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Encyclopedia > Guard (basketball)
Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005
Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005

Basketball is a sport in which two teams of five players each try to score points by throwing a ball through a hoop (the basket) under organized rules. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x1225, 908 KB) Description: Three point shoot by Sara Giauro (Phard Vomero Napoli) during FIBA Europe Cup Women Finals 2005 Source: self-made Location: Naples, Italy Photographer: Massimo Finizio File links The following pages link to this file: Basketball Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1222x1225, 908 KB) Description: Three point shoot by Sara Giauro (Phard Vomero Napoli) during FIBA Europe Cup Women Finals 2005 Source: self-made Location: Naples, Italy Photographer: Massimo Finizio File links The following pages link to this file: Basketball Metadata This... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005 In basketball, a three-point field goal, three-pointer, three-point shot, or simply three is a field goal made from beyond the three point line, a designated semi-ellipsoid arc radiating from the basket. ... The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball) is an association of national organizations which governs international competitition in the basketball. ... Basketball may refer to: Basketball, the sport Basketball, a 1967 film directed by Donald Shebib The Basketball Diaries, a 1978 book by Jim Carroll, subsequently a 1995 film starring Leonardo DiCaprio Note the exact spelling of the following: BASEketball, a 1998 David Zucker comedy film This is a disambiguation page... A team is any group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. ...


Since its invention in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1891, it has developed to become a truly international sport. Organized league play originated in the YMCA; early leagues were formed in colleges. Basketball eventually became a professional sport. Even though it was originally an American sport, it quickly spread internationally and outstanding players and teams are found today all over the world. Springfield MA skyline Nickname: City of Homes Official website: www. ... The adjective global and adverb globally imply that the verb or noun to which they are applied applies to the entire Earth and all of its species and regions. ... YMCAs in the United States and Canada use this logo. ... Professional sports are sports in which the participants receive payment for playing, as opposed to amateur sports where they are not. ...


Basketball is primarily an indoor sport, played on a basketball court. Points are scored for passing the ball through the basket from above; the team with more points at the end of the game wins. The ball can be advanced on the court by bouncing it (dribbling) or passing it between teammates. Disruptive physical contact (fouls) is not permitted and there are restrictions on how the ball can be handled (violations). In basketball, the court refers to the playing surface/floor. ... In sports such as association football (soccer) and basketball, dribbling refers to the manouevring of a ball around a defender through short skilful taps or kicks with either the legs (football/soccer) or hands (basketball). ...


Through time, basketball has developed to involve common techniques of shooting, passing and dribbling, as well as players' positions, and offensive and defensive structures. While competitive basketball is carefully regulated, numerous variations of basketball have developed for casual play. Basketball is also a popular spectator sport. Variations of basketball are games or activities based on or similar to the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. ...

Contents


History

Early basketball

Basketball is unique in that it was invented by one person, rather than evolving from a different sport. In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian-born physician and minister on the faculty of a college for YMCA professionals (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, sought a vigorous indoor game to keep young men occupied during the long New England winters. Legend has it that, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules, and nailed a peach basket onto the 10 foot elevated track. Women's basketball began in 1892, at Smith College, when Senda Berenson, a physical education teacher, modified Naismith's rules for women. The first official basketball game was played in the YMCA gymnasium on January 20, 1892 with nine players, on a court just half the size of a present-day NBA court. "Basket ball", the name suggested by one of Naismith's students, was popular from the beginning. An invented sport refers to a modern-day sport which is conceived and developed by a single person, team, or committee. ... James Naismith James Naismith, M.D. (November 6, 1861 – November 28, 1939) was the Canadian-born American inventor of the sport of basketball and the first to introduce the use of a helmet in American football. ... YMCAs in the United States and Canada use this logo. ... Springfield College is a college located in Springfield, Massachusetts. ... Springfield MA skyline Nickname: City of Homes Official website: www. ... The states of New England are Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. ... Modern indoor gymnasium with pull-down basketball hoops Gym, a shortened form of gymnasium, refers to facilities intended for indoor sports or exercise. ... The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officating, equipment and procedures of basketball. ... Smith College, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, is the largest womens college in the United States. ... Senda Berenson Abbott (b. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The National Basketball Association of the United States and Canada, commonly known as the NBA, is the premier professional basketball league in North America. ...


Basketball's early adherents were dispatched to YMCAs throughout the United States, and it quickly spread through the country. By 1896, it was well established at several women's colleges. While the YMCA was responsible for initially developing and spreading the game, within a decade, it discouraged the new sport, as rough play and rowdy crowds began to detract from the YMCA's primary mission. However, other amateur sports clubs, colleges, and professional clubs quickly filled the void. In the years before World War I, the Amateur Athletic Union and the Intercollegiate Athletic Association (forerunner of the NCAA) vied for control over the rules for the game. - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... ... The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, often pronounced N-C-Double-A or N-C-Two-A) is a voluntary association of about 1200 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletics programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. ...


Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. The first balls made specially for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Football is a ball game played between two teams of eleven players, each attempting to win by scoring more goals than their opponent. ... Paul D. Tony Hinkle (born: December 19, 1899 in Logansport, IN; died: September 22, 1992) was a basketball coach at Butler University in Indianapolis/Indiana. ...


College basketball and early leagues

Naismith and Berenson were instrumental in establishing college basketball. Naismith coached at University of Kansas for six years before handing the reins to renowned coach Phog Allen. Naismith's disciple Amos Alonzo Stagg brought basketball to the University of Chicago, while Adolph Rupp, a student of Naismith's at Kansas, enjoyed great success as coach at the University of Kentucky. In 1892, University of California and Miss Head's School, played the first women's inter-institutional game. Berenson's freshmen played the sophomore class in the first women's collegiate basketball game at Smith College, March 21, 1893. The same year, Mount Holyoke and Sophie Newcomb College (coached by Clara Gregory Baer) women began playing basketball. By 1895, the game had spread to colleges across the country, including Wellesley, Vassar and Bryn Mawr. The first intercollegiate women's game was on April 4, 1896. Stanford women played Berkeley, 9-on-9, ending in a 2-1 Stanford victory. In 1901, colleges, including the University of Chicago, Columbia University, Dartmouth College, University of Minnesota, the U.S. Naval Academy, the University of Utah and Yale University began sponsoring men's games. By 1910, frequent injuries on the men's courts prompted President Roosevelt to suggest that college basketball form a governing body. And the Intercollegiate Athletic Association (IAA) was created. Basketball, 1977, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Basketball, 1977, by Rick Dikeman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Benson taking a hook shot Michael Kent Benson (born December 27, 1954 in New Castle, Indiana) is a former collegiate and pro basketball player. ... Indiana University Bloomington is the principal campus of the Indiana University system. ... College basketball most often refers to the American basketball competitive governance structure established by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, or NCAA. // History The game of basketball was devised by James Naismith in 1891. ... The University of Kansas (often referred to as just KU or Kansas) is an institution of higher learning located in Lawrence, Kansas. ... Forrest Phog Allen, D.O. (November 18, 1885 – September 16, 1974) was an American collegiate basketball coach known as the Father of Basketball Coaching. ... Amos Alonzo Stagg (August 16, 1862 - March 17, 1965), was a renowned American collegiate coach in multiple sports, primarily football, and an overall athletic pioneer. ... The University of Chicago is a private university principally located in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1890 and opened in 1892. ... Adolph Friedrich Rupp (September 2, 1901–December 10, 1977) was one of the most successful coaches in the history of American college basketball. ... The University of Kentucky (also as UK or simply Kentucky) is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Smith College, located in Northampton, Massachusetts, is the largest womens college in the United States. ... Mount Holyoke is a hill in The Berkshires of western Massachusetts. ... H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College of Tulane University was established in New Orleans, Louisiana, circa 1884, as a womens college. ... Clara Gregory Baer is famous for her pioneering role in womens sports. ... Wellesley is the name of various places in the world including: Wellesley, Massachusetts Wellesley College is a private college in Wellesley, Massachusetts. ... Vassar, Michigan is a place in the State of Michigan in the United States of America. ... Brynmawr (Bryn-mawr) is a market town in the county borough of Blaenau Gwent, traditional county of Brecknockshire, mid Wales. ... Having no offical mascot, the athletic teams at Stanford University are referred to as Stanford Cardinal. ... It has been suggested that UC Mens Chorale be merged into this article or section. ... The University of Chicago is a private university principally located in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1890 and opened in 1892. ... Columbia University is a private university in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City and a member of the Ivy League. ... Dartmouth College is a private academic institution in Hanover, New Hampshire, in the United States. ... Washington Avenue Bridge at night The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is the oldest and largest part of the University of Minnesota system. ... Teamwork: Fourth Class Midshipmen lock arms and use ropes made from uniform items as they brace themselves climbing the Herndon Monument The United States Naval Academy, or USNA, is an institution for the undergraduate education of officers of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. ... The University of Utah (also The U or the U of U) is a public university in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... Yale University is a private university in New Haven, Connecticut. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... ...


Teams abounded from through the 1920s. There were hundreds of men's professional basketball teams in towns and cities all over the United States and little organization of the professional game. Players jumped from team to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance halls. Leagues came and went. And barnstorming squads such as the Original Celtics and two all African American teams, the New York Renaissance Five ("Rens") and (still in existence as of 2006) the Harlem Globetrotters played up to two hundred games a year on their national tours. Women's basketball was more structured. In 1905, the National Women's Basketball Committee's Executive Committee on Basket Ball Rules was created by the American Physical Education Association. These rules called for six to nine players per team and 11 officials. The International Women's Sports Federation (1924) included a women's basketball competition. 37 women's high school varsity basketball or state tournaments were held by 1925. And in 1926, the Amateur Athletic Union backed the first national women's basketball championship, complete with men's rules. The first women's AAU All-America team was chosen in 1929. Women's industrial leagues sprang up throughout the nation, producing famous athletes like Babe Didrikson of the Golden Cyclones and the All American Red Heads Team who competed against men's teams, using men's rules. By 1938, the women's national championship changed from a three-court game to two-court game with six players per team. The first men's national championship tournament, the National Invitation Tournament (NIT) in New York, was organizied in 1938. Professional basketball refers to a number of leagues in which athletes play in sports arenas, on organized teams, for profit. ... Original Celtics The Original Celtics, no relation to the equally famous Boston Celtics, were an outstanding barnstorming professional basketball team in the 1920s. ... The New York Renaissance, also known as the Rens, were an all-black professional basketball team founded in 1922, a few years before the Harlem Globetrotters. ... Eugene Killer Edgerson of the Harlem Globetrotters goes up for a slam dunk The Harlem Globetrotters is a basketball team that combines athleticism and comedy to create one of the best-known sports franchises in the world. ... Basketball Basketball is a ball sport in which two teams of five players each try to score points by throwing a ball through a hoop. ... The American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education, founded in 1885 to support gymnastics education. ... The International Womens Sports Federation held an Olympic-style Games, in 1922, in Paris. ... National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Womens Basketball Championship Division I The NAIA National Womens Basketball Championship is held in Jackson,TN and is played at Oman Arena. ... AAU is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Acute anterior uveitis, an inflammatory joint disease; see Spondyloarthropathy Addis Ababa University, a university in Ethiopia Amateur Athletic Union, a sports organization in the United States Antillean Adventist University, a Christian university in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Asau... Babe Didrikson in the 1932 Olympic javelin competition Mildred Ella Babe Didrikson Zaharias (June 26, 1911-September 27, American athlete, who excelled in many sports. ... The Golden Cyclones were a 1930s group of women athletes who played AAU softball, basketball and track-and-field. ... The All American Red Heads was one of the first professional women’s basketball teams. ... AAU is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Acute anterior uveitis, an inflammatory joint disease; see Spondyloarthropathy Addis Ababa University, a university in Ethiopia Amateur Athletic Union, a sports organization in the United States Antillean Adventist University, a Christian university in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Asau... The National Invitation Tournament (NIT) is a mens college basketball tournament operated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. ...


College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from 1948 to 1951, when dozens of players from top teams were implicated in match fixing and point shaving. Partially spurred by an association with cheating, the NIT lost support to the NCAA national tournament. Today, the NCAA men's and women's "March Madness" tournaments are rivaled only by the MLB World Series and the NFL Super Bowl in the American sports psyche. Match fixing or game fixing in organized sports occurs when a match is played to a completely or partially pre-determined result. ... Point shaving, in organized sports, is a type of match fixing where the perpetrators try to prevent a team from covering a published point spread. ... The NCAA Womens Division I Championship is an annual basketball tournament for women. ... Disambiguation: March Madness comes from the phrase Mad as a March Hare. In England, the phrase March Madness may refer to wasteful spending at the end of a budget year. ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ...


U.S. high school basketball

Before widespread school district consolidation, most United States high schools were far smaller than their present day counterparts and during the first decades of the 20th century basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America. High school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition, and its popularity remains high, both in rural areas where they carry the identification of the entire community, as well as at some larger schools known for their basketball teams where many players go on to participate at higher levels of competition after graduation. In the 2003–04 season, 1,002,797 boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations. The states of Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky are particularly well known for their residents' devotion to high school basketball; the critically acclaimed film Hoosiers shows high school basketball's depth of meaning to these rural communities. In fact, the term "March Madness" was first used to describe the Illinois high school basketball tournament. A varsity match refers to a sporting fixture between two university rivals. ... The National Federation of State High School Associations (or NFHS) is the body which oversees and governs most high school interscholastic athletics and extracirriculars in the United States at the national level. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 340 km 629 km 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 225 km 435 km 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 37th 104,749 km² 225 km 610 km 1. ... Hoosiers is a 1986 movie, based on a true story, about a small-town high school basketball team that made the state finals, telling the story of a coach with a spotty past, and the towns basketball-loving drunk, who lead their team to victory. ... Disambiguation: March Madness comes from the phrase Mad as a March Hare. In England, the phrase March Madness may refer to wasteful spending at the end of a budget year. ...


National Basketball Association

In 1946, the National Basketball Association (NBA) was formed, organizing the top professional teams and leading to greater popularity of the professional game. An upstart organization, the American Basketball Association, emerged in 1967 and briefly threatened the NBA's dominance until the rival leagues merged in 1976. Today the NBA is the top professional basketball league in the world in terms of noteriety, salaries paid to players, player talent and level of competition. The National Basketball Association, more commonly referred to as the NBA, is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... The American Basketball Association (ABA) was founded in 1967 and eventually merged with the National Basketball Association. ...


The NBA has featured many famous players, including George Mikan, the first dominating "big man"; ball-handling wizard Bob Cousy and defensive genius Bill Russell of the Boston Celtics; Wilt Chamberlain (who originally played for the barnstorming "Harlem Globetrotters"); all-around stars Oscar Robertson and Jerry West; more recent big men Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Bill Walton, playmaker John Stockton; and the three players who many credit with ushering the professional game to its highest level of popularity: Larry Bird, Magic Johnson, Julius Erving and Michael Jordan. George Lawrence Mikan, Jr. ... Jordan Louise Aseo (born December 29, 1989 in New York City, New York) is a former basketball player, who played guard with the Boston Celtics from 1951 to 1963 and the Cincinnati Royals in the 1969-1970 season. ... William Fenton Russell (born February 12, 1934) is a former American basketball player remembered for his central role in the Boston Celtics dynasty that won 11 championships in the 13 seasons that he played. ... The Boston Celtics are a National Basketball Association team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Wilt Chamberlain (right) in action against Bill Russell (left) and the Boston Celtics Wilton Norman Chamberlain, commonly known as Wilt Chamberlain (August 21, 1936 – October 12, 1999) was a National Basketball Association basketball player. ... Eugene Killer Edgerson of the Harlem Globetrotters goes up for a slam dunk The Harlem Globetrotters is a basketball team that combines athleticism and comedy to create one of the best-known sports franchises in the world. ... Oscar Palmer Robertson (born November 24, 1938 in Charlotte, Tennessee) was one of the greatest basketball players in history. ... Jerry West with the Los Angeles Lakers Jerry West was also a pseudonym used by Andrew E. Svenson. ... Kareem Abdul Jabbar Kareem Abdul-Jabbar (born Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor Jr. ... Bill Walton, while playing for the Portland Trail Blazers William Theodore Walton III, better known as Bill Walton (born November 5, 1952 in La Mesa, California), is an American former basketball player and current television sportscaster. ... John Houston Stockton (born March 26, 1962) is a former NBA player. ... Larry Joe Bird (born December 7, 1956) is a former NBA basketball player. ... Earvin Magic Johnson, Jr. ... Julius Winfield Erving III (born February 22, 1950 in East Meadow, New York), commonly known by the nickname Dr. J, is an American former basketball player who helped launch the modern style of play that emphasizes leaping ability and play above the rim. ... Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963 in Brooklyn, New York), is an American former NBA player, and is generally considered to be the greatest basketball player of all time. ...


The NBA-backed Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) began 1997. Though it had an insecure opening season, several marquee players (Sheryl Swoopes, Lisa Leslie and Sue Bird among others) helped the league's popularity and level of competition. Other professional women's basketball leagues in the United States have folded in part because of the popularity of the WNBA. The Womens National Basketball Association or WNBA is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... Sheryl Swoopes during her visit to the White House with her champion Houston Comets team in 2001. ... Lisa Leslie after winning the WNBA Championship with the Los Angeles Sparks Lisa Leslie (born July 7, 1972 in Gardena, California) is an American Womens National Basketball Association player currently playing for the Los Angeles Sparks. ... Sue Bird (middle) is welcomed to Washington, D.C. in 2002. ... [Please add your counrtys information!] When women pro athletes are able to dedicate themselves full-time to developing their skills, they raise the level of play in a sport and provide much higher caliber Womens National Team players. ... WNBA may also refer to WNBA-AM, a radio station in Illinois. ...


In 2001, the NBA formed a developmental league, the NBDL. The league currently has 8 teams, but will add 5 more for the 2006-2007 season. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The National Basketball Association Development League, more commonly known as the NBA Development League, NBA D-League, or just D-League, is the NBAs officially sponsored and operated developmental basketball organization. ...


International basketball

A basketball game at Edwards Air Force Base
A basketball game at Edwards Air Force Base

The International Basketball Federation was formed in 1932 by eight founding nations: Argentina, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Romania and Switzerland. At this time, the organization only oversaw amateur players. Its acronym, in French, was thus FIBA; the "A" standing for amateur. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1396x2100, 519 KB) Wood Harris (in white) playing basketball. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1396x2100, 519 KB) Wood Harris (in white) playing basketball. ... Edwards Air Force Base is a USAF airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home... The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball) is an association of national organizations which governs international competitition in the basketball. ...


Basketball was first included in the Olympic Games in 1936, although a demonstration tournament was held in 1904. This competition has usually been dominated by the United States, whose team has won all but three titles, the first loss in a controversial final game in Munich in 1972 against the Soviet Union. In 1950 the first Basketball World Championship for men was held in Argentina. Three years later, the first World Championships for women were held in Chile. Women's basketball was added to the Olympics in 1976, with teams such as Brazil and Australia rivaling the American squads. For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... Munich and the Bavarian Alps Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the largest city and capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... The Basketball World Championship (official name: FIBA World Championship) is a world basketball tournament held quadrennially. ...


FIBA dropped the distinction between amateur and professional players in 1989, and in 1992, professional players played for the first time in the Olympic Games. The United States' dominance briefly resurfaced with the introduction of their Dream Team. However, with developing programs elsewhere, other national teams have now caught up with the United States. A team made entirely of NBA players finished sixth in the 2002 World Championships in Indianapolis, behind Serbia and Montenegro, Argentina, Germany, New Zealand and Spain. In the 2004 Summer Olympics, the United States suffered its first Olympic loss while using professional players, falling to the Puerto Rican national basketball team and eventually came in third after Argentina and Italy. The Dream Team was the unofficial nickname of the United States mens basketball team that won the gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. ... Official website: http://www. ... The 2004 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, were held in Athens, Greece, over a period of 17 days from August 13 to August 29, 2004. ... The Puerto Rican National Basketball Team (or Puerto Rican National Basketball Selection) is a team that is selected by the Puerto Rican Basketball Federation to compete in major international events in representation of Puerto Rico. ...


Worldwide, basketball tournaments are held for boys and girls of all age levels, from five- and six-year-olds (called biddy-biddy), to high school, college, and the professional leagues.


The global popularity of the sport is reflected in the nationalities represented in the NBA. Players from all over the globe can be found in NBA teams. Steve Nash, who won the 2005 NBA MVP award as the Most Valuable Player in the NBA, is a South African-born Canadian player. Dallas Mavericks superstar Dirk Nowitzki is German. The San Antonio Spurs feature three stars from outside the United States: Tim Duncan of the Virgin Islands, Manu Ginobili of Argentina, and Tony Parker of France. (Duncan competes for the United States internationally.) Stephen John Nash (born February 7, 1974 in Johannesburg, South Africa) is a star Canadian basketball player. ... National Basketball Association Most Valuable Player Award was first awarded after the 1955-56 NBA season. ... The Dallas Mavericks are a National Basketball Association team based in Dallas, Texas. ... Dirk Werner Nowitzki (born June 19, 1978 in Würzburg, Germany) is a basketball player who stars for the NBAs Dallas Mavericks. ... The San Antonio Spurs are a National Basketball Association team based in San Antonio, Texas. ... Timothy Theodore Duncan (born April 25, 1976 in Christiansted, St. ... Manu Ginóbili gets past Detroit Pistons players during the 2005 NBA Finals Emanuel David Ginóbili (born July 28, 1977 in Bahía Blanca, Argentina), better known as Manu Ginobili, is an Argentine basketball player. ... Tony Parker utilizes his speed to get an easy layup. ...


The all-tournament team at the most recent Basketball World Championship held in 2002 in Indianapolis demonstrates the globalization of the game equally dramatically. The team featured Nowitzki, Ginobili, Peja Stojakovic of Serbia and Montenegro, Yao Ming of China, and Pero Cameron of New Zealand; all except Cameron were or became NBA players. The Basketball World Championship (official name: FIBA World Championship) is a world basketball tournament held quadrennially. ... Official website: http://www. ... Predrag Peđa Stojaković (born June 9, 1977), usually referred to in English as Peja Stojakovic, Serbian as Предраг Пеђа Стојаковић, and Greek as Πρέντραγκ Στογιάκοβιτς is a basketball star for the NBAs Indiana Pacers. ... Yao Ming This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao. ... Sean Pero MacPherson Cameron (born 6 May 1974) is a New Zealand professional basketball player. ...


Rules and regulations

Main article: Rules of basketball

Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section. The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officating, equipment and procedures of basketball. ...


The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own. An attempt to score in this way is called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc which is 6.25 meters (20 ft 5 in) from the basket in international games and 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) in NBA games. The term shot may refer to: Look up shot on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005 In basketball, a three-point field goal, three-pointer, three-point shot, or simply three is a field goal made from beyond the three point line, a designated semi-ellipsoid arc radiating from the basket. ...


Playing regulations

Games are played in four quarters of 10 (international) or 12 minutes (NBA). Fifteen minutes are allotted for a half-time break, and two minutes are allowed at the other breaks. Overtime periods are five minutes long. Teams exchange baskets for the second half. The time allotted is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours.


Five players from each team may be on the court at one time. Teams can have up to seven substitutes. Substitutions are unlimited but can only be done when play is stopped. Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers. // Original meaning and etymology The original meaning of the term coach was: a horse-drawn vehicle designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger — and of mail — and covered for protection from the elements. ...


For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a tank top with a clearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players' names and sometimes sponsors are printed on the uniforms.


A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach for a short meeting with the players, are allowed. They generally last no longer than one minute unless, for televised games, a commercial break is needed.


The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee, one or two umpires and the table officials. The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls, player substitutions, team possession arrow, and the shot clock. In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. ... A jump ball is the method used to begin play in basketball. ... The Shot Clock Monument in Syracuse, New York A shot clock is a timer designed to increase the pace (and subsequently, the score) in a competitive sport. ...


Equipment

A basketball.
A basketball.
A diagram of a FIBA basketball court.
A diagram of a FIBA basketball court.

The only essential equipment in basketball is the ball and the court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, scoresheets, scoreboards, alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems. Image File history File linksMetadata Basketball. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Basketball. ... Download high resolution version (446x749, 45 KB)larger version of the basketball court. ... Download high resolution version (446x749, 45 KB)larger version of the basketball court. ... The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball) is an association of national organizations which governs international competitition in the basketball. ... English Noun scoreboard /skawrbawrd/ a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or match. ...


The men's ball's circumference is about 30 inches (76 cm) and weighs about 1 lb 5 oz (600 g). The women's ball's circumference is about 29 inches (73 cm) and weighs about 1 lb 3 oz (540 g). A regulation basketball court in international games is 28 by 15 meters (approx. 92 by 49 ft) and in the NBA is 94 by 50 feet (29 by 15 m). Most courts are made of wood. In basketball, the court refers to the playing surface/floor. ...


A cast-iron basket with net and backboard hang over each end of the court. At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet (3.05 m) above the court and 4 feet (1.2 m) inside the endline. While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be the correct height; a rim that is off by but a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.


Violations

The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or dribbled (bouncing the ball while running).


The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession. The ball-handler may not move both feet without dribbling, known as travelling, nor may he dribble with both hands or catch the ball in between dribbles, a violation called double-dribbling. A player's hand must remain on top of the ball while dribbling, failure to do so is known as carrying the ball. A team, once having established ball control in the front half of the court, may not return the ball to the backcourt. The ball may not be kicked nor struck with the fist. A violation of these rules results in loss of possession, or, if committed by the defense, a reset of the shot clock. The Shot Clock Monument in Syracuse, New York A shot clock is a timer designed to increase the pace (and subsequently, the score) in a competitive sport. ...


There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway (8 seconds in international and NBA), before attempting a shot (24 seconds), holding the ball while closely guarded (5 seconds), and remaining in the restricted area (the lane, or "key") (3 seconds). These rules are designed to promote more offense.


No player may interfere with the basket or ball on its downward flight to the basket, or while it is on the rim (or, in the NBA, while it is directly above the basket), a violation known as goaltending. If a defensive player goaltends, the attempted shot is considered to have been successful. If a teammate of the shooter goaltends, the basket is cancelled and the team loses possession.


Fouls

Main articles: Personal foul, Technical foul

An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through personal contact is illegal and is called a foul. These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well. Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 4.5 metres (15 feet) from the basket. In basketball, a personal foul is a breach of the rules that concerns illegal personal contact with an opponent. ... In basketball, a technical foul is an infraction of the rules concerning unsportsmanlike non-contact behaviour. ... In basketball, free throws or foul shots are attempts to score points unopposed from the free throw line (informally known as the charity stripe), and are generally awarded after a foul by the opposing team. ...


There is some discretion with the referee when calling a foul — referees consider if there was unfair advantage gained, e.g. if a player were to gain possession unfairly, sometimes making fouls controversial calls. The calling of a foul can vary between games, leagues and even between referees.


A player or coach who shows poor sportsmanship, for instance, by arguing with a referee or by fighting with another player, can be charged with a technical foul. The penalty involves free throws and varies between leagues. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification. Blatant fouls with excessive contact or that are not an attempt to play the ball are called unsportsmanlike fouls (or flagrant fouls in the NBA) and incur a harsher penalty; in some rare cases a disqualifying foul will require the player to leave the playing area. In basketball, a technical foul is an infraction of the rules concerning unsportsmanlike non-contact behaviour. ... In sports, an ejection is a disqualifying action assessed to a player or coach by a game official (such as a referee or umpire), usually for unsportsmanlike conduct. ...


If a team surpasses a preset limit of team fouls in a given period (quarter or half) – four for international and NBA games – the opposing team is awarded one or two free throws on all subsequent fouls for that period, the number depending on the league. A player who commits five fouls, including technical fouls, in one game (six in some professional leagues, including the NBA) is not allowed to participate for the rest of the game, and is described as having "fouled out".


Common techniques and practices

Positions and structures

Basketball positions in the offensive zone
Basketball positions in the offensive zone

Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball. During the first five decades of basketball's evolution, two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. Since the 1980s, more specific positions have evolved, namely: Image File history File links Basketball_positions. ... Image File history File links Basketball_positions. ... The positions in basketball are the five positions normally followed by basketball teams. ...

  1. point guard: organises the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that it gets to the right player at the right time
  2. shooting guard: creates a high volume of shots on offense; guards the opponent's best perimeter player on defense
  3. small forward: often primarily responsible for scoring points; on defense seeks rebounds and steals, but sometimes plays more actively than that
  4. power forward: plays offensively often with his back to the basket; on defense, plays under the basket (in a zone defense) or against the opposing power forward (in man-to-man defense)
  5. center: uses size, either to score (on offense) or to protect the basket closely (on defense)

The above descriptions are flexible. On some occasions, teams will choose to use a three guard offense, replacing one of the forwards or the center with a third guard. Magic Johnson, one of the best point guards of all-time, runs the Lakers offense. ... Kobe Bryant is todays best shooting guards. ... The small forward, or, colloquially, the three, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. ... Kevin Garnett smiles while playing in the NBA for the Minnesota Timberwolves. ... Bill Russell (left) and Wilt Chamberlain (right) were two of the greatest centers ever. ...


There are two main defensive strategies: zone defense and man-to-man defense. Zone defense involves players in defensive positions guarding whichever opponent is in their zone. In man-to-man defense, each defensive player guards a specific opponent and tries to prevent him from taking action. Variations of these two main structures are also used. Zone defense is a type of defense used in sports which is the alternative to man-to-man defense; instead of each player guarding a corresponding player on the other team, each defensive player is given an area, or a zone, to cover. ... In man-to-man defense, each player is assigned to guard his counterpart. ...


Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball. A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is a cut. A legal attempt by an offensive player to stop an opponent from guarding a teammate, by standing in the defender's way such that the teammate cuts next to him, is a screen or pick. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll, in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket. Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork which can lead to a successful basket. Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur.


Defensive and offensive structures, and positions, are more emphasised in higher levels in basketball; it is these that a coach normally requests a time-out to discuss.


Shooting

Player releases a short jump shot, while her defender is either knocked down, or trying to "take a charge."
Player releases a short jump shot, while her defender is either knocked down, or trying to "take a charge."

Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket. While methods can vary with players and situations, the most common technique can be outlined here. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x750, 95 KB)Caption: 040130-N-6213R-014 U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x750, 95 KB)Caption: 040130-N-6213R-014 U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. ...


The player should be positioned facing the basket with feet about shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent, and back straight. The player holds the ball to rest in the dominant hand's fingertips (the shooting arm) slightly above the head, with the other hand on the side of the ball. To aim the ball, the player's elbow should be aligned in the direction of the basket. The ball is shot by bending and extending the knees and extending the shooting arm to become straight; the ball rolls off the finger tips while the wrist completes a full downward flex motion. Generally, the non-shooting arm is used only to guide the shot, not to power it.


Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to deaden its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat arguable, but generally coaches will profess proper arch. Most players shoot directly into the basket, but in certain situations the shooter may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket.


The two most common shots that use the above described set up are the set shot and the jump shot. The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws. The jump shot is taken while in mid-air, near the top of the jump. This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. David Robinson performing a jump shot to shoot over Karl Malone. ...


Another common shot is called the layup. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, jumping and "laying" the ball "up", and into the basket, typically off the backboard (the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll). The most crowd-pleasing, and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk, in which the player jumps very high, and throws the ball downward, directly through the hoop. Zach Randolph performing a difficult layup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The best shooters have good coordination, balance, courage and are well practiced. Realizing a shooting opportunity and using it are as important as basic technique; top players at the professional level rarely miss when given an unguarded look at the basket.


Passing

Carlos Arroyo shown here with the Utah Jazz, left, passes to a teammate.
Carlos Arroyo shown here with the Utah Jazz, left, passes to a teammate.

A pass is a method of moving the ball between players. Most passes are accompanied by a step forward to increase power and are followed through with the hands to ensure accuracy. Image File history File links 172808_480_art_R0. ... Image File history File links 172808_480_art_R0. ... Famous picture of Arroyo showing the letters of the Puerto Rico jersey seconds before defeating the Dream Team on August 15 at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. ... The Utah Jazz is a National Basketball Association team based in Salt Lake City, Utah. ...


One of the most basic passes is the chest pass. The ball is passed directly from the passer's chest to the receiver's chest. A properly performed chest pass consists of an outward snap of the thumbs to add more velocity. This has the advantage that it takes the least time to complete, as the passer tries to pass as directly straight as possible.


Another type of pass is the bounce pass. In this pass, the ball bounces about two-thirds of the way from the passer. Like the chest pass, it is passed from the passer's chest to the receiver's chest, and it is passed as directly as possible, for example, there should be no downward motion of the ball between the bounce and the time the receiver catches it. In this way, it is completed in the smallest amount of time possible for this pass. It does take longer to complete than the chest pass, but it is more difficult for the opposing team to intercept (kicking the ball deliberately is a violation). Thus, in crowded moments, or to pass the ball around a defender, this pass is often used.


The overhead pass is used to pass the ball over a defender. The ball is passed with the ball beginning behind the passer's head and being released as it passes above the passer's head.


The most important aspect of a good pass is that it is difficult for the defense to intercept. Good passers can pass the ball with great accuracy and velocity and choose their targets well.


Dribbling

U.S. Naval Academy ("Navy") player, left, attempts to dribble past U.S. Military Academy ("Army") defender
U.S. Naval Academy ("Navy") player, left, attempts to dribble past U.S. Military Academy ("Army") defender

Dribbling is the act of bouncing the ball continuously, and is a requirement for a player to take steps with the ball. To dribble, a player pushes the ball down towards the ground rather than patting it; this ensures greater control. Download high resolution version (500x684, 93 KB)Caption: 040130-N-9693M-020 U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. ... Download high resolution version (500x684, 93 KB)Caption: 040130-N-9693M-020 U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. ...


When dribbling past an opponent, the dribbler should dribble with the hand farthest from the opponent, making it more difficult for the defensive player to get to the ball. It is therefore important for a player to be able to dribble competently with both hands.


Good dribblers (or "ball handlers") tend to bounce the ball low to the ground, reducing the travel from the floor to the hand, making it more difficult to "steal" the ball. Additionally, good ball handlers frequently dribble behind their backs, between their legs, and change hands and directions of the dribble frequently, making a less predictable dribbling pattern that is more difficult to defend.


A skilled player can dribble without watching the ball, using the dribbling motion or peripheral vision to keep track of the ball's location. By not having to focus on the ball, a player can look for teammates or scoring opportunities, as well as avoid the danger of someone stealing the ball from them. Peripheral vision is a part of vision that occurs outside the very center of gaze. ...


Height

At the professional level, most male participants are above 1.90 meters (6 ft 3 in) and most women are above 1.70 meters (5 ft 7 in). Guards, for whom physical coordination and ball-handling skills are of greater importance, tend to be the smallest players. Forwards in the men's professional leagues are almost all 2 meters (6 ft 6 in) or taller. Most centers are over 2.1 meters (6 ft 10.5 in) tall. The tallest players ever to play in the NBA, Manute Bol and Gheorghe Muresan, were 2.31 m (7 ft 7 in). Currently, the tallest NBA player is Yao Ming, who stands at 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in). Manute Bol is a Sudanese/American basketball player and activist. ... Gheorghe Mureşan (born February 14, 1971 in Triteni, Romania) is a former Romanian basketball player who also played in the NBA. A 77 (2. ... Yao Ming This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yao. ...


The shortest player ever to play in the NBA is Muggsy Bogues at 1.60 meters (5 ft 3 in). Other shorter players have also experienced success at the professional level. Anthony "Spud" Webb was just 5 feet 7 inches (1.70 m) tall, but had a 42-inch (1.07 m) vertical leap, giving him significant height when jumping. Muggsy Bogues steals the ball from Rodney Rogers of the LA Clippers (1997) Tyrone Curtis Muggsy Bogues (born January 9, 1965 in Baltimore, Maryland) is a former professional basketball player. ... Anthony Spud Webb (born July 13, 1963 in Dallas, Texas) was an NBA basketball player. ...


Variations and similar games

Pickup basketball game in Main Park, Windsor, Colorado
Pickup basketball game in Main Park, Windsor, Colorado
Main article: Variations of basketball

Variations of basketball are activities based on the game of basketball, utilizing common basketball skills and equipment (primarily the ball and basket). Some variations are only superficial rules changes, while others are distinct games with varying degrees of basketball influences. Other variations include children's games, contests or activities intended to help the player reinforce skills, which may or may not have a competitive aspect. Most of the variations are played in informal settings without referees or strict rules. Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN9696_windsorbball_e_300. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DSCN9696_windsorbball_e_300. ... Variations of basketball are games or activities based on or similar to the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. ...


Perhaps the single most common variation is the half court game. Only one basket is used, with the requirement that the ball be "cleared" - passed or dribbled outside the half-court or three-point line - whenever possession of the ball changes. Half-court games generally require less cardiovascular stamina, as they eliminate the need for players to run back and forth from one end of the court to the other. Half-court games also double the number of players that can utilize a court, and thus are sometimes required by the owner of a busy facility. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... It has been designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) 2004 World Health Day topic was Road Safety (by World Health Organization) Year of the Monkey (by the Chinese calendar) See the world in... January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officating, equipment and procedures of basketball. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Variations of basketball are games or activities based on or similar to the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. ... Basketball has been played consistently on the Summer Olympics since 1936, with a demonstration event in 1904. ... The International Basketball Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Basketball) is an association of national organizations which governs international competitition in the basketball. ... The National Basketball Association, more commonly referred to as the NBA, is the worlds premier mens professional basketball league and one of the major professional sports leagues of North America. ... The Basketball World Championship (official name: FIBA World Championship) is a world basketball tournament held quadrennially. ... Wheelchair basketball is a sport played primarily by people with disabilities. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Basketball - MSN Encarta (1518 words)
Today, the standard basketball is generally orange or brown in color, with an outer cover of leather or nylon and a pebbled (indented) surface to help players grip and control the ball.
The point guard is generally the leader of the team on the court, acting as an extension of the coach.
Whether basketball is played informally on playgrounds or in organized fashion in leagues, it is played with essentially the same set of rules, which have stayed generally consistent since the game's invention in 1891.
Basketball Guard, Basketball Point Guard, Basketball Shooting Guard (1113 words)
Great point guards seldom turn the ball over due to pressure, and when they deliver a pass to a teammate it is to a point closest to the best position from which their teammate can score.
Great point guards know how to get their best scorers the ball on a consistent basis, but are always on the lookout for how to create high percentage scoring opportunities for offensive teammates in a lesser role.
A "shooting guard" is generally just what you think it means: Someone whose primary job is to shoot the ball, either as a spot up shooter, catching and releasing, or coming off screens; someone who can spot up from either in close or three-point range, and someone who defends the other team´s off-guard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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