FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
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Encyclopedia > Guanosine triphosphate
Empirical formula C10H16N5O14P3
Molecular weight 523.18 g/mol

Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5'-triphosphate. Biochemically, GTP is 9-β-D-ribofuranosylguanine-5'-triphosphate or, equivalently, 9-β-D-ribofuranosyl-2-amino-6-oxo-purine-5'-triphosphate. GTP is a purine nucleotide that is incorporated into the growing RNA chain during RNA synthesis, and used as a source of energy for protein synthesis. The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Biochemistry the chemistry of life, a bridge between biology and chemistry that studies how complex chemical reactions give rise to life. ... Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring. ... A nucleotide is a monomer or the structural unit of nucleotide chains forming nucleic acids as RNA and DNA. A nucleotide consists of a heterocyclic nucleobase, a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxiribose), and a phosphate or polyphosphate group. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... Transcription is the process through which a DNA sequence is enzymatically copied by an RNA polymerase to produce a complementary RNA. Or, in other words, the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In the case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately... Translation in the cytoplasm; tRNA carries amino acids which are added to the growing peptide chain in the ribosome. ...

GTP is also essential to signal transduction, where it is converted to GDP (guanosine diphosphate) through the action of GTPases. In biology, signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. ... GTPases are a large family of enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze GTP. The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved G domain common to all GTPases. ...

Energy transfer

GTP is involved in energy transfer within the cell. For instance, one GTP molecule is generated for every turn of the citric acid cycle. This is tantamount to the generation of one molecule of ATP since GTP is readily converted to ATP. The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that utilize oxygen as part of cellular respiration. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is the nucleotide known in biochemistry as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer; that is, ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells. ...

Nucleic acids edit
Nucleobases: Adenine - Thymine - Uracil - Guanine - Cytosine - Purine - Pyrimidine
Nucleosides: Adenosine - Uridine - Guanosine - Cytidine - Deoxyadenosine - Thymidine - Deoxyguanosine - Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: AMP - UMP - GMP - CMP - ADP - UDP - GDP - CDP - ATP - UTP - GTP - CTP - cAMP - cGMP
Deoxynucleotides: dAMP - dTMP - dUMP - dGMP - dCMP - dADP - dTDP - dUDP - dGDP - dCDP - dATP - dTTP - dUTP - dGTP - dCTP
Nucleic acids: DNA - RNA - LNA - PNA - mRNA - ncRNA - miRNA - rRNA - siRNA - tRNA - mtDNA - Oligonucleotide

  Results from FactBites:
GUANOSINE (834 words)
Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) : a nucleotide composed of guanine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups; the source of the guanosine found in RNA and also involved in many cellular processes, including microtubule assembly, protein synthesis, and cell signaling, due to the energy it releases upon removal of its terminal phosphate group (yielding GDP).
Guanosine diphosphate (GDP) : a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which serves as a carrier for mannose residues in glycoprotein synthesis and as a substrate for a phosphorylation reaction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP, aso known as guanylic acid) : a nucleotide composed of pyrophosphate of guanosine which is formed during the hydrolysis of nucleic acidis and is a regulator of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.
Attotron Molecular Biology Hypertext Dictionary (9690 words)
ddNTP.GIF a nucleoside triphosphate analog that causes termination of an elongating DNA molecule when incorporated by DNA polymerase because of the absence of a 3´-hydroxyl residue on the sugar portion of the compound, which is necessary for the formation of the 3' to 5' phosphate linkage in an elongating DNA chain.
The sugar molecules are modified by the presence of a purine or pyrimidine nucleoside or "base" attached to the first, or 1', carbon and the oxygen-phosphorus-oxygen bond links the third, or 3', carbon to the fifth, or 5', carbon of the adjacent sugar molecule.
thymidine triphosphate, a deoxyribose molecule with the pyrimidine thymine attached to the 1´ carbon and a chain of three oxygenated phosphorus atoms attached to the 5' carbon.
  More results at FactBites »



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