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Encyclopedia > Guild

A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. The earliest guilds are believed to have been formed in India circa 3800 BC, and though they are not as commonplace as they were a few centuries ago, many guilds continue to flourish around the world today. An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... (39th century BC - 38th century BC - 37th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Crete September 6, 3761 BC - First day of the Hebrew Calendar (the Creation) Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Categories: Centuries | 38th century BC | 4th millennium BC ...

Contents

Early guilds

In pre-industrial cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on their trades. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen. The earliest craftsmen's organizations are purported to have been formed in India during the Veda-period from 2000 - 500 BC. An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... // A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ...


During the Indian Gupta-period (300 - 600 AD) the craftmen's associations were known as shreni. Greek organizations in Ptolemaic Egypt were called koinon. Starting from their third century B.C.E. origins the Roman collegia spread with the extension of the Empire. The Chinese hanghui probably existed already during the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 220), but certainly they were present in the Sui Dynasty (589 - 618 AD). Roman craftsmen's organizations continued to develop in Italy of the Middle Ages under the name ars. In Germany they are first mentioned in the tenth century. The German name is Zunft (plural Zünfte). Métiers in France and craft gilds in England emerged in the twelfth century. Craft organizations (senf, sinf) stemmed from the tenth century in Iran, and were seen to spread also in Arabia and Turkish regions under the name futuwwah or fütüvvet. 900 of the carvers of Benin are said to have founded their own organization. In the neighbouring tribes of Yoruba and Nupe the organizations were given the names egbe and efakó. Gupta (Sanskrit: Goptri meaning military governor) is one of the most common surnames in northern India. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD  - Abdication to Cao... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ...


Guilds in the Muslim world

Islamic civilization extended the notion of guilds to the artisan as well — most notably to the warraqeen, or "those who work with paper." Early Muslims were heavily engaged in translating and absorbing all ilm ("knowledge") from all other known civilizations as far east as China. Critically analyzing, accepting, rejecting, improving and codifying knowledge from other cultures became a key activity, and a knowledge industry as presently understood began to evolve. By the beginning of the 9th century, paper had become the standard medium of written communication, and most warraqeen were engaged in paper-making, book-selling, and taking the dictation of authors, to whom they were obliged to pay royalties on works, and who had final discretion on the contents. The standard means of presentation of a new work was its public dictation in a mosque or madrassah in front of many scholars and students, and a high degree of professional respect was required to ensure that other warraqeen did not simply make and sell copies, or that authors did not lose faith in the warraqeen or this system of publication. Thus the organization of the warraqeen was in effect an early guild. An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... Early Muslim philosophy can be starkly divided into four clear sets of influences: First, the life of Muhammad or sira which generated both the Quran (revelation) and hadith (his daily utterances and discourses on social and legal matters), during which philosophy was defined by acceptance or rejection of his... Ilm or ILM can refer to: ilm (Arabic), Arabic for knowledge, as an Islamic term it refers to knowledge of Islam. ... Personification of knowledge (Greek Επιστημη, Episteme) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Madrassa in the Gambia The word madrassa in the Arabic language (and other languages of the Islamic nations such as Persian, Turkish, Indonesian etc. ...


Local guilds also served to safeguard artisans from the appropriation of their skills: The publication industry that spanned the Muslim empire, from the first works under the warraqeen system in 874 and up to the 15th century, produced tens of thousands of books per year. A culture of instructional capital flourished, with groups of respected artisans spreading their work to other artisans elsewhere, who could in turn copy it and perhaps "pass it off" as the original, thereby exploiting the social capital built up at great expense by the originators of techniques. Artisans began to take various measures to protect their proprietary interests, and restrict access to techniques, materials, and markets. Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ... Passing off is a common law tort which can be used to enforce unregistered trademark rights. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ...


European history

In the Early Middle Ages most of the Roman craft organizations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers. Gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche (1987 pp 431ff) remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship. Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ...


The early egalitarian communities called "guilds" (for the gold deposited in their common funds) were denounced by Catholic clergy for their "conjurations"—the binding oaths sworn among artisans to support one another in adversity and back one another in feuds or in business ventures. The occasion for the drunken banquets at which these oaths were made was December 26, the pagan feast of Jul: Bishop Hincmar, in 858, sought vainly to Christianize them (Rouche 1987 p 432). December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Yule is the winter solstice celebration of the Scandinavian Norse mythology and Germanic pagans. ... Hincmar (c. ...


By about 1100 European guilds (or gilds) and livery companies began their medieval evolution into an approximate equivalent to modern-day business organizations such as institutes or consortiums. The guilds were termed corps de métiers in France, where the more familiar term corporations did not appear until the Le Chapelier Law of 1791 that abolished them, according to Fernand Braudel[1] The guild system reached a mature state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in the German cities into the nineteenth century. The latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Hispania that signalled the progress of the Reconquista: Barcelona (1301), Valencia (1332) and Toledo (1426). Not all city economies were controlled by guilds; some cities were "free". Where guilds were in control they shaped labour, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, journeyer, and eventually to widely-recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge. As production became more specialized, trade guilds were divided and subdivided, eliciting the squabbles over jurisdiction that produced the paperwork by which economic historians trace their development: there were 101 trades in Paris by 1260 (Braudel), and earlier in the century the metalworking guilds of Nuremberg were already divided among dozens of independent trades, in the boom economy of the thirteenth century. In Ghent as in Florence the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, and to urbanization. Before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business. Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... An institute is a permanent organizational body created for a certain purpose. ... A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organisations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal. ... Passed by the National Assembly during the first phase of the French Revolution, the Le Chapelier Law, banning trade unions, enraged the Sans-culottes, who called for an end to the National Assembly. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ... If youre looking for the TV show, see The Apprentice. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... A journeyman is a tradesman or craftsman who may well have completed an apprenticeship but is not yet able to set up their own workshop as a master. ... // A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild. ... // A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates , , Area 156. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats, alpacas, llamas and rabbits may also... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity out of which it is made. ...

A center of urban government: the Guildhall, London (engraving, ca 1805)
A center of urban government: the Guildhall, London (engraving, ca 1805)

The guild was at the center of European handicraft organization into the sixteenth century. In France, a resurgence of the guilds in the second half of the seventeenth century is symptomatic of the monarchy's concerns to impose unity, control production and reap the benefits of transparent structure in the shape of more efficient taxation. Image File history File links Guildhall. ... Image File history File links Guildhall. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


The guilds were identified with organizations enjoying certain privileges (letters patent), usually issued by the king or state and overseen by local town business authorities (some kind of chamber of commerce). These were the predecessors of the modern patent and trademark system. The guilds also maintained funds in order to support infirm or elderly members, as well as widows and orphans of guild members, funeral benefits, and a 'tramping' allowance for those needing to travel to find work. As the guild system of the City of London decayed during the seventeenth century, the Livery Companies devolved into mutual assistance fraternities along such lines. A privilege—etymologically private law or law relating to a specific individual—is an honour, or permissive activity granted by another person or a government. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... “King” redirects here. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ... The City of London is a geographically-small city within Greater London, England. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ...


Like their Muslim predecessors, European guilds imposed long standardized periods of apprenticeship, and made it difficult for those lacking the capital to set up for themselves or without the approval of their peers to gain access to materials or knowledge, or to sell into certain markets, an area that equally dominated the guilds' concerns. These are defining characteristics of mercantilism in economics, which dominated most European thinking about political economy until the rise of classical economics. Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ...


The guild system survived the emergence of early capitalists, which began to divide guild members into "haves" and dependent "have-nots". The civil struggles that characterize the fourteenth century towns and cities were struggles in part between the greater guilds and the lesser artisanal guilds, which depended on piecework. "In Florence, they were openly distinguished: the Arti maggiori and the Arti minori—already there was a popolo grasso and a popolo magro" (Braudel p. 316). Fiercer struggles were those between essentially conservative guilds and the merchant class, which increasingly came to control the means of production and the capital that could be ventured in expansive schemes, often under the rules of guilds of their own. German social historians trace the Zunftrevolution, the urban revolution of guildmembers against a controlling urban patriciate, sometimes reading into them, however, perceived foretastes of the class struggles of the nineteenth century. Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... It has been suggested that piece rate be merged into this article or section. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ...


In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps even their looms, by the capitalist who reaped the profits. Such a dispersed system could not so easily be controlled where there was a vigorous local market for the raw materials: wool was easily available in sheep-rearing regions, whereas silk was not. The use of the term has expanded, and is used to refer to any event which allows a large number of people to lalalawork part time. ...


Organization

The structures of the craftsmen's associations tended everywhere in similar directions: a governing body, assisting functionaries and the members' assembly. The governing body consisted of the leader and deputies. In Ptolemeic Egypt the presidents were known as presbyter, in Roman Egypt as proestotes, egoymenos or archonelates, in Byzantine Egypt epistates, in the Roman Empire as decurio, in Florence of the Middle Ages as consul, officialis or rector, in France as consul, recteur, baile or surposé, in Germany Zunftmeister or Kerzenmeister, in England alderman, graceman or master, in Iran as rish safid or pishavaran, in India as adhyaksha, mukhya, pamukkha or jettaka, in Tibet as dbu chen mo, in China as hangshou, hangtou or hanglao, in the West African Yoruba region as bale or baba egbe and in the Nupe region as dakodza, muku or ndakó, depending on the type of craft.


The guild was made up by experienced and confirmed experts in their field of handicraft. They were called master craftsmen. Before a new employee could rise to the level of mastery, he had to go through a schooling period during which he was first called an apprentice. After this period he could rise to the level of journeyman. Apprentices would typically not learn more than the most basic techniques until they were trusted by their peers to keep the guild's or company's secrets. // A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... This article is about the tradesperson. ...


Like journey, the distance that could be travelled in a day, the title 'journeyman' derives from the French words for 'day' (jour and journée) from which came the middle English word journei. Journeymen were generally paid by the day and were thus day laborers. After being employed by a master for several years, and after producing a qualifying piece of work, the apprentice was granted the rank of journeyman and was given documents (letters or certificates from his master and/or the guild itself) which certified him as a journeyman and entitled him to travel to other towns and countries to learn the art from other masters. These journeys could span large parts of Europe and were an unofficial way of communicating new methods and techniques.


After this journey and several years of experience, a journeyman could be received as master craftsman. This would require the approval of all masters of a guild, a donation of money and other goods, and in many practical handicrafts the production of a so-called masterpiece, which would illustrate the abilities of the aspiring master craftsman. For other uses, see Masterpiece (disambiguation). ...


The medieval guild was offered letters patent (usually from the king) and held a monopoly on its trade in the town in which it operated: handicraft workers were forbidden by law to run any business if they were not members of a guild, and only masters were allowed to be members of a guild. Before these privileges were legislated, these groups of handicraft workers were simply called 'handicraft associations'.


The town authorities were represented in the guild meetings and thus had a means of controlling the handicraft activities. This was important since towns very often depended on a good reputation for export of a narrow range of products, on which not only the guild's, but the town's, reputation depended. Controls on the association of physical locations to well-known exported products, e.g. wine from the Champagne and Bordeaux regions of France, tin-glazed earthenwares from certain cities in Holland, lace from Chantilly, etc., helped to establish a town's place in global commerce — this led to modern trademarks. Champagne is one of the traditional provinces of France, a region of France that is best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the regions name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with a population of 6. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ... Chantilly may refer to: Chantilly, a French city located in the Oise département in the Picardie région. ... A trademark or trade mark[1] is a distinctive sign of some kind which is used by an individual, business organization or other legal entity to uniquely identify the source of its products and/or services to consumers, and to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities. ...


In many German towns, the more powerful guilds attempted to influence or even control town authorities. In the 14th century, this led to numerous bloody uprisings, during which the guilds dissolved town councils and detained patricians in an attempt to increase their influence. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


The example of Chester

In Chester England the earl had given a charter to the guild merchants at the end of the 12th century assuring them of the exclusive rights for retail sales within the city (excepting fairs and some markets where 'foreigners' could pay for the privilege of selling). For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...


Guildsmen had to be freemen of the city. They had to take an oath to serve the city and the king. There were four ways to become a freeman: by apprenticeship of five or seven years, by being born as the son of a freeman (in 1453 dues were remitted to a token 10s1/2d), by purchasing membership (in 1453 this was 26s8d), or by becoming an honorary freeman as a gift of the assembly.


As well as running local government, by electing the 78 common councillors, the guilds took responsibility for the welfare of their members and their families. They put on the Chester Mystery Plays and the Chester Midsummer Watch Parade. Guildsmen had to attend meetings, often in local inns or in the towers on the city walls. No person of any 'arte, mystery syence, occupacion, or crafte' could 'intermeddle' or practice another trade. In the 15th century the Innkeepers threatened to brew their own beer and the Brewers took them to court and won. The Chester Mystery Plays are a cycle of mystery plays from the 14th century, and the most complete set of such plays in existence. ... History The Chester Midsummer Watch Parade began in 1498. ...


Charters of incorporation were given to each guild, the earliest to the Bakers in 1462. Of the original 25, 19 companies were recorded in 1475. In 1533 another company formed. This was the Merchant Venturers who were the only traders allowed to merchandise in foreign ports and, at first, they were not able to do any manual trade or retail in the city.


In 1694 rules were regularly being broken and it was ordered that 'No man shall have any commerce, Trade or Dealing with any man that shall sett up Stale (stall) or Hake in the street of ye said Citie neither at the ffaire or market but to dispose of his goods at his shoppe or house he keeps all the yeare'. But this was the beginning of the end for the guild's monopoly of city trade.


Fall of the guilds

Despite its advantages for agricultural and artisan producers, the guild became a target of much criticism towards the end of the 1700s and the beginning of the 1800s. They were believed to oppose free trade and hinder technological innovation, technology transfer and business development. According to several accounts of this time, guilds became increasingly involved in simple territorial struggles against each other and against free practitioners of their arts, but the neutrality of these claims is doubted. It may be propaganda. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Look up Innovation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technology transfer is the process of developing practical applications for the results of scientific research. ... Business development contains a number of techniques designed to grow an economic enterprise. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from during the Cultural Revolution. ...

An example of the last of the British Guilds meeting rooms c1820
An example of the last of the British Guilds meeting rooms c1820

Two of the most outspoken critics of the guild system were Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, and all over Europe a tendency to oppose government control over trades in favour of laissez-faire free market systems was growing rapidly and making its way into the political and legal system. Karl Marx in his Communist Manifesto also criticized the guild system for its rigid gradation of social rank and the relation of oppressor/oppressed entailed by this system. From this time comes the low regard in which some people hold the guilds to this day. For example, Smith writes in The Wealth of Nations (Book I, Chapter X, paragraph 72): Image File history File linksMetadata Tinguild. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tinguild. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Adam Smith FRSE (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ... Adam Smith An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776 during the Scottish Enlightenment. ...

It is to prevent this reduction of price, and consequently of wages and profit, by restraining that free competition which would most certainly occasion it, that all corporations, and the greater part of corporation laws, have been established. (...) and when any particular class of artificers or traders thought proper to act as a corporation without a charter, such adulterine guilds, as they were called, were not always disfranchised upon that account, but obliged to fine annually to the king for permission to exercise their usurped privileges.

In part due to their own inability to control unruly corporate behavior, the tide turned against the guilds. Corporate redirects here. ...


Because of industrialization and modernization of the trade and industry, and the rise of powerful nation-states that could directly issue patent and copyright protections — often revealing the trade secrets — the guilds' power faded. After the French Revolution they fell in most European nations through the 1800s, as the guild system was disbanded and replaced by free trade laws. By that time, many former handicraft workers had been forced to seek employment in the emerging manufacturing industries, using not closely guarded techniques but standardized methods controlled by corporations. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors within the same industry or profession. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Corporate redirects here. ...


This was not uniformly viewed as a public good: Karl Marx criticized the alienation of the worker from the products of work that this created, and the exploitation possible since materials and hours of work were closely controlled by the owners of the new, large scale means of production. In economics, a public good is a good that is non-rivalrous and non-excludable. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Marxs theory of alienation (Entfremdung in German), as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally belong together, or to antagonism between things that are properly in harmony. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ...


Influence of guilds

Guilds are sometimes said to be the precursors of modern trade unions, and also, paradoxically, of some aspects of the modern corporation. Guilds, however, were groups of self-employed skilled craftsmen with ownership and control over the materials and tools they needed to produce their goods. Guilds were, in other words, small business associations and thus had very little in common with trade unions. If anything, guilds were more like cartels than they were like trade unions (Olson 1982). However, the journeymen organizations, which were at the time illegal, may have been influential. A trade union or labour union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Corporate redirects here. ... A cartel is a group of producers whose goal it is to fix prices, to limit supply and to limit competition. ...


The exclusive privilege of a guild to produce certain goods or provide certain services was similar in spirit and character with the original patent systems that surfaced in England in 1624. These systems played a role in ending the guilds' dominance, as trade secret methods were superseded by modern firms directly revealing their techniques, and counting on the state to enforce their legal monopoly. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention. ... Events January 24 - Alfonso Mendez, appointed by Pope Gregory XV as Prelate of Ethiopia, arrives at Massawa from Goa. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors within the same industry or profession. ... A monopoly (from the Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service, in other words a firm that has no competitors in its industry. ...


Some guild traditions still remain in a few handicrafts, in Europe especially among shoemakers and barbers. Some of the ritual traditions of the guilds were conserved in order organizations such as the Freemasons. These are, however, not very important economically except as reminders of the responsibilities of some trades toward the public. Shoemaking is a traditional career/craft, mostly superseded by industrial manufacture of footwear. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... Freemason and Freemasons redirect here. ...


Modern antitrust law could be said to be derived in some ways from the original statutes by which the guilds were abolished in Europe. This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ...


Modern guilds

Modern guilds exist in different forms around the world. In many European countries guilds have had a revival as local organisations for craftsmen, primarily in traditional skills. They may function as fora for developing competence and are often the local units of a national employers organization.


In the United States guilds exist in several fields. The Screen Actors Guild and Writers Guild of America are capable of exercising very strong control in Hollywood because a very strong and rigid system of intellectual property respect exists (as with some medieval trades). These guilds exclude other actors and writers who do not abide by the strict rules for competing within the film and television industry in America. The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... The Writers Guild of America (WGA) is the collective bargaining representative, or labor union, for writers in the motion picture and television industries in the United States. ... ...


Quilting guilds are also very common and are found in almost all areas of the United States. Quilting is a sewing method done either by hand, sewing machine or Longarm quilting system. ...


Real estate brokerage is an excellent example of a modern American guild. Telltale signs of guild behavior are on display in real estate brokerage: standard pricing (6% of the home price), strong affiliation among all practitioners, self-regulation (see National Association of Realtors), strong cultural identity (see Realtor), little price variation with quality differences, and traditional methods in use by all practitioners. In September 2005, the U.S. Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against the National Association of Realtors challenging NAR practices that, DOJ asserts, prevent competition from practitioners who use different methods. The DOJ and the Federal Trade Commission in 2005 advocated against state laws, supported by NAR, that disadvantage new kinds of brokers. For a description of the DOJ action, see [1]. U.S. v. National Assoc. of Realtors, U.S. District Court Norther District Illinois, Eastern Division, September 7, 2005, Civil Action No. 05C-5140. Look up realtor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Realtor is a U.S. registered trademark that identifies a real estate professional who is a member of the National Association of Realtors (NAR) and subscribes to its Code of Ethics. ...


The practice of law in the United States is also an example of modern guilds at work. Every state maintains its own Bar Association, supervised by that state's highest court. The court decides the criteria for being admitted to, and remaining a member of, the legal profession. In most states, every attorney must be a member of that state's Bar in order to practice law. State laws forbid any person from engaging in the unauthorized practice of law and practicing attorneys are subject to rules of professional conduct that are enforced by the state's high court. A bar association is a professional body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ...


Other associations which can be classified as guilds, though it isn't evident in their names, include the American Medical Association and the American Bar Association. The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... American Bar Associations Washington, DC office The American Bar Association (ABA) is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. ...


Scholars from the history of ideas have noticed that consultants play a part similar to that of the journeymen of the guild systems: they often travel a lot, work at many different companies and spread new practices and knowledge between companies and corporations. The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering...


Many professional organizations similarly resemble the guild structure. Professions such as architecture, engineering, and land surveying require varying lengths of apprenticeships before one can be granted a 'professional' certification. These certifications hold great legal weight and are required in most states as a prerequisite to doing business there.


Thomas Malone of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology champions a modern variant of the guild structure for modern "e-lancers", professionals who do mostly telework for multiple employers. Insurance including any professional liability, intellectual capital protections, an ethical code perhaps enforced by peer pressure and software, and other benefits of a strong association of producers of knowledge, benefit from economies of scale, and may prevent cut-throat competition that leads to inferior services undercutting prices. And, as with historical guilds, resist foreign competition. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private, coeducational research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Telecommuting, telework, or Working From Home (WFH) is a work arrangement in which employees enjoy flexibility in working location and hours (within limits). ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... Intellectual capital makes an organization worth more than its balance sheet value. ... In the context of a code adopted by a profession or by a governmental or quasi-governmental organ to regulate that profession, an ethical code may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which may dispense with difficult issues of what behavior is ethical. Some codes of ethics are... The increase in output from Q to Q1 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


The free software community has from time to time explored a guild-like structure to unite against competition from Microsoft, e.g. Advogato assigns journeyer and master ranks to those committing to work only or mostly on free software. Debian also publishes a list of what constitutes free software. // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Advogato is an online community site dedicated to free software development, created by Raph Levien. ... Debian is a project based around the development of a free, complete operating system through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without...


In the City of London, the ancient guilds survive as Livery Companies, most of which play a ceremonial role. Guilds also survive in the UK in Preston, Lancashire as the Preston Guild Merchant where among other celebrations descendants of Burgesses are still admitted into membership. The City of London is a geographically-small city within Greater London, England. ... Livery Companies are trade associations based in the City of London. ... This article is about Preston in Lancashire, England. ... The right to hold a Guild Merchant was conferred upon the Burgesses of Preston by a charter of 1179; the associated Preston Guild is a civic celebration held every 20 years. ...


In Australia there exists the Guild of Commercial Filmmakers, a collection of commercial, short film and feature filmmakers.


In online computer games players form groups called Player guilds who perform some of the functions of ancient guilds. They organize group activities, regulate member behavior, exclude non-conforming individuals, and react as a group when member safety or some aspect of guild life is threatened. In games where fictional "building" is possible they may cooperate on projects in their online world. The practice was taken from the Guilds in the quasi-medieval settings of the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. The first computer implementation was in the ground-breaking MUD Avalon. The first graphical online RPG to provide guilds was Neverwinter Nights, which ran from 1991 to 1997 on AOL. An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... In computer and video gaming, a clan or guild is a group of players who regularly play together in a particular multiplayer game. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... Dungeons & Dragons (abbreviated as D&D or DnD) is a fantasy role-playing game (RPG) currently published by Wizards of the Coast. ... In computer gaming, a MUD (Multi-User Dungeon, Domain or Dimension) is a multi-player computer game that combines elements of role-playing games, hack and slash style computer games and social chat rooms. ... Avalon, the Legend Lives, was the first fully commercial MUD in existence. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Neverwinter Nights is the first graphical Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMORPG), which ran from 1991 to 1997 on AOL. It is the predecessor to BioWares 2002 game, Neverwinter Nights. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that AOL search data scandal be merged into this article or section. ...


Economic Survival of Guilds

Due to guild expenses (such as advertising costs), membership fees were often charged heavily to keep the guild running.


See also

Portal:Organized Labour
Organized Labour Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A trade union or labour union is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... Jan Gossaert, , c. ...

References

  • Dolven, Arne S.: Vocational Education in Europe in Dolven, Arne S. and Gunnar Pedersen (eds): Fagopplaeringsboka 2004, Oslo: Kommuneforlaget 2004 (in Norwegian)
  • Eggerer, Elmar W.: Sworn Brethren and Sistren — Britische Gilden und Zünfte von der normannischen Eroberung bis 1603, München 1993 (in German)
  • Söderlund, Ernst: Den svenska arbetarklassens historia — Hantverkarna II frihetstiden och den gustavianska tiden Stockholm 1949 (in Swedish)
  • Rouche, Michel, "Private life conquers state and society," in A History of Private Life vol I, Paul Veyne, editor, Harvard University Press 1987 ISBN 0-674-39974-9
  • Thomas Weyrauch: Handwerkerorganisationen in der vorindustriellen Stadt. Wettenberg/Germany (VVB Laufersweiler) 1996 ISBN 3-930954-02-8
  • Thomas Weyrauch: Craftsmen and their Associations in Asia, Africa and Europe. Wettenberg/Germany (VVB Laufersweiler) 1999 ISBN 3-89687-537-X

Further reading

  • Gordon Emery, Curious Chester (1999) ISBN 1-872265-94-4
  • Liza Picard, Elizabeth's London (2003) ISBN 0-297-60729-4
  • Steven Epstein, Wage Labor & Guilds In Medieval Europe (1991) ISBN 0-8078-4498-5
  • Mancur Olson, The rise and decline of natino: economic growth, staglaction, and social rigidities (New Haven & London 1982).
  • St. Eloy's Hospice, the last Guild House in Utrecht (the Netherlands)

Professor Mancur Olson (1932 - February 19, 1998) was a leading social scientist who, at the time of his death, worked at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... Entrance of St. ... A house in Pathanapuram, Kerala (India). ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guild - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3119 words)
One's view of guilds tends to be heavily colored by one's view of political economy, since the whole history of trade, technology, intellectual property, regulated professions, social security, and professional ethics are entwined with the history of the guilds in Europe.
In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps even their looms, by the capitalist who reaped the profits.
The medieval guild was offered a letters patent (usually from the king) and held an oligopoly on its trade in the town in which it operated: handicraft workers were forbidden by law to run any business if they were not members of a guild, and only masters were allowed to be members of a guild.
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In the world of Guild Wars, the men are men, and the women are runway models.
While combat in Guild Wars rewards skillful planning and coordination between players, many of the best Guild Wars players will surely be the ones who invest the largest number of hours into the game--not only honing their talents, but also seeking out the best skills and equipment in the role-playing portion.
Guild Wars Factions is a new chapter in the Guild Wars saga, and it includes new regions, professions, skills, missions and enemies, as well as additional PvP and guild options.
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