FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)

Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shi'a Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Wali (plural Auliyaa) is an Arabic word, literally meaning protector or guardian, also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Islamic jurisprudence, (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is made up of the rulings (Fatwa) of Muslim Islamic jurists (Ulema) to direct the lives of the Muslims. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ...

Contents


Definition

According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shari'ah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. Wilayat conveys several intricate meanings which are deeply tied to their history. Morphologically, it is derived from the Arabic wilaya the verbal noun of waliyan: to be near and to have power over something. Technically, wilyat means rule, supremacy or sovereignty. In another sense, wilayat means friendship, loyalty, or guardianship.[1] Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


History

The modern political interpretation of the doctrine primarily originates from the book Waliyat al-faqih by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, where he sets out his theories concerning the role of the clergy in government and society. It was under this doctrine that Khomeini claimed supreme authority of the nation as Supreme Leader. However, he did not originate the doctrine itself. The concept of the jurist's authority dates back to the formation of the Usuli school of thought within Shia'ism, which asserted the necessity of juristic authority in areas such as derivation of religious law, arbitration in disputes between members of the community and management of social welfare during the absence of the Imam íof the age. And thus it constitutes the basis for the concept of marji'iyya in Shi'a Islam. Therefore, the area of dispute is not the authority of the jurist, rather it is the scope of this authority; for example whether the jurist must take a leadership role or an advisory role, and this is where a number of scholars have differed. Waliyat al-faqih was a book regarding Islamic leadership written by Imam Ruhollah Khomeini, the Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the Islamic Republic of Iran Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (Persian: آیتالله روحالله خمینی Arabic: آية الله روح الله الخميني) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia Muslim cleric and Marja, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the highest ranking political authority of the nation (see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)). Other Persian terms include the Valiye-Faqih (sometimes shortened to Faqih) or the Jurisprudent... Imam (Arabic: إمام , Persian: امام ) is an Arabic word meaning Leader. The ruler of a country might be called the Imam, for example. ...


Criticism

Sistani has often been identified with the quietist school of thought, which seeks to keep religion out of the political sphere, despite his indirect but decisive role in most major Iraqi political decisions. [1] [2]. He endorses the doctrine, but says that rulings on general affairs linked to the social order are subject to conditions, including the acceptability or popularity of the ruling among the majority of Muslims.[3] Quietism is a term with multiple meanings and definitions. ...


The doctrine has been challenged by Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri, who was subsequently denounced by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1988. Grand Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri (Persian: حسینعلی منتظری) was one of the leaders of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and is a Grand Ayatollah (a Shia marja) and as such is considered one of the highest ranking authorities in Shia Islam. ...


See also

  • Da'i al-Mutlaq

The vicegerent of the secluded Fatimid Imam and leader of the Dawoodi Bohra community. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m