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Encyclopedia > Guided missile

A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. In typical usage the term "missile" refers to guided rockets, and "rockets" to unguided ones. The differences between the two may be fairly minor other than the guidance system. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Guided missile be merged into this article or section. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... A Soyuz rocket, at Baikonur launch pad. ...


The first missiles to be used operationally were a series of German missiles of WW2. Most famous of these are the V1 and V2, both of which used a simple mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route. Less well known were a series of anti-shipping and anti-aircraft missiles, typically based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator. During World War II, Germany developed many missile systems, some of which were extremely advanced. ... The V-1 (German: Vergeltungswaffe 1) was the first guided missile used in war and the forerunner of todays cruise missile. ... The Vergeltungswaffe 2 (V-2) (Reprisal weapon 2 Propaganda name given by Joseph Goebbels) , also known, in the Development Process as the A4 (Aggregat 1-4), was the first and till date has the most lethal combat record of any ballistic missile. ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... This radio control airplane is carrying a scale model of X-33 and is taking part in NASA research. ...

Contents

Basic roles

Ballistic missiles

After the boost-stage ballistic missiles follow a trajectory mainly determined by ballistics, the guidance is for relatively small deviations from that. Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ... Ballistics (gr. ...


The V2 had demonstrated that a ballistic missile could deliver a warhead to a target city with no possibility of interception, and the introduction of nuclear weapons meant it could do useful damage when it arrived. The accuracy of these systems was fairly poor, but post-war development by most military forces improved the basic inertial platform concept to the point where it could be used as the guidance system on ICBMs flying thousands of miles. Today the ballistic missile represents the only strategic deterrent in most military forces; the USAFs continued support of manned bombers is considered by some to be entirely political in nature. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War. ... Seal of the Air Force. ...


Cruise missiles

The V1 had been successfully intercepted during the war, but this did not make the cruise missile concept entirely useless. After the war the US deployed a small number of nuclear armed cruise missiles in Germany, but these were considered to be of limited usefulness. Continued research into much longer ranged and faster versions led to the US's Navaho missile, and its Soviet counterparts, the Burya and Buran cruise missile. However these were rendered largely obsolete by the ICBM, and none was used operationally. Instead shorter-range developments have become widely used as highly accurate attack systems, such as the US Tomahawk missile. The term V1 can refer to: The V-1 flying bomb, the first modern cruise missile, developed by the German Luftwaffe during the Second World War Decision speed, where an aircraft pilot must opt to abort the take-off or continue the run for lift-off at V2 speed. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Navaho missile on launch pad The SM-64 Navaho was the last-built in a line of intermediate-range ballistic missiles designed by North American Aviation in the late 1950s for the U.S. Air Force. ... Soviet redirects here. ... http://www. ... The Buran cruise missile, designation RSS-40, was a Soviet intercontinental cruise missile capable of carrying a 3500 kg nuclear warhead. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Anti-shipping

Another major German missile development project was the anti-shipping class (such as the Fritz X and Henschel Hs 293), intended to stop any attempt at a cross-channel invasion. However the British were able to render their systems useless by jamming their radios, and missiles with wire guidance were not ready by D-Day. After the war the anti-shipping class slowly developed, and became a major class in the 1960s with the introduction of the low-flying turbojet powered cruise missiles known as "sea-skimmers". These became famous during the Falklands War when an Argentine Exocet missile sank a Royal Navy destroyer. Fritz X was a German air-launched anti-ship missile, deployed during World War II. Fritz X was an allied code-name; alternate names include Ruhrstahl SD 1400 X. History Development began in 1938. ... The Henschel Hs 293 was a German guided glide bomb used against ships during World War II. History The Hs 293 project was started in 1940, based on the Gustav Schwartz Propellerwerke glide bomb which was designed in 1939. ... A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Anti-aircraft

[[Image:Stinger missile shoulder launch.jpg|right|thumb|The Stinger shoulder-launched surface-to-air missile system.]] By 1944 US and British airforces were sending huge airfleets over occupied Europe, increasing the pressure on the Luftwaffe day and night fighter forces. The Germans were keen to get some sort of useful ground-based anti-aircraft system into operation. Several systems were under development, but none had reached operational status before the war's end. The US Navy also started missile research to deal with the Kamikaze threat. By 1950 systems based on this early research started to reach operational service, including the US Army's Nike Ajax, the Navy's "3T's" (Talos, Terrier, Tartar), and soon followed by the Soviet S-25 Berkut and S-75 Dvina and French and British systems. It has been suggested that Guided missile be merged into this article or section. ... The FIM-92 Stinger is a man portable infra-red homing surface-to-air missile developed in the United States and used by all the US armed services, with whom it entered service in 1981. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near KyÅ«shÅ« on May 11, 1945. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. ... The SA-1 Guild is the NATO reporting name for the S-25 Berkut (Russian: - golden eagle) surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM . ... V-750 missile on camouflaged launcher. ...


Air-to-air

German experience in WWII demonstrated that destroying a large aircraft was quite difficult, and they had invested considerable effort into air-to-air missile systems to do this. This gave birth to the Me262's R4M rockets. It was developed by the Luftwaffe during World War II, and used operationally for a very brief time just prior to the end of the war. In the post-war period the R4M served as the pattern for a number of similar systems, used by almost all interceptor aircraft during the 1940s and '50s. The US Navy and USAF used their superior electronics to deliver a number of such designs in the early 1950s, most famous being the US Navy's AIM-9 Sidewinder and USAF's AIM-4 Falcon. These systems have continued to advance, and modern air warfare consists almost entirely of missile firing. A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Systems is an annual information and telecommunications trade fair in Munich, Bavaria, Germany Categories: | | ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. ...


Anti-tank

By the end of WWII all forces had widely introduced unguided rockets using HEAT warheads as their major anti-tank weapon. However these had a limited useful range of a 100 m or so, and the Germans were looking to extend this with the use of a missile using wire guidance, the X-7. After the war this became a major design class in the later 1950s, and by the 1960s had developed into practically the only non-tank anti-tank system in general use. For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another as a result of a difference in temperature. ... A wire-guided missile is a missile guided by signals sent to it via thin wires reeled out during flight. ...


Anti-ballistic

Like most missiles, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot for defense against short-range missiles, carry explosives. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Arrow anti-ballistic missile launch The Arrow Interceptor (‎, Til hetz) is a theater missile defense (TMD) system; it is the first missile developed by Israel that was specifically designed and built to intercept and destroy ballistic missiles on a national level. ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


However, in the case of a large closing speed, a projectile without explosives is used, just a collision is sufficient to destroy the target. See Missile Defense Agency for the following systems being developed: A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ... For other uses, see Collision (disambiguation). ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ...

Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) is a missile defense program whose goal is to design, develop, and deploy kinetic energy-based, mobile, ground and sea-launched missiles that can intercept and destroy enemy ballistic missiles during their boost phase. ... Custos Custodum Ipsorum - Guard of the Guardians, Themselves The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System is a US Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide a last line of defense against ballistic missiles. ... The Standard Missile is a type of surface-to-air missile (SAM) originally developed for the United States Navy. ...

Anti-satellite weapon (ASAT)

Also the proposed Brilliant Pebbles defense system would use kinetic energy collisions without explosives. --69. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ...


Guidance systems

Missile guidance systems generally fall into a number of basic classes, each one associated with a particular role. Modern electronics has allowed systems to be mixed on a single airframe, dramatically increasing the capabilities of the missiles. A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ...


See the main article at Missile guidance for details of the types of missile guidance systems. A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guided missile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (918 words)
The first missiles to be used operationally were a series of German missiles of WW2.
After the boost-stage ballistic missiles follow a trajectory mainly determined by ballistics, the guidance is for relatively small deviations from that.
Another major German missile development project was the anti-shipping class (such as the Fritz X and Henschel Hs 293), intended to stop any attempt at a cross-channel invasion.
guided missile. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (625 words)
Guided missiles are powered either by rocket engines or by jet propulsion.
Missiles may be aerodynamic, i.e., controlled by aerodynamic surfaces and following a straight-line trajectory to the target, or ballistic, i.e., powered during flight and following a parabolic trajectory.
Cruise missiles, which are launched like a missile but use flipout wings and a turbofan engine to fly like an airplane to the target at altitudes of about 50 ft (15 m), are either air-to-surface or surface-to-surface missiles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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