitar A eight-string guitar is a guitar with eight strings instead of the commonly used six. ... The guitar battente (chitarra battente) is an important string instrument in Italian popular music. ... Cliffside dwellings in Tropea. ... detail of the body of a Stratocaster Copyright (c) 2004 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... detail of the body of a Stratocaster Copyright (c) 2004 David Monniaux File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... “Stratocaster” redirects here. ...

Electric guitars

Main article: Electric guitar

Electric guitars can have solid, semi-hollow, or hollow bodies, and produce little sound without amplification. Electromagnetic pickups convert the vibration of the steel strings into electrical signals which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio transmitter. The sound is frequently modified by other electronic devices or the natural distortion of valves (vacuum tubes) in the amplifier. There are two main types of pickup: single coil and double coil (known as humbuckers), each of which can be passive or active. The electric guitar is used extensively in jazz, blues and rock and roll, and was commercialized by Gibson together with Les Paul and independently by Leo Fender of Fender Music. The lower fretboard action (the height of the strings from the fingerboard) and its electrical amplification lend the electric guitar to some techniques which are less frequently used on acoustic guitars. These techniques include tapping, extensive use of legato through pull-offs and hammer-ons (also known as slurs in the traditional Classical genre), pinch harmonics, volume swells and use of a tremolo arm or effects pedals. Left: Rosa Hurricane, a heavy metal-style solid body guitar. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... For the Analog Science Fiction and Science Fact publication, see Astounding Magazine. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ... Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ... This image shows three single coil pickups on a Stratocaster guitar. ... Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ... Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Les Paul (born Lester William Polsfuss on June 9, 1915) is an American jazz guitarist and inventor. ... Image:Leo Fender tinkering. ... It has been suggested that Fender Amplifier History be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the music technique. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ... A pull-off is a stringed-instrument playing technique performed (usually on an electric guitar) by pulling a fretting finger off the fingerboard. ... Hammer-on is a stringed instrument playing technique performed (especially on guitar) by sharply bringing a fretting-hand finger down on the fingerboard behind a fret, causing a note to sound. ... Sound sample: Pinch harmonics (file info) — Heavy electric guitar playing a pinch harmonic Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... A volume swell is a musical crescendo commonly associated with the electric guitar. ... A tremolo arm, tremolo bar, vibrato bar, whammy bar, or twang bar is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the tailpiece of an electric guitar or archtop guitar to enable the player to quickly vary the tension and sometimes the length of the strings temporarily, changing the pitch... Effects pedals are electronic devices used by musicians, primarily electric guitar players, to alter the sound quality or timbre of electric or electronic instruments, and less often vocals picked up through microphones. ...


Seven-string solid body electric guitars were popularized in the 1980s and 1990s in part due to the release of the Ibanez Universe guitar, endorsed by Steve Vai. Other artists go a step further, by using an 8 string guitar with two extra low strings. Although the most common 7 string has a low B string, Roger McGuinn (Of Byrds/Rickenbacker Fame) uses an octave G string paired with the regular G string as on a 12 string guitar, allowing him to incorporate chiming 12 string elements in standard 6 string playing. Seven-string acoustic guitar as it is used in Brazilian choro music. ... The Ibanez Universe is the worlds first commercial seven-string electric guitar developed by Steve Vai. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An eight string guitar is, as the name implies, a guitar with eight strings. ...


The electric bass guitar is similar in tuning to the traditional double bass viol. Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. There are also more exotic varieties, such as guitars with two, three[9] or rarely four necks, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), 5.1 surround guitar, and such. Bass guitars typically have four strings instead of six as found on regular guitars. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Jimmy Page playing a Gibson EDS-1275 A double neck guitar is a guitar that has two necks. ... The fretless bass is a bass guitar without frets (including similarly configured guitars known as a fretless guitar). ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... The 5. ...


Some electric guitar and electric bass guitar models feature Piezoelectric pickups, which function as transducers to provide a sound closer to that of an acoustic guitar with the flip of a switch or knob, rather than switching guitars. Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ...


Guitar construction and components

Parts of typical classical and electric guitars
  1. Headstock
  2. Nut
  3. Machine heads (or pegheads, tuning keys,
    tuning machines, tuners)
  4. Frets
  5. Truss rod
  6. Inlays
  7. Neck
  8. Heel (acoustic or Spanish) - Neckjoint (electric)
  9. Body
  10. Pickups
  11. Electronics
  12. Bridge
  13. Pickguard
  14. Back
  15. Soundboard (top)
  16. Body sides (ribs)
  17. Sound hole, with Rosette inlay
  18. Strings
  19. Saddle
  20. Fretboard (or Fingerboard)



This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The machine heads on a Squier Stratocaster electric guitar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ... A cello with f-holes A guitar with a round hole A sound hole is a hole in the upper sounding board of a string musical instrument. ... Rosettes can refer for: A small, circular, device that can be awarded with medals (see: Rosette (decoration)). A type of plant with their leaves at an upset stem in a typical form. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Acoustic_guitar_parts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (365x831, 52 KB) Summary Electric guitar, parts numbered Source: Modified version of http://commons. ...

General

Guitars can be constructed to meet the demands of both left and right-handed players. Traditionally the dominant hand is assigned the task of plucking or strumming the strings. For the majority of people this entails using the right hand. This is because musical expression (dynamics, tonal expression and colour etc) is largely determined by the plucking hand, whilst the fretting hand is assigned the lesser mechanical task of depressing and gripping the strings. This is similar to the convention of the violin family of instruments where the right hand controls the bow. A minority, however, believe that left-handed people should learn to play guitars strung in the manner used by right-handed people, simply to standardise the instrument. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... An instrument is a concrete or abstract tool intended for a purpose other than mechanical work, in particular a refined one. ...

Headstock

Main article: Headstock

The headstock is located at the end of the guitar neck furthest from the body. It is fitted with machine heads that adjust the tension of the strings, which in turn affects the pitch. Traditional tuner layout is "3+3" in which each side of the headstock has three tuners (such as on Gibson Les Pauls). In this layout, the headstocks are commonly symmetrical. Many guitars feature other layouts as well, including six-in-line (featured on Fender Stratocasters) tuners or even "4+2" (Ernie Ball Music Man). However, some guitars (such as Steinbergers) do not have headstocks at all, in which case the tuning machines are located elsewhere, either on the body or the bridge. Typical headstock of an electric guitar This article is about part of a stringed instrument. ... The Gibson Les Paul is one of the most recognizable solid-body electric guitar designs in the world. ... “Stratocaster” redirects here. ... Steinberger refers to a series of distinctive electric guitars and bass guitars, designed and originally manufactured by Ned Steinberger. ...

Nut

Main article: Nut (instrumental)

The nut is a small strip of bone, plastic, brass, corian, graphite, stainless steel, or other medium-hard material, at the joint where the headstock meets the fretboard. Its grooves guide the strings onto the fretboard, giving consistent lateral string placement. It is one of the endpoints of the strings' vibrating length. It must be accurately cut, or it can contribute to tuning problems due to string slippage, and/or string buzz. The nut of a string instrument is a small strip or block of hard material forming a transition between the strings playing length and the tuning machines on the headstock, or the tuning pegs in the pegbox at the upper end of the fingerboard. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Avonite be merged into this article or section. ... Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789 from the Greek γραφειν (graphein): to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ...

Fretboard

Main article: Fingerboard

Also called the fingerboard, the fretboard is a piece of wood embedded with metal frets that comprises the top of the neck. It is flat on classical guitars and slightly curved crosswise on acoustic and electric guitars. The curvature of the fretboard is measured by the fretboard radius, which is the radius of a hypothetical circle of which the fretboard's surface constitutes a segment. The smaller the fretboard radius, the more noticeably curved the fretboard is. Most modern guitars feature a 12" neck radius, while older guitars from the '60's and '70's usually feature a 6" - 8" neck radius. Pinching a string against the fretboard effectively shortens the vibrating length of the string, producing a higher pitch. Fretboards are most commonly made of rosewood, ebony, maple, and sometimes manufactured or composite materials such as HPL or resin. See below on section 'Neck" for the importance of the length of the fretboard in connection to other dimensions of the guitar. Fretted guitar fingerboard. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ... Binomial name Diospyros ebenum Koenig ex Retz. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ...

Frets

Main article: Fret

Frets are metal strips (usually nickel alloy or stainless steel) embedded along the fretboard and located at exact points that divide the scale length in accordance with a specific mathematical formula. Pressing a string against a fret determines the strings' vibrating length and therefore its resultant pitch. The pitch of each consecutive fret is defined at a half-step interval on the chromatic scale. Frets worn down from heavy use can be replaced or, to a certain extent, re-shaped as required. Frets are available in different gauges. The neck of a guitar showing the first four frets. ... The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ...


Frets are laid out to a mathematical ratio that results in equal tempered division of the octave. The ratio of the spacing of two consecutive frets is the twelfth root of two sqrt[12]{2}, whose numeric value is about 1.059463. The twelfth fret divides the scale length in two exact halves and the 24th fret position divides the scale length in half yet again. Every twelve frets represents one octave. In practise, luthiers determine fret positions using the constant 17.817, which is derived from the twelfth root of two. The scale length divided by this value yields the distance from the nut to the first fret. That distance is subtracted from the scale length and the result is divided in two sections by the constant to yield the distance from the first fret to the second fret. Positions for the remainder of the frets are calculated in like manner.[10] An equal temperament is a musical temperament — that is, a system of tuning intended to approximate some form of just intonation — in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... The Twelfth root of two is a quantity representing the frequency ratio between any two consecutive notes of a modern chromatic scale in equal temperament. ... In a string instrument, the scale length (often simply but confusingly called the scale) is the sounding length of the strings. ... In a string instrument, the scale length (often simply but confusingly called the scale) is the sounding length of the strings. ... A luthier is someone who builds or repairs stringed instruments, ranging from guitars to violins. ... The Twelfth root of two is a quantity representing the frequency ratio between any two consecutive notes of a modern chromatic scale in equal temperament. ... In a string instrument, the scale length (often simply but confusingly called the scale) is the sounding length of the strings. ... In a string instrument, the scale length (often simply but confusingly called the scale) is the sounding length of the strings. ...


There are several different fret gauges, which can be fitted according to player preference. Among these are "jumbo" frets, which have much thicker gauge, allowing for use of a slight vibrato technique from pushing the string down harder and softer. "Scalloped" fretboards, where the wood of the fretboard itself is "scooped out" between the frets allows a dramatic vibrato effect. Fine frets, much flatter, allow a very low string-action but require other conditions such as curvature of the neck to be well maintained in order to prevent buzz.

Truss rod

Main article: Truss rod

The truss rod is a metal rod that runs along the inside of the neck. It is used to correct changes to the neck's curvature caused by the neck timbers aging, changes in humidity or to compensate for changes in the tension of strings. The tension of the rod and neck assembly is adjusted by a hex nut or an allen-key bolt on the rod, usually located either at the headstock, sometimes under a cover, or just inside the body of the guitar underneath the fretboard and accessible through the sound hole. Some truss rods can only be accessed by removing the neck. The truss rod counteracts the immense amount of tension the strings place on the neck, bringing the neck back to a straighter position. Turning the truss rod clockwise will tighten it, counteracting the tension of the strings and straightening the neck or creating a backward bow. Turning the truss rod counter-clockwise will loosen it, allowing string tension to act on the neck and creating a forward bow. Adjusting the truss rod affects the intonation of a guitar as well as the height of the strings from the fingerboard, called the action. Some truss rod systems, called "double action" truss systems, tighten both ways, allowing the neck to be pushed both forward and backward (standard truss rods can only be released to a point beyond which the neck will no longer be compressed and pulled backward). Classical guitars do not require truss rods as their nylon strings exert a lower tensile force with lesser potential to cause structural problems. Schematic section of electric guitar neck Truss rod is a device to stabilize and adjust profile of guitar neck. ...

Inlays

Main article: Inlay (guitar)

Inlays are visual elements set into the exterior surface of a guitar. The typical locations for inlay are on the fretboard, headstock, and on acoustic guitars around the soundhole, known as the rosette. Inlays range from simple plastic dots on the fretboard to intricate works of art covering the entire exterior surface of a guitar (front and back). Some guitar players have used LEDs in the fretboard to produce a unique lighting effects onstage. Inlays on guitar or similar fretted instrument are visual elements set into the exterior wood. ... Rosettes can refer for: A small, circular, device that can be awarded with medals (see: Rosette (decoration)). A type of plant with their leaves at an upset stem in a typical form. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ...


Fretboard inlays are most commonly shaped like dots, diamond shapes, parallelograms, or large blocks in between the frets. Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player. Some older or high-end instruments have inlays made of mother of pearl, abalone, ivory, coloured wood or other exotic materials and designs. Simpler inlays are often made of plastic or painted. High-end classical guitars seldom have fretboard inlays as a well trained player is expected to know his or her way around the instrument.


In addition to fretboard inlay, the headstock and soundhole surround are also frequently inlaid. The manufacturer's logo or a small design is often inlaid into the headstock. Rosette designs vary from simple concentric circles to delicate fretwork mimicing the historic rosette of lutes. Bindings that edge the finger and sound boards are sometimes inlaid. Some instruments have a filler strip running down the length and behind the neck, used for strength and/or to fill the cavity through which the trussrod was installed in the neck.


Elaborate inlays are a decorative feature of many limited edition, high-end and custom-made guitars. Guitar manufacturers often release such guitars to celebrate significant or historic milestones.

Neck

Main article: Neck (music)

A guitar's frets, fretboard, tuners, headstock, and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension, collectively constitute its neck. The wood used to make the fretboard will usually differ from the wood in the rest of the neck. The bending stress on the neck is considerable, particularly when heavier gauge strings are used (see Strings and tuning), and the ability of the neck to resist bending (see Truss rod) is important to the guitar's ability to hold a constant pitch during tuning or when strings are fretted. The rigidity of the neck with respect to the body of the guitar is one determinant of a good instrument versus a poor one. The shape of the neck can also vary, from a gentle "C" curve to a more pronounced "V" curve. There are many different types of neck profiles available, giving the guitarist many options. Some aspects to consider in a guitar neck may be the overall width of the fingerboard, scale (distance between the frets), the neck wood, the type of neck construction (for example, the neck may be glued in or bolted on), and the shape (profile) of the back of the neck. Other type of material used to make guitar necks are graphite (Steinberger guitars), aluminium (Kramer Guitars, Travis Bean and Veleno guitars), or carbon fiber (Modulus Guitars and ThreeGuitars). The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ... The neck is the part of certain string instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings at different pitches. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Steinberger refers to a series of distinctive electric guitars and bass guitars, designed and originally manufactured by Ned Steinberger. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Travis Bean is an American luthier and machinist from California. ... The Veleno guitar was a highly-regarded series of aluminum guitars built by metal craftsman John Veleno. ... Modulus Guitars is an American manufacturer of musical instruments, most notably bass guitars built with carbon fiber necks. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Neck joint or 'Heel'

See also: Set-in neck, Bolt-on neck, and Neck-thru

This is the point at which the neck is either bolted or glued to the body of the guitar. Almost all acoustic guitars, with the primary exception of Taylors, have glued (otherwise known as set) necks, while electric guitars are constructed using both types. Set-in neck is a method of guitar (or similar stringed instrument) construction that involves joining guitar neck and body, pressing it tightly together using some sort of adhesive. ... Typical bolt-on neck joint on a Yamaha Pacifica 112 electric guitar Bolt-on neck is a method of guitar (or similar stringed instrument) construction that involves joining guitar neck and body using screws. ... Neck-thru or neck-through or in full form neck through body is a method of electric guitar or bass guitar construction that involves extending the piece (or pieces, in a laminate construction) of wood used for the neck the entire length of the body. ...


Commonly used set neck joints include mortise and tenon joints (such as those used by CF Martin & Co. guitars), dovetail joints (also used by CF Martin on the D28 and similar models) and Spanish heel neck joints which are named after the shoe they resemble and commonly found in classical guitars. All three types offer stability. Bolt-on necks, though they are historically associated with cheaper instruments, do offer greater flexibility in the guitar's set-up, and allow easier access for neck joint maintenance and repairs. Diagram of a Mortise and Tenon Joint Simple and strong, the mortise and tenon joint (also called the mortice and tenon) has been used for millennia by woodworkers around the world to join two pieces of wood, most often at an angle close to 90°. Although there are many variations...


Another type of neck, only available for solid body electric guitars, is the neck-through-body construction. These are designed so that everything from the machine heads down to the bridge are located on the same piece of wood. The sides (also known as wings) of the guitar are then glued to this central piece. Some luthiers prefer this method of construction as they claim it allows better sustain of each note. Some instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it. Neck-thru or neck-through or in full form neck through body is a method of guitar construction that involves cutting both guitars body and neck from a single piece of wood. ...

Strings

See also: Classical guitar strings

Modern guitar strings are manufactured in either metal or organo-carbon material. Instruments utilising "steel" strings may have strings made of alloys incorporating steel, nickel or phosphor bronze. Classical and flamenco instruments have historically used gut strings but these have been superceeded by nylon and carbon-fibre materials. Bass strings for both instruments are wound rather than monofilament. // History Treble strings From Gut to Nylon Albert Augustine was the first company to produce strings in Nylon. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


Guitar strings are strung almost parallel to the neck, whose surface is covered by the fingerboard (fretboard). By depressing a string against the fingerboard, the effective length of the string can be changed, which in turn changes the frequency at which the string will vibrate when plucked. Guitarists typically use one hand to pluck the strings and the other to depress the strings against the fretboard. Fretted guitar fingerboard. ... The fingerboard, also known as a fretboard, is a part of most stringed instruments. ... A vibration in a string is a wave. ...


The strings may be plucked using either the fingers or a variety of pick designs mostly associated with acoustic players.

Body (acoustic guitar)

See also: Sound box

In acoustic guitars, string vibration is transmitted through the bridge and saddle to the body via sound board. The sound board, typically made of tonewoods such as spruce or cedar. Timbers for tone woods are chosen for both strength and ability to tranfer mechanical energy from the strings to the air within the guitar body. Sound which is further shaped by the characteristics of the guitar body's resonant cavity. In a stringed instrument, a sound box amplifies the vibrations made by the strings. ... The sounding board is the largest part of a string musical instruments body. ...


In electric guitars, transducers known as pickups convert string vibration to an electric signal, which in turn is amplified and fed to speakers, which vibrate the air to produce the sound we hear. Nevertheless, the body of the electric guitar body still performs a role in shaping the resultant tonal signature. A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... A vibration in a string is a wave. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ...


The body of the acoustic instrument is thought to be a major determinant of the overall sound quality. The guitar top, or soundboard, is a finely crafted and engineered element made of tonsewoods such as spruce and red cedar. This thin, often only 2 or 3mm thick, piece of wood, strengthened by differing types of internal bracing, is considered by many luthiers to be the dominant factor in determining the sound quality of a guitar. The majority of the instrument's sound is heard through the vibration of the guitar top as the energy of the vibrating strings is transferred to it. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Species About 35; see text. ... Red Cedar may refer to: Australian Red Cedar, Toona australis Eastern Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana Red Cedar, Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Western Red Cedar, Thuja plicata Michigan)]] Red Cedar River (Wisconsin) Cedar (disambiguation) Category: ...


Body size, shape and style has changed over time, 19th century guitars, now known as salon guitars, were smaller than modern instruments. Differing patterns of internal bracing have been used over time by luthiers, (Torres, Hauser, Ramirez, Fleta, and C.F. Martin being among the most influential designers of their time). Bracing not only strengthens the top against potential collapse due to the stress exerted by the tensioned strings, but also affects the resonance characteristics of the top. The back and sides are made out of a variety of timbers such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra). Each one is primarily chosen for their aesthetic effect and can be decorated with inlays and purfling. C.F. Martin & Company (Martin) is a US guitar manufacturer that was established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin. ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ...


The body of an acoustic guitar has a sound hole through which sound is projected. The sound hole is usually a round hole in the top of the guitar under the strings. Air inside the body vibrates as the guitar top and body is vibrated by the strings, and the response of the air cavity at different frequencies is characterised, like the rest of the guitar body, by a number of resonance modes at which it responds more strongly.


Instruments with larger areas for the guitar top were introduced by Martin in an attempt to create louder volume levels(although tone quality will also be affected by materials used in guitar top size and design). The popularity of the Dreadnought body size amongst acoustic performers is related to the greater sound volume produced. C.F. Martin & Company (Martin) is a US guitar manufacturer that was established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin. ...

Body (electric guitar)

See also: Solid body

Most electric guitar bodies are made of wood and include a plastic pick guard. Boards wide enough to use as a solid body are very expensive due to the worldwide depletion of hardwood stock since the 70's, so the wood is rarely one solid piece. Most bodies are made of two pieces of wood with some of them including a seam running down the centre line of the body. The most common woods used for electric guitar body construction include maple, basswood, ash, poplar, alder, and mahogany. Many bodies will consist of good sounding but inexpensive woods, like ash, with a "top", or thin layer of another, more attractive wood (such as maple with a natural "flame" pattern) glued to the top of the basic wood. Guitars constructed like this are often called "flame tops". The body is usually carved or routed to accept the other elements, such as the bridge, pickup, neck, and other electronic components. Most electrics have a polyurethane or nitrocellulose lacquer finish. Other alternative materials to wood, are used in guitar body construction. Some of these include carbon composites, plastic material (such as polycarbonate) and aluminium alloys. A solid body electric instrument is a string instrument such as a guitar, bass or violin built without its normal sound box and relying on its electric pickup system to directly receive the vibrations of the strings. ... Distribution Species See List of Acer species Maples are trees or shrubs in the genus Acer. ... Basswood is the common name of timbers of Tilia species. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... This article is about woody plants of the genus Populus. ... Species About 20-30 species, see text. ... An example of Mahogany The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood, originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, sometimes referred to as Spanish or Cuban Mahogany. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ...

Pickups

Main article: Pickup (music)

Pickups are transducers attached to a guitar that detect (or "pick up") string vibrations and convert the mechanical energy of the string into electrical energy. The resultant electrical signal can then be electronically amplified. The most common type of pickup is electromagnetic in design. These contain magnets that are tightly wrapped in a coil, or coils, of copper wire. Such pickups are usually placed right underneath the guitar strings. Electromagnetic pickups work on the same principles and in a similar manner to an electrical generator. The vibration of the strings causes a small voltage to be created in the coils surrounding the magnets, this signal voltage is later amplified. Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... Three magnetic pickups on an electric guitar. ... A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to another. ... Generally, an amplifier is any device that will use a small amount of energy to control a larger amount of energy. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field, encompassing all of space, composed of the electric field and the magnetic field. ... “Dynamo” redirects here. ...


Traditional electromagnetic pickups are either single-coil or double-coil. Single coil pickups are susceptable to noise induced from electric fields, usually mains-frequency (60 or 50 hertz) hum. The introduction of the double-coil humbucker in the mid 50's did away with this problem through the use of two coils, one of which is wired in a reverse polarity orientation. This image shows three single coil pickups on a Stratocaster guitar. ... Traditional humbucker pickup, uncovered A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils, both generating string signal. ...


The type and model of pickups used can greatly affect the tone of the guitar. Typically, humbuckers, which are two magnet/coil assemblies attached to each other are traditionally associated a heavier sound. Single coil pickups, one magnet wrapped in copper wire, are used by guitarists seeking a brighter, twangier sound with greater dynamic range.


Modern pickups are tailored to the sound desired. A commonly applied approximation used in selection of pickup is that less wire (lower dc resistance) = brighter sound, more wire = "fat" tone. Other options include specialized switching that produces coil-splitting, in/out of phase and other effects. Guitar circuits are either active, needing a battery to power their circuit, or, as in most cases, equipped with a passive circuit.


Fender Stratocaster type guitars generally utilize 3 single coil pickups, while most Gibson Les Paul types use humbucker pickups. “Stratocaster” redirects here. ... The Gibson Les Paul is one of the most recognizable solid-body electric guitar designs in the world. ...


Piezoelectric, or piezo, pickups represent another class of pickup. These employ piezoelectricity to generate the musical signal and are popular in hybrid electro-acoustic guitars. A crystal is located under each string, usually in the saddle. When the string vibrates, the shape of the crystal is distorted, and the stresses associated with this change produce tiny voltages across the crystal that can be amplified and manipulated. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric charge in response to applied mechanical stress. ...


Some piezo equipped guitars use what is known as a hexaphonic pickup. "Hex" is a prefix meaning six. In a hexaphonic pickup separate outputs are obtained from discrete piezoelectric pickups for each of the six strings. This arrangement allows the signal to be easily modified by on-board modelling electronics, as in the Line 6 Variax brand of electric guitars, the guitars allow for a variety of different sounds to be obtained by digitally manipulating the signal. This allows a guitar to mimic many vintage models of guitar, as well as output alternate tunings without the need to adjust the strings.


Another use for hexaphonic pickups is to send the output signals to a MIDI interpretation device, which determines the note pitch, duration, attack and decay characteristics and so forth. The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) interpreter then sends the note information to a sound bank device. The resulting sound can closely mimic numerous types of instrument. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is an industry-standard electronic communications protocol that enables electronic musical instruments, computers and other equipment to communicate, control and synchronize with each other in real time. ...

Electronics

On guitars that have them, these components and the wires that connect them allow the player to control some aspects of the sound like volume or tone. These at their simplest consist of passive components such as potentiometers and capacitors, but may also include specialized integrated circuits or other active components requiring batteries for power, for preamplification and signal processing, or even for assistance in tuning. In many cases the electronics have some sort of shielding to prevent pickup of external interference and noise. The present popular usage of the term potentiometer (or pot for short) describes an electrical device which has a user-adjustable resistance. ... Various types of capacitors A capacitor is a device that stores energy in the electric field created between a pair of conductors on which equal but opposite electric charges have been placed. ... An integrated circuit (IC) is a thin chip consisting of at least two interconnected semiconductor devices, mainly transistors, as well as passive components like resistors. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ...

Lining, Binding, Purfling

The top, back and ribs of an acoustic guitar body are very thin (1-2 mm), so a flexible piece of wood called lining is glued into the corners where the rib meets the top and back. This interior reinforcement provides 5 to 20 mm of solid gluing area for these corner joints. Solid linings are often used in classical guitars, while kerfed lining is most often found in steel string acoustics. Kerfed lining is also called kerfing (because it is scored, or kerfed to allow it to bend with the shape of the rib).


During final construction, a small section of the outside corners is carved or routed out and then filled with binding material on the outside corners and decorative strips of material next to the binding, which are called purfling. This binding serves to seal off the endgrain of the top and back. Purfling can also appear on the back of an acoustic guitar, marking the edge joints of the two or three sections of the back.


Binding and purfling materials are generally made of either wood or plastic.

Bridge

Main article: Bridge (instrument)

The main purpose of the bridge on an acoustic guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. A Violin Bridge blank and finished bridge A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a stringed instrument and transmitting the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument in order to transfer the sound to the surrounding air balls. ...


On both electric and acoustic guitars, the bridge holds the strings in place on the body. There are many varied bridge designs. There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument. Some are spring-loaded and feature a "whammy bar", a removable arm which allows the player to modulate the pitch moving the bridge up and down. The whammy bar is sometimes also referred to as a "tremolo bar" (see Tremolo for further discussion of this term - the effect of rapidly changing pitch produced by a whammy bar is more correctly called "vibrato"). Some bridges also allow for alternate tunings at the touch of a button. An electric guitar is a type of guitar with a solid or semi-solid body that utilizes electromagnetic pickups to convert the vibration of the steel-cored strings into electrical current. ... Tremolo is a musical term with two meanings: A rapid repetition of the same note, a rapid variation in the amplitude of a single note, or an alternation between two or more notes. ...


On almost all modern electric guitars, the bridge is adjustable for each string so that intonation stays correct up and down the neck. If the open string is in tune but sharp or flat when frets are pressed, the bridge can be adjusted with a screwdriver or hex key to remedy the problem. In general, flat notes are corrected by moving the bridge forward and sharp notes by moving it backwards. On an instrument correctly adjusted for intonation, the actual length of each string from the nut to the bridge saddle will be slightly but measurably longer than the scale length of the instrument. This additional length is called compensation, which flattens all notes a bit to compensate for the sharping of all fretted notes caused by stretching the string during fretting. In a string instrument, the scale length (often simply but confusingly called the scale) is the sounding length of the strings. ...

Pickguard

Main article: Pickguard

Also known as a scratchplate. This is usually a piece of laminated plastic or other material that protects the finish of the top of the guitar from damage due to the use of a plectrum or fingernails. Electric guitars sometimes mount pickups and electronics on the pickguard. It is a common feature on steel-string acoustic guitars. Vigorous performance styles such as flamenco, which can involve the use the guitar as a percussion instrument, call for a scratchplate to be fitted to nylon-string instruments. A pickguard (also known as scratchplate) is a piece of plastic or other laminated material that is placed under the strings on the body of a guitar. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ...

Tuning

Main article: Guitar tuning

The guitar is a transposing instrument. Its pitch sounds one octave lower than it is notated. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Open tuning. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ...


A variety of different tunings are used. The most common by far, known as "Standard Tuning" (EAdgbe'), is as follows:

  • sixth (lowest tone) string: low E (A minor thirteenth below middle C—82.4 Hz)
  • fifth string: A (A minor tenth below middle C—110 Hz)
  • fourth string: d (A minor seventh below middle C—146.8 Hz)
  • third string: g (A perfect fourth below middle C—196.0 Hz)
  • second string: b (A minor second below middle C—246.92 Hz)
  • first (highest tone) string: e' (A major third above middle C—329.6 Hz)

Image:Guitarchords.jpg In Western music, the expression middle C refers to the note C or Do located exactly between the two staves of the grand staff, quoted as C4 in note-octave notation (also known as scientific pitch notation). ... Image File history File links Guitarchords. ...


The diagram above depicts pitch names found over the six strings of a guitar in standard tuning, from the nut (zero) to the twelfth fret.


A guitar using this tuning can tune to itself by the fact, with a single exception, that the 5th fret on one string is the same note as the next open string; that is, a 5th-fret note on the sixth string is the same note as the open fifth string. The exception to this rule is the interval between the second and third strings, in which the 4th-fret note on the third string is equivalent to the open second string.


Standard tuning has evolved to provide a good compromise between simple fingering for many chords and the ability to play common scales with minimal left hand movement. There are also a variety of commonly used alternate tunings - most of which are chord voicings that can be played on open strings or made by moving the capo. Alternate tunings are used for two main reasons: the ease of playing and the variation in tone that can be achieved. Fingering for an open-position C Major chord (with the 5th, a G note, in the bass) played on a six-string acoustic guitar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Open tuning. ... A capo (short for capotasto, Italian for head of fretboard) is a device used for shortening the strings, and hence raising the pitch, of a stringed instrument such as a guitar, mandolin or banjo. ...


Many guitarists use a long established, centuries old tuning variation where the lowest string is 'dropped' two semi-tones down. Known as Drop-D (or dropped D) tuning it is, from low to high, DADGBE'. This allows for open string tonic and dominant basses in the keys of D and D minor. It also enables simple fifths (powerchords) to be easily played without the need for a high technical skill level. Eddie Van Halen sometimes uses a device known as a 'D Tuna,' the patent for which he owns. It is a small lever, attached to the fine tuner of the 6th string on a Floyd Rose tremolo, which allows him to easily drop that string's tuning to a D. Many contemporary rock bands downtune the entire tuning by several semi-tones, making, for example, Drop-C or Drop-B tunings, However this terminology is inconsistent with that of "drop-D" as "drop-D" refers to dropping a single string to the named pitch. Often these new tunings are also simply referred to as the "Standard" of the note in question e.g. - "D Standard" (DGCFAD). Many other open tunings, where all of the strings are tuned to a similar note or chord, are popular for slide guitar playing. Drop D tuning (or simply drop-D) is a guitar tuning style in which the lowest (sixth) string is tuned (dropped) to D rather than E as in standard tuning. ... Edward Lodewijk Van Halen, generally known as Eddie Van Halen, (born January 26, 1955 in Nijmegen, Netherlands,) is a virtuoso guitarist, classically-trained pianist, and founding member of the hard rock band Van Halen. ...


As with all stringed instruments a large number of scordatura are possible on the guitar. A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning) is an alternate tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. ...

Guitar terminology

Vibrato Arm

The Vibrato (pitch bend) unit found on many electric guitars has also had slang terms applied to it, such as "tremolo bar (or arm)", "sissy bar", "wang bar", "slam handle", "whammy handle", and "whammy bar". The latter two slang terms led stompbox manufacturers to use the term 'whammy' in coming up with a pitch raising effect introduced by popular guitar effects pedal brand "Digitech". Slang is the use of highly informal words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speakers dialect or language. ... The TS9 Tubescreamer from Ibanez, a popular stomp box adding vacuum tube-like distortion to the output signal from electric instruments. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Leo Fender, who did much to create the electric guitar, also created much confusion over the meaning of the terms "tremolo" and "vibrato", specifically by misnaming the "tremolo" unit on many of his guitars and also the "vibrato" unit on his "Vibrolux" amps. In general, vibrato is a variation in pitch, whereas tremolo is a variation in volume, so the tremolo bar is actually a vibrato bar and the "Vibrolux" amps actually had a tremolo effect. However, following Fender's example, electric guitarists traditionally reverse these meanings when speaking of hardware devices and the effects they produce. See vibrato unit for a more detailed discussion, and tremolo arm for more of the history. Image:Leo Fender tinkering. ... A tremolo arm, tremolo bar, vibrato bar, whammy bar, or twang bar is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the tailpiece of an electric guitar or archtop guitar to enable the player to quickly vary the tension and sometimes the length of the strings temporarily, changing the pitch... A vibrato unit is an effects unit used to modify the sound of an electric guitar by producing a regular variation in the amplitude of the sound. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... A vibrato unit is an effects unit used to modify the sound of an electric guitar by producing a regular variation in the amplitude of the sound. ... A tremolo arm, tremolo bar, vibrato bar, whammy bar, or twang bar is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the tailpiece of an electric guitar or archtop guitar to enable the player to quickly vary the tension and sometimes the length of the strings temporarily, changing the pitch...


A distinctly different form of mechanical vibrato found on some guitars is the Bigsby vibrato tailpiece, commonly called Bigsby. This vibrato wraps the strings around a horizontal bar, which is then rotated with a handle by the musician. The Bigsby vibrato tailpiece (or Bigsby for short) is a type of vibrato device for electric guitar designed by its namesake Paul A. Bigsby. ...


Another type of pitch bender is the B-Bender, a spring and lever device mounted in an internal cavity of a solid body electric, guitar that allows the guitarist to bend just the B string of the guitar using a lever connected to the strap handle of the guitar. The resulting pitch bend is evocative of the sound of the pedal steel guitar. B-Bender is a system designed for Fender Telecaster guitars that enables a player to simulate a bending of a single B-string up to a whole tone (thus the name). ... Pedal steel guitar with two 10-string necks The pedal steel guitar is a type of electric guitar that uses a metal slide to stop the strings, rather than fingers on strings as with a conventional guitar. ...

Capotasto

Main article: Capo

A capodastra (or capo, cejilla in Spanish) is used to change the pitch of open strings. Capos are clipped onto the fret board with the aid of spring tension, or in some models, elastic tension. To raise the guitar's pitch by one semitone, the player would clip the capo onto the fret board just below the first fret. Their use allows a player to play in different keys without having to change the chord formations they use. Because of the ease with which they allow guitar players to change keys, they are sometimes referred to as "cheaters". Classical performers are known to use them to enable modern instruments to match the pitch of historical instruments such as the renaissance lute. A capo (short for capotasto, Italian for head of fretboard) is a device used for shortening the strings, and hence raising the pitch, of a stringed instrument such as a guitar, mandolin or banjo. ... A medieval era lute. ...

Slides

Main article: Slide Guitar

A slide, (neck of a bottle, knife blade or round metal bar) used in blues and rock to create a glissando or 'hawaiian' effect. The necks of bottles were often used in blues and country music. Modern slides are constructed of glass, plastic, ceramic, chrome, brass or steel, depending on the weight and tone desired. An instrument that is played exclusively in this manner, (using a metal bar) is called a steel guitar or pedal steel. Slide playing to this day is very popular in blues music and country music. Some slide players use a so called Dobro guitar. Example of a bottleneck, with fingerpicks and resonator guitar. ... Example of a bottleneck, with fingerpicks and resonator guitar. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... Chandler electric lap steel guitar, a modern solid body with the classic Weissenborn profile. ... A Dobro style resonator guitar Steel guitar, strictly speaking, refers to a method of playing using a metal slide (or steel) on a guitar played horizontally, with the strings uppermost. ... Pedal steel guitar (also called Steel Guitar) is a type of guitar, and a method of playing the instrument. ... Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on the use of the blue notes and a repetitive pattern that most often follows a twelve-bar structure. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A modern Gibson Dobro Dobro is a trade name now owned by Gibson Guitar Corporation and used for a particular design of resonator guitar. ...


Some performers that have become famous for playing slide are George Harrison, Bonnie Raitt, Derek Trucks, Warren Haynes, Duane Allman, Muddy Waters and Rory Gallagher. George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943[1][2] – 29 November 2001[3]) was an Academy Award and Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter, author and sitarist best known as the lead guitarist of The Beatles. ... Bonnie Raitt, (born November 8, 1949) is an American Blues-R&B singer, songwriter, and guitarist who was born in Burbank, California, the daughter of Broadway musical star John Raitt. ... Derek Trucks (born June 8, 1979) is an American guitarist, bandleader (The Derek Trucks Band), and member of The Allman Brothers Band. ... Warren Haynes (born April 6, 1960) is an American rock and blues guitarist, vocalist and songwriter and long time member of The Allman Brothers Band. ... Howard Duane Allman (November 20, 1946 – October 29, 1971) was an American lead guitarist and noted session musician. ... McKinley Morganfield (April 4, 1915 – April 30, 1983), better known as Muddy Waters, was an American blues musician and is generally considered the Father of Chicago blues. He is also the actual father of blues musician Big Bill Morganfield. ... Rory Gallagher (2 March 1948 – 14 June 1995) was an Irish blues/rock guitarist, born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, grew up in Cork City in the south of Ireland. ...

Plectrum

Main article: Guitar pick
A variety of guitar picks
A variety of guitar picks
A "guitar pick" or "plectrum" is a small piece of hard material which is generally held between the thumb and first finger of the picking hand and is used to "pick" the strings. Though most classical players pick solely with their fingers, the "pick" is the most common means of playing used today. Though today they are mainly plastic, variations do exist, such as bone, wood, steel or tortoise shell. Tortoise shell was the most commonly used material in the early days of pick making but as tortoises became more and more endangered, the practice of using their shells for picks or anything else was banned. Tortoise shell picks are often coveted for a supposedly superior tone and ease of use.

Picks come in many shapes and sizes. Picks vary from the small jazz pick to the large bass pick. The thickness of the pick often determines its use. A thinner pick (between .2 and .5 mm) is usually used for strumming or rhythm playing, whereas thicker picks (between .7 and 1.5+ mm) are usually used for single-note lines or lead playing. The distinctive guitar sound of Billy Gibbons is attributed to using a quarter or peso as a pick. Similarly, Brian May is known to use a sixpence coin as a pick. Various guitar picks. ... Guitar picks taken by user:KayEss From top going clockwise: Standard plastic pick Immitation turtoiseshell pick Plastic pick with high-friction coating Stainless stell pick Triangular plastic pick Sharks fin pick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Guitar picks taken by user:KayEss From top going clockwise: Standard plastic pick Immitation turtoiseshell pick Plastic pick with high-friction coating Stainless stell pick Triangular plastic pick Sharks fin pick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Various guitar picks. ... Various guitar picks A plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A quarter is a coin worth one-quarter of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. ... The peso is a unit of currency. ... Brian Harold May CBE (born July 19, 1947) is an English musician best known as the lead guitarist and backing vocalist for the English rock band Queen. ... Obverses of the 1787 and 1818 sixpence depicting George III. The sixpence, known colloquially as the tanner, was a British pre-decimal coin, worth, as the name indicates, six pence. ...

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kasha, Dr. Michael (August 1968). "A New Look at The History of the Classic Guitar". Guitar Review 30,3-12
  2. ^ [A Brief History of the Guitar http://www.guyguitars.com/eng/handbook/BriefHistory.html]
  3. ^ Summerfield, Maurice J. (2003). The Classical Guitar, It's Evolution, Players and Personalities since 1800 (5th ed.) Blaydon on Tyne: Ashley Mark Publishing. ISBN 1-872-63946-1.
  4. ^ [A Look At The History Of The Guitar http://www.thejazzfestival.net/showarticle?id=109580]
  5. ^ The Classical Mandolin by Paul Sparks (1995)
  6. ^ Early Romantic Guitar
  7. ^ The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era by James Tyler (2002)
  8. ^ Evans, Tom and MaryAnne (1977). Guitars: Music, history, Construction and Players from the Renaissance to Rock. ISBN 0-448-22240-X. 
  9. ^ http://vai.com/Machines/guitarpages/guitar040.html
  10. ^ Mottola, R.M.. Lutherie Info – Calculating Fret Positions.

References

Flamenco! The Guitar and the Music - An Indiana University research paper on Flamenco, the indigenous music of the Gypsies of southern Spain, written by Jeff Foster, 1987. William Richard Cumpiano (born in 1945 in San Juan, Puerto Rico), is a world renown author, master builder of Cuatros and teacher of the art of luthiery. ...

See also

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External links

  • Stalking the Oldest Six-String Guitar
  • Guitar physics
  • Wiki Guitar
  • International Guitar Research Archive
  • The first rock guitars
  • Online Guitar Tuner - Standard Tuning
  • allGuitarists.com, web forum and online magazine about guitar

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Acoustic Fingerstyle Guitar Page (493 words)
You are also invite to read the essays "American Fingerstyle Guitar" by John Schroeter and "The Guitar Place" by Will Schmid to understand why Fingerstyle Guitar is growing in popularity.
There is an extensive collection of Frequently Asked Guitar Questions and a Fingerstyle Guitar Forum where you are invited to post your comments or questions.
American primitive guitar can be characterized by the use of folk music or folk-like material, driving alternating-bass fingerpicking with a good deal of repetitious ostinato patterns, and the use of alternative tunings (scordatura) such as open D and drop D
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