FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Guillotine" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Guillotine
Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right
Historic replicas (1:6 scale) of the two main types of French guillotines: Model 1792, left, and Model 1872 (state as of 1907), right

The guillotine is a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation. It consists of a tall upright frame from which a heavy blade is suspended. This blade is raised with a rope and then allowed to drop, severing the victim's head from his body. The device is noted for long being the main method of execution in France and, more particularly, for its use during the French Revolution. Look up guillotine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (764x700, 63 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guillotine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (764x700, 63 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guillotine ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... A blade is the flat part of a tool or weapon that normally has a cutting edge and/or pointed end typically made of a metal, most recently, steel intentionally used to cut, stab, slice, throw, thrust, or strike an animate or inainimate object. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...

Contents

Development

The guillotine became infamous (and acquired its name) in France at the time of the French Revolution. However, guillotine-like devices, such as the Halifax Gibbet and Scottish Maiden seen on the right, existed and were used for executions in several European countries long before the French Revolution. The first documented use of The Maiden was in 1307 in Ireland,[1] and there are accounts of similar devices in Italy and Switzerland dating back to the 15th century. However, the French developed the machine further and became the first nation to use it as a standard execution method. Infamy, from INFAMIA, the Latin antonym of Fama (fame), means: -a negative reputation (but high profile, in modern speech often considered as a form of celebrity), as in crime, immorality, cruelty . ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Halifax Gibbet in the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, was an early guillotine. ... This article is about the country. ... The Maiden The maiden (also known as the Scottish maiden) was a gibbet (primitive type of guillotine) used as a means of execution in Scotland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

Portrait of Dr. Guillotin
The Maiden, an older Scottish design. This example is an exhibit at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh
The Maiden, an older Scottish design. This example is an exhibit at the Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh

In August 1788 France’s High Executioner Charles-Henri Sanson, while attempting to execute a prisoner by breaking on the wheel, was assaulted by a mob who freed the prisoner and destroyed and burned the wheel. Sensing the growing discontent Louis XVI banned the use of the wheel.[2] In 1791 as the French Revolution progressed, the National Assembly (at the suggestion of Assembly member Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin) sought a new method to be used on all condemned people regardless of class. Their concerns contributed to the idea that capital punishment’s purpose was the ending of life instead of the infliction of pain.[2] A committee was formed under Dr. Antoine Louis, physician to the King and Secretary to the Academy of Surgery.[2] Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, a professor of anatomy at the facility of medicine in Paris, was also on the committee. The group was influenced by the Italian Mannaia (or Mannaja), the Scottish Maiden, and the Halifax Gibbet. While these prior instruments usually crushed the neck or used blunt force to take off a head, their device used a crescent blade and used a lunette (a hinged two part yoke to immobilize the victim’s neck).[2] An apocryphal story claims that King Louis XVI (an amateur locksmith) recommended a triangular blade with a beveled edge be used instead of a crescent blade.[2] On April 25, 1792 the first victim of the device was a thief and assassin named Jacques Nicolas Pelletier. The crowds marveled at the machine’s speed and precision.[2] Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Portrait of Dr. Guillotine This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2496, 488 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Guillotine Maiden (beheading) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2496, 488 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Guillotine Maiden (beheading) ... The Maiden The maiden (also known as the Scottish maiden) was a gibbet (primitive type of guillotine) used as a means of execution in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... The Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a museum dedicated to the history, people and culture of Scotland. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Charles Henri Sanson (1739 - 1806), public executioner of Paris from 1788 to 1795, was the great grandson of Charles Sanson de Longval (born before 1658, died in 1707), who received the office of executeur des hautes oeuvres de Paris in 1688, which became hereditary in his family. ... The breaking wheel (also known as the Catherine wheel; originally, the whele) was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The National Assembly is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Portrait of Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin (May 28, 1738 – March 26, 1814) did not invent the guillotine, but on October 10, 1789 proposed the use of a mechanical device to carry out death penalties in France. ... Antoine Louis (February 13, 1723 - May 20, 1792) was a French surgeon and physiologist who was born in Metz. ... The Maiden The maiden (also known as the Scottish maiden) was a gibbet (primitive type of guillotine) used as a means of execution in Scotland. ... The Halifax Gibbet in the town of Halifax, West Yorkshire, was an early guillotine. ...


The basis for the machine's success was the belief that it was a humane form of execution, contrasting with the methods used in pre-revolutionary, ancien régime (old regime) France. In France, before the guillotine, members of the nobility were beheaded with a sword or axe, while commoners were usually hanged, a form of death that could take minutes or longer - other more gruesome methods of executions were also used, such as the wheel, burning at the stake, etc. In the case of decapitation, it also sometimes took repeated blows to sever the head completely. The condemned or the family of the condemned would sometimes pay the executioner to ensure that the blade was sharp in order to provide for a quick and relatively painless death. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The breaking wheel (also known as the Catherine wheel; originally, the whele) was a torturous capital punishment device used in the Middle Ages and early modern times for public execution by cudgeling to death. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake (execution of individuals by fire. ...


The guillotine was thus perceived to deliver an immediate death without risk of misses. Furthermore, having only one method of execution was seen as an expression of equality among citizens. The guillotine was adopted as the official means of execution on March 20, 1792. The guillotine was from then on the only legal execution method in France until the abolition of the death penalty in 1981, apart from certain crimes against the security of the state, which entailed execution by firing squad. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ...


Although Guillotin actually contributed little to the machine’s design, it was his name that it would carry throughout history.[2] Antoine Louis (1723–1792), member of the Académie Chirurgicale, developed the concept put forward by Guillotin, and it was from his design that the first guillotine was built. The guillotine was first called louison or louisette, but the press preferred guillotine as it had a nicer ring to it. Antoine Louis (February 13, 1723 - May 20, 1792) was a French surgeon and physiologist who was born in Metz. ...


When Guillotin himself died, it wasn't on his namesake as legend would have it, but instead of natural causes on May 26, 1814. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In France

The Reign of Terror

The period from June 1793 to July 1794 in France is known as the Reign of Terror or simply "the Terror". The upheaval following the overthrow of the monarchy, fear of invasion by foreign monarchist powers and fear of counterrevolution from pro-monarchy parties within France all combined to throw the nation into chaos and the government into frenzied paranoia. Most of the democratic reforms of the revolution were suspended and wholesale executions by guillotine began. Former King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793. Maximilien Robespierre became one of the most powerful men in the government, and the figure most associated with the Terror. The Revolutionary Tribunal sentenced thousands to the guillotine. Nobility and commoners, intellectuals, politicians and prostitutes,[citation needed] all were liable to be executed on little or no grounds; suspicion of "crimes against liberty" was enough to earn one an appointment with "Madame Guillotine" (also referred to as "The National Razor"). Estimates of the death toll range between 15,000 and 40,000.[citation needed] In July 1794, Robespierre himself was guillotined. For the Doctor Who British TV serial, see The Reign of Terror (Doctor Who). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A counterrevolutionary is anyone who opposes a revolution, particularly those who act after a revolution to try to overturn or reverse it, in full or in part. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... The Revolutionary Tribunal (French: Tribunal révolutionnaire) was a court which was instituted in Paris by the Convention during the French Revolution for the trial of political offenders, and became one of the most powerful engines of the Terror. ... The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non...

Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1897
Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1897

At this time, Paris executions were carried out in the Place de la Revolution (former Place Louis XV and current Place de la Concorde) (near the Louvre); the guillotine stood in the corner near the Hôtel Crillon where the statue of Brest can be found today. Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1878 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public guillotining in Lons-le-Saunier, 1878 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lons-le-Saunier is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Jura département. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


For a time, executions by guillotine were a popular entertainment that attracted great crowds of spectators. Vendors would sell programs listing the names of those scheduled to die. Regulars would come day after day and vie for the best seats. Parents would bring their children. By the end of the Terror the crowds had thinned drastically. Excessive repetition had staled even this most grisly of entertainments, and audiences grew bored.


The guillotine retired

The last public guillotining was of Eugène Weidmann, who was convicted of six murders. He was beheaded on June 17, 1939, outside the prison Saint-Pierre rue Georges Clemenceau 5 at Versailles, which is now the Palais de Justice. The allegedly scandalous behaviour of some of the onlookers on this occasion, and an incorrect assembly of the apparatus, as well as the fact it was secretly filmed, caused the authorities to decide that executions in the future were to take place in the prison courtyard. Jules-Henri Desfourneaux, the presiding "number one" executioner at this time was variously reported as slow, possibly drunk and indecisive, certainly a far cry from his well regarded immediate predecessor Anatole Deibler. He was also prone to arguing with his cousin and "number two" Andre Obrecht which led to the latter's resignation on two separate occasions, the last involving a fist-fight between the pair after an execution. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ...


The guillotine remained the official method of execution in France until France abolished the death penalty in 1981. The last guillotining in France was that of torture-murderer Hamida Djandoubi on September 10, 1977. Hamida Djandoubi (1949?–10 September 1977) was the last person to be guillotined in France, at Baumettes Prison in Marseille. ...


Outside France

German Fallbeil of 1854, MunichHistoric replica 1:6 scale
German Fallbeil of 1854, Munich
Historic replica 1:6 scale

Just as there were guillotine-like devices in countries other than France before 1792, similarly other countries, especially in Europe, employed this method of execution into modern times. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 345 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (553 × 960 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 345 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (553 × 960 pixel, file size: 400 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


A notable example is Germany, where the guillotine is known in German as Fallbeil ("falling axe"). It has been used in various German states since the 17th century, becoming the usual method of execution in Napoleonic times in many parts of Germany. Guillotine and firing squad were the legal methods of execution in German Empire (1871-1918) and Weimar Republic (1919-1933). For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature...


The original German guillotines resembled the French Berger 1872 model but eventually evolved into more specialised machines largely built of metal with a much heavier blade enabling shorter uprights to be used. Accompanied by a more efficient blade recovery system and the eventual removal of the tilting board (or bascule) this allowed a quicker turn-around time between executions, the victim being decapitated either face up or down depending on how the executioner predicted they would react to the sight of the machine. Those deemed likely to struggle were backed up from behind a curtain to shield their view of the device.


In 1933 Hitler had a guillotine constructed and tested. He was impressed enough to order 20 more constructed and pressed into immediate service.[2] Nazi records indicate that between 1933 and 1945 16,500 people were executed in Germany by this method.[2] In Nazi Germany beheading by guillotine was the usual method of executing convicted criminals as opposed to political enemies, who were usually either hanged or shot. An exception would be the six members of the White Rose anti-Nazi resistance organization, who were beheaded in 1943. The last execution in Germany, other than in East Germany, occurred on 11 May 1949, when 24 year old Berthold Wehmeyer was beheaded for murder and robbery in Moabit prison in West Berlin. When West Germany was formed in 1949, its constitution forbade the death penalty; East Germany abolished it in 1987 and Austria in 1968. In Sweden, where beheading was the mandatory method of execution, the guillotine was used for its last execution in 1910 in Långholmen prison, Stockholm. Although the guillotine has never been used in the United States as a legal method of execution (it had been considered in the 19th century before introduction of the electric chair), in 1996 Georgia state legislator Doug Teper proposed the guillotine as a replacement for the electric chair as the state's method of execution to enable the convicts to act as organ donors. The proposal was not adopted. This article is about the German resistance movement. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin Language(s) German Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1949 – 1960 Wilhelm Pieck  - 1960 – 1973 Walter Ulbricht  - 1973 – 1976 Willi Stoph  - 1976 – 1989 Erich Honecker  - 1989 Egon Krenz  - 1989 - 1990 Manfred Gerlach Head of Government  - 1949 – 1964 Otto Grotewohl  - 1964 – 1973 Willi Stoph... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Moabit is a district in the center of Berlin. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... LÃ¥ngholmen prison in July 2006. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... The electric chair is an execution method in which the person being put to death is strapped to a chair and electrocuted through electrodes placed on the body. ... Organ donationcan only be peformed by untrained workers who do not have a drivers license and are poor. ...


Living heads

From its first use, there has been debate as to whether the guillotine always provided as swift a death as Dr Guillotin hoped. With previous methods of execution, there was little concern about the suffering inflicted. But where the guillotine was invented specifically to be "humane," the issue was seriously considered. Furthermore, there is the possibility that the very swiftness of the guillotine only prolonged the victim's suffering. The blade cuts quickly enough so that there is relatively little impact on the brain case, and perhaps less likelihood of immediate unconsciousness than with a more violent decapitation, or long-drop hanging. Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ...

Execution of Languille in 1905
Execution of Languille in 1905

Audiences to guillotinings told numerous stories of blinking eyelids, moving eyes, movement of the mouth, even an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on the face of the decapitated Charlotte Corday when her cheek was slapped. Anatomists and other scientists in several countries have tried to perform more definitive experiments on severed human heads as recently as 1956. Inevitably the evidence is only anecdotal. What appears to be a head responding to the sound of its name, or to the pain of a pinprick, may be only random muscle twitching or automatic reflex action, with no awareness involved. At worst, it seems that the massive drop in cerebral blood pressure would cause a victim to lose consciousness in several seconds.[3] Image File history File links Execution_of_Languille_in_1905. ... Image File history File links Execution_of_Languille_in_1905. ... Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, painted 1860: Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, represented in the wall-map. ...


The following report was written by a Dr. Beaurieux, who experimented with the head of a condemned prisoner by the name of Henri Languille, on June 28, 1905:[4] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Here, then, is what I was able to note immediately after the decapitation: the eyelids and lips of the guillotined man worked in irregularly rhythmic contractions for about five or six seconds. This phenomenon has been remarked by all those finding themselves in the same conditions as myself for observing what happens after the severing of the neck...


I waited for several seconds. The spasmodic movements ceased. [...] It was then that I called in a strong, sharp voice: 'Languille!' I saw the eyelids slowly lift up, without any spasmodic contractions – I insist advisedly on this peculiarity – but with an even movement, quite distinct and normal, such as happens in everyday life, with people awakened or torn from their thoughts.


Next Languille's eyes very definitely fixed themselves on mine and the pupils focused themselves. I was not, then, dealing with the sort of vague dull look without any expression, that can be observed any day in dying people to whom one speaks: I was dealing with undeniably living eyes which were looking at me. After several seconds, the eyelids closed again[...].


It was at that point that I called out again and, once more, without any spasm, slowly, the eyelids lifted and undeniably living eyes fixed themselves on mine with perhaps even more penetration than the first time. Then there was a further closing of the eyelids, but now less complete. I attempted the effect of a third call; there was no further movement – and the eyes took on the glazed look which they have in the dead.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Guillotine

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Plötzensee is a lake in Berlin with an area of 7. ... At one time the death penalty was used in almost every part of the globe; but over the last few decades many countries have abolished it. ...

References

  1. ^ Robertson, Patrick The Book of Firsts Clarkson Potter, 1974.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Executive Producer Don Cambou. (2001). Modern Marvels: Death Devices. A&E Television Networks.
  3. ^ Excerpt from British Medical Journal, Vol 294: February, 1987, quoting Proges Medical of July 9, 1886, on the subject of research into "living heads".
  4. ^ Dr. Beaurieux's Report. The History of the Guillotine.
  • Gerould, Daniel (1992). Guillotine; Its Legend and Lore. Blast Books. ISBN 0-922233-02-0. 

is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

  • The Guillotine Headquarters with a gallery, history, name list, and quiz.
  • L'art de bien couper a French site with a quite complete list of guillotined criminals, pictures, history.
  • Bois de justice History of the guillotine, construction details, with rare photos (English)
  • Fabricius, Jørn. The Guillotine Headquarters.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guillotine - LoveToKnow 1911 (454 words)
GUILLOTINE, the instrument for inflicting capital punishment by decapitation, introduced into France at the period of the Revolution.
There is still preserved in the antiquarian museum of Edinburgh the rude guillotine called the "maiden" by which the regent Morton was decapitated in 1581.
The connexion of the instrument with the horrors of the Revolution has hindered its introduction into other countries, but in 1853 it was adopted under the name of Fallschwert or Fallbeil by the kingdom of Saxony; and it is used for the execution of sentences of death in France, Belgium and some parts of Germany.
Guillotine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1756 words)
The guillotine was adopted as the official means of execution on the 20 March 1792.
The guillotine was from then on the only legal execution method in France until the abolition of the death penalty in 1981, apart from certain crimes against the security of the state, which entailed execution by firing squad.
Audiences to guillotinings told numerous stories of blinking eyelids, moving eyes, movement of the mouth, even an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on the face of the decapitated Charlotte Corday when her cheek was slapped.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m