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Encyclopedia > Guardian Council
Iran

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The Guardian Council of the Constitution[1] (Persian: شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی) is a high chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[2] The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the highest ranking political authority of the nation (see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)). Other Persian terms include the Valiye-Faqih (sometimes shortened to Faqih) or the Jurisprudent... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (Also known as : Seyyed Ali Khamenei) born 17 July 1939[1], is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ...   (Persian: ‎ ​, IPA: ), transcribed into English as Mahmud or Mahmood, Ahmadinezhad, Ahmadi-Nejad, Ahmadi Nejad, Ahmady Nejad) (born October 28, 1956) is the current president of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ... Ayatollah Ali Meshkini is an Iranian cleric and politician. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Haddad-Adel Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel (غلامعلی حداد عادل in Persian) born in 1945 in Tehran, Iran, is the chairman of the Iranian Parliament. ... Ahmad Jannati (born in Esfahan in 1926) (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian ayatollah and political figure. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System [1](Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an unelected[2] establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran created on 6 February 1988[3]. Its purpose is to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a... President Rafsanjani Akbar Hashemi Bahramani kharkosteh (Persian: اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی), famously known as Hashemi Rafsanjani (هاشمی رفسنجانی) (born August 25, 1934) is one of the most... City and Village Councils (full title is: Provincial, City, District and Village Councils) are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran has two kinds of armed forces: the regular forces and the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC). ... Supreme National Security Council is a body within the Islamic Republic of Iran the secretary whereof is Ali Larijani. ... Ali Larijani while lecturing for his presidential campaign at Sharif University of Technology in March, 2005. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... Ayatollah Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi (آیت‌الله سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی) (Born 1948 in Najaf, Iraq) is an Iranian politician and Shia cleric. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (وزارت اطلاعات), is the primary intelligence agency of Iran. ... The Iranian constitution prohibits the granting of petroleum rights on a concessionary basis or direct equity stake. ... The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC), under the direction of the Ministry of Petroleum of Iran, is an oil and natural gas producer and distributor headquartered in Tehran. ... Politics of Iran Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Iran ... The Iranian Assembly of Experts election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... The Iranian City and Village Councils election of 2006 is planned to take place on December 15, 2006. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Political parties in Iran lists political parties in Iran. ... // Darvazeh-e-Bagh-e-Melli: The main gates to Irans Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tehran. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


The council has 12 members: six clerics, conscious of the present needs and the issues of the day, appointed by the supreme leader and six jurists, specializing in different areas of law, to be elected by the Majlis from among the Muslim jurists nominated by the Head of the Judicial Power (who, in turn, is also appointed by the supreme leader).[3][4] The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the highest ranking political authority of the nation (see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)). Other Persian terms include the Valiye-Faqih (sometimes shortened to Faqih) or the Jurisprudent... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ... The post of Supreme Leader (Persian: ولی فقیه or رهبر, Rahbar, literally leader) was created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran as the highest ranking political authority of the nation (see Guardianship of the jurists (doctrine)). Other Persian terms include the Valiye-Faqih (sometimes shortened to Faqih) or the Jurisprudent...

Contents

Legislative functions

The Guardian Council does not start bills. Bills are started in the Majlis; however, all bills must be reviewed and approved by the Guardian Council,[5][6] The Majlis has no legal status without the Guardian Council.[7] مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


The Guardian Council holds veto power over all legislation approved by the Majlis. It can nullify a law based on two accounts: being against Islamic laws,[8] or being against the constitution. While all the members vote on the laws being compatible with the constitution, only the six clerics vote on them being compatible with Islam.


If any law is rejected, it will be passed back to the Majlis for correction. If the Majlis and the Council of Guardians cannot decide on a case, it is passed up to the Expediency Council for a decision.[9] مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran to resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians...


The Guardian Council is uniquely involved in the legislative process. Chapter 6 of the Constitution explains its interworkings with the Islamic Consultative Assembly. Articles 91-97 all fall in the legislative Chapter 6.


The members of the Guardian Council may reject bills in the Majlis according to Article 96. Majlis (مجلس) is an Arabic term used to describe various types of formal legislative assemblies in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries. ...


Judicial authority

The Council of Guardians also functions similar to a constitutional court. The authority to interpret the constitution is vested in the Council;[10] interpretative decisions require a three-quarters majority of the Council. However, it does not conduct a court hearing where opposing sides are argued. A Constitutional Court is a high court found in many countries which deals primary with constitutional law. ...


Electoral authority

All candidates of parliamentary or presidential[11] elections, as well as candidates for the Assembly of Experts, have to be qualified by the Guardian Council in order to run in the election. The Council is accorded "supervision of elections".[12][13] The President of Iran holds a very important office in Irans political establishment. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...


The guardian council interprets the term supervision in Article 99 as "approbation supervision" (Persian: نظارت استصوابی‎)[14] which implies the right for acceptance or rejection of elections legality and candidates competency. This interpretation is in contrast with the idea of "notification supervision" (Persian: نظارت استطلاعی‎) which does not imply the mentioned approval right.[15] The "evidentiary supervision" (Persian: نظارت استنادی‎), which requires evidences for acceptance or rejection of elections legality and candidates competency, is another interpretation of mentioned article.[16][17] Supervision can refer to: SuperVision Videogame system A tutorial in Britain This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Members

Its members are composed of Islamic clerics and lawyers.[18] Six members of the Council are clerics selected by the Supreme Leader, who serves as Iran's Head of State.[19] The other six members are lawyers proposed by head of the judicial system of Iran[20] (selected in turn by the Supreme Leader), and voted in by the Majlis.[21] Members are selected for six years on a phased basis, so that half the membership changes every three years. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The current judicial system of Iran was implemented and established by Ali Akbar Davar and some of his contemporaries. ...


The Supreme Leader has the power to dismiss the religious members of the Guardian Council.[22]


The current chairman of the council is Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati, deputized by the lawyer Abbasali Kadkhodai. Other cleric members are Sadegh Larijani, Mohammad Reza Modarresi-Yazdi, Mohammad Momen, Gholamreza Rezvani, and Mohammad Yazdi. The other lawyer members are Mohammad Reza Alizadeh, Ebrahim Azizi, Gholamhossein Elham (spokesman), Mohsen Esmaili, and Abbas Ka'bi. Ahmad Jannati (born in Esfahan in 1926) (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian ayatollah and political figure. ... Sadegh Larijani is one of the 12 members of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Reza Modarresi-Yazdi is one of the 12 members of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Momen is a member of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Gholamreza Rezvani is a member of the powerful Council of Guardians in the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Ayatollah Mohammad Yazdi (In Persian: آیت‌الله محمد یزدی) was head of Judiciary System of Iran between 1989 and 1999 when he succeeded by Ayatollah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. ... Ebrahim Azizi (Born in Kermanshah) is a Kurdish politician from Iran. ... Gholam-Hossein Elham, Ph. ... Ayatollah Abbas Kabi Nasab is one of the 12 members of the Guardian Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ...

See also

  • Criticism of the current electoral system

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran Politics and Government of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ http://www.irisn.com/
  2. ^ Whose Iran?
  3. ^ Article No.91 http://mellat.majlis.ir/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  4. ^ Politics_of_Islamic_Republic_of_Iran#Criticism of the System
  5. ^ Article 94 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  6. ^ IRANIAN LEGISLATURE APPROVES FUNDS FOR GASOLINE IMPORTS provides an example the need for approval of the Guardian Council.
  7. ^ Article 93 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  8. ^ Article 4 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  9. ^ Article 112 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  10. ^ Article 98 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  11. ^ Article 110 Clause 9 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  12. ^ Article 99 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  13. ^ http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/1385/02/18/daytalk.htm
  14. ^ http://www.irisn.com/akhbar/1385/13850331_irisn_00001.htm
  15. ^ http://magiran.com/magtoc.asp?mgID=2982
  16. ^ http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/1382/01/23/newsdiplomatic.htm
  17. ^ http://www.irannewspaper.ir/1382/820205/html/politic.htm#s210702
  18. ^ http://portal.irisn.com/aza/aza.htm
  19. ^ Article 91 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  20. ^ http://www.iranjudiciary.org/home-en.html
  21. ^ Article 91 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM
  22. ^ Article 110 http://mellat.majlis.ir/archive/CONSTITUTION/ENGLISH.HTM

Politics of Iran takes place in the framework of an Islamic theocratic republic. ...

External links

  • The official website of the Guardian Council (in Persian)
  • Photos of members from official website (in Persian)
  • Guardian Council Holds Great Power in Iran Voice of America
  • Iran's Silent Coup 12 Jan. 2004

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guardian Council / Council of Guardians (938 words)
The Guardian Council, as it is known for short, is in effect an upper house of parliament with the power to vote out the lower house's resolutions.
The Guardian Council, comprising of six jurists appointed by the supreme leader and six lawyers, oversees laws which are passed by the parliament to confirm their conformity with the Islamic teachings and the national constitution.
The Guardian Council comprises a dozen members, that is, six jurisprudent members who have attained the Islamic rank of "Ayatollah" who are appointed by the Supreme Leader, and six lay jurists, who are appointed by the head of the judiciary from among candidates nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council and approved by the Majles.
Iranica.com - GUARDIAN COUNCIL (2698 words)
However, since the Expediency Council was organized, the Majles has been able to pass on issues rejected by the Guardian Council for the ultimate decision of the Expediency Council.
The Guardian Council's right of opposition is not restricted to the bills approved by the Majles, but also applies to statutes approved by boards of organizations and societies belonging to, or affiliated with, the state (art.
Since the members of the Guardian Council are directly (the six theologians) and indirectly (the six jurists) nominated by the leader, their preferential and recognizable political, religious and social inclinations depend on that of the leader.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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