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Encyclopedia > Guan Yu
General of the

Three Kingdoms period Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

A statue of Guan Yu on an altar.
A statue of Guan Yu on an altar.
Served: Shu Han
Guan Yu
Traditional:   關羽
Simplified:   关羽
Pinyin:   Guān Yǔ
Wade-Giles:   Kuan Yu
 
 
Yunchang (雲長)  
 
Changsheng (長生)  
  Buddhist Name:
  
  
  Sangharama Bodhisattva  
  
Qíelán Púsà  
  
(伽藍菩薩)  
  Deity names:
 
 
Guān Shèng Dì Jūn  
 
關聖帝君  
 
Saintly Emperor Guan  
  Other names:
 
 
Guān Gōng (關公)  
 
Lord Guan  
 
Guān èr Yé (關二爺)  
 
Lord Guan the Second  
 
Měi Rán Gōng (美髯公)  
 
Lord of Magnificent Beard  
 
Guān Dì (關帝)  
 
God of Guan  
  Read more about the Chinese name.
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (關).

Guan Yu (關羽) (160219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. He played a significant role in the civil war that led to the collapse of the Han Dynasty and the establishment of the Kingdom of Shu, of which Liu Bei was the first emperor. Download high resolution version (341x640, 166 KB)A statue of Guan Yu on an altar. ... Download high resolution version (341x640, 166 KB)A statue of Guan Yu on an altar. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or clan name (氏; pinyin: shì), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. ... In Rome, the manufacturing of soap containing grease, lime and ashes begins. ... Events Legio III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Roman Emperor Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ...


One of the best known Chinese historical figures throughout East Asia, Guan Yu's true life stories have largely given way to fictionalized ones, mostly found in the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms or passed down the generations, in which his deeds and moral qualities have been much exaggerated. East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). ...


Guan Yu had been deified as early as the Sui Dynasty and is still being worshiped by Chinese people today, especially in Hong Kong. While being seen as the epitome of loyalty and righteousness, Guan Yu had been criticized by historians for being arrogant and vain, qualities that eventually led to his downfall in the hands of Sun Quan, lord of Eastern Wu. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin...

Contents

Physical appearance

Guan Yu is traditionally portrayed as a red-faced warrior with a long lush beard. While his beard was indeed mentioned in the Records of Three Kingdoms, the idea of his red face probably derived from a later description of him in Chapter One of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms, where the following passage appears: The Sānguó Zhì (Chinese 三国志, or 三國誌), variously translated as Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, Records of the Three States and Records of the Three Kingdoms, was the official and authoritative historical text on the Three Kingdoms Period compiled by Chen Shou during the Jin Dynasty (265-420). ...

Xuande took a look at the man, who stood at a height of nine chi[1], and had a two chi[2] long beard; his face was the color of a dark jujube[3], with lips that were red and plump; his eyes were like that of a crimson phoenix[4], and his eyebrows resembled reclining silkworms[5]. He had a dignified air, and looked quite majestic. This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Binomial name (L.) H. Karst. ...

Alternatively, the idea of his red face could have been borrowed from opera representation, where red faces depict loyalty and righteousness[citation needed]. Supposedly, Guan Yu's weapon was a guandao named Green Dragon Crescent Blade, which resembled a halberd and was said to weigh 82 catties. During the Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms eras, one catty was approximately 220 grams, so 82 catties would have been approximately 18.04 kilograms (~39.7782 pounds).[1] A wooden replica can be found today in the Emperor Guan Temple in Xiezhou County, China. He traditionally dons a green robe over his body armour, as depicted in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. A guan dao or kwan dao is a type of Chinese pole weapon that is currently used in some forms of Chinese martial arts (wushu). ... The Green Dragon Crescent Blade; was a weapon supposedly used by Guan Yu in the It was the traditional Kung Fu weapon, a Kwan Dao. ... A catty (æ–¤) is a measurement of weight from the European colonial times in the far east, commonly found in wet markets and in supermarkets in Hong Kong. ...


The historical Guan Yu

Early life

Guan Yu was born in the county of Xie (解, a subdistrict of present day Yuncheng, Shanxi). The year of his birth is not found in historical records, but according to a 1680 stele in a temple worshipping Guan Yu in his hometown, as well as a biography of Guan Yu written in 1756, Guan Yu's birth year is estimated to be 160. Xie 謝 (traditional) / è°¢ (simplified) is a Chinese family name; it is estimated that there are about 2 million people with this surname, with most of them living in southern China. ... Yuncheng (Simplified Chinese: 运城; Traditional Chinese: 运城; pinyin: ) is the southernmost prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, China. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Guan Yu fled his hometown at the age of twenty-three after slaying a local bully named Lü Xiong (呂熊). Five years later, he arrived in Zhuo Commandery (涿郡, present day Zhuozhou, Hebei), where Liu Bei was recruiting a force to heed the government's call to resist the Yellow Turban Rebellion. Together with Zhang Fei, Guan Yu joined Liu Bei and fought against the rebel forces in northern China. For his efforts Liu Bei was appointed governor of Pingyuan County (平原). Guan Yu and Zhang Fei were also made commanders and given their own divisions of troops. According to the Records of Three Kingdoms, the three men slept on the same bed and treated one another like brothers. Guan Yu and Zhang Fei also followed Liu Bei wherever he went, and protected him from danger however perilous the situation. Zhuozhou is a Chinese city with between 100,000 and 500,000 inhabitants in the province of Hebei. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... Zhāng FÄ“i (張飛, c. ... Pingyuan (literally plain in Chinese) can refer to: Pingyuan County, a county in Shandong province, China Pingyuan County, a county in north east Guangdong province, China Pingyuan (province), a former province of China during the early years of the Peoples Republic of China Category: ...


In 199 Liu Bei attacked and killed Che Zhou (車冑), the governor of Xuzhou (徐州) who was appointed by the rising warlord Cao Cao, and placed Guan Yu in control of the regional capital Xiapi, while he returned to Xiaopei. Cao Cao soon retaliated, personally leading a campaign east to reclaim Xuzhou. Liu Bei fled to seek refuge under Yuan Shao, a powerful warlord further north, but Xiapi was captured and Guan Yu surrendered to Cao Cao. Cao Cao treated Guan Yu with respect and even made him a deputy general. Events Pope Zephyrinus succeeds Pope Victor I Geodeung succeeds Suro as king of the Korean kingdom of Gaya. ... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Xiaopei is a castle that Lu Bu Stole from Liu Bei, shortly before Cao Cao conqured it. ... Yuan Shao (? – 202) was a major warlord occupying the north of ancient China during the massive civil war towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms era. ...


Short service under Cao Cao

In 200, Yuan Shao mustered an army boasting 100,000 in strength and marched on Xuchang, the new capital and base city of Cao Cao. To ensure a safe crossing of the Yellow River, Yuan Shao sent his trusted general Yan Liang to attack Baima (白馬, northeast of present day Huaxian, Henan) as a diversionary tactic. In a counter-tactic, Cao Cao moved his main force westwards along the Yellow River, diverting Yuan Shao's army in the same direction, but sent Guan Yu and Zhang Liao east to relieve the attack on Baima, as Yan Liang had already slain several of Cao Cao's officers. Upon reaching Baima, Guan Yu saw from afar Yan's personal standard and urged his mount towards the latter. He speared Yan amid the enemy troops, and brought back his severed head. Thus Yuan Shao lost an important lieutenant and the siege of Baima was unraveled. Guan Yu was then enfeoffed as Marquis¹ Shou of Han (漢夀亭侯). After doing Cao Cao this favor, Guan Yu left for Liu Bei, his former lord who was still in the camp of Yuan Shao, leaving behind a farewell letter and all of Cao Cao's rewards. When some of his subordinates wanted to pursue Guan Yu, Cao Cao stopped them, saying, "To each his own." For other uses, see number 200. ... Xuchang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in central Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the... Yan Liang (颜良) was a general serving under Yuan Shao during the Eastern Han Dynasty period of ancient China. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Zhang Liao (169 – 222) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


Capture of Jingzhou

After Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao at the decisive Battle of Guandu, Liu Bei went south to seek shelter under Jingzhou (荊州) governor Liu Biao, who soon died of sickness. Cao Cao took the opportunity to expand his control south and seized a great part of Jingzhou north of the Yangtze River, but Liu Bei escaped south and formed a coalition with Sun Quan, a powerful warlord controlling most of southeastern China. The coalition defeated Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs and Jingzhou was reclaimed. Guan Yu was promoted to General Who Purges Rebels (蕩寇將軍) and made governor of Xiangyang (but he was stationed in Jiangling), in charge of the defense of northern Jingzhou. The Battle of Guandu (官渡之戰) was a battle in Chinese history. ... Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: 荆州; Traditional Chinese: 荊州; pinyin: ) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ... Liú BiÇŽo (劉表 142 – 208) was the governor of the Jing province in China towards the end of the Han Dynasty. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Sun Quan (孫權 pinyin: SÅ«n Quán) (182 - 252), son of Sun Jian, was the third ruler of the State of Wu and the founder of Kingdom of Wu, during the Three Kingdoms period, in China. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Xiangyang (Traditional Chinese: 襄陽, Simplified Chinese: 襄阳, pinyin: Xiāngyáng) was a Chinese city famous for the Siege of Xiangyang (1267-1273) by Mongol invaders. ... Jiangling is a city in Hubei, China. ...


In 213, Liu Bei left for Yizhou (present day Sichuan) and took over the region two years later, staying there ever since. In 219, Liu Bei proclaimed himself King of Hanzhong (漢中王) and promoted Guan Yu to General of the Front (前將軍), ranked first among the top five generals under his service (popularly known as the Five Tiger Generals, among whom were Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun, Ma Chao and Huang Zhong).   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Events Legio III Gallica and IV Scythica are disbanded by Roman Emperor Elagabalus after their leaders, Verus and Gellius Maximus, rebel. ... The Five Tiger Generals (五虎將) of the Kingdom of Shu during the period of Three Kingdoms in China were Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, Zhao Yun, Ma Chao, and Huang Zhong, named in honour of their contributions to the establishment of the kingdom. ... Zhao Yun (? - 229[1]) was an important military commander during the civil wars of the late Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Ma Chao (176 - 222) was the eldest son of Ma Teng and a general of the Three Kingdoms Period. ... Huang Zhong (黄忠; style name: Hansheng 汉升) (? - 220), was born Nanyang (in modern day Henan province). ...


Downfall

In the same year Guan Yu attacked Fancheng (樊城, present day Xiangfan, Hubei), a city near Xiangyang which was defended by Cao Ren, a trusted general and cousin of Cao Cao. A long spell of rainfall as autumn came around flooded the Han River next to the city, which greatly aided Guan Yu. The flood drowned the majority of the relief troops Cao Cao sent, while their commanders, Yu Jin and Pang De, were both captured by Guan Yu. However, a further relief force under Xu Huang successfully repelled the invaders. The Battle of Fancheng was fought between the Shu and Wei kingdoms during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ... Xiangfan (Simplified Chinese: 襄樊; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Cao Ren (168 – 223) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... The Han River (漢江; pinyin: Han Jiang) in China, was often referred to as Hanshui (漢水) in antiquity. ... Yu Jin (? – 220) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... Pang De (? – 219) was a prominent general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Xu Xu Huang (169 – 227) was a prominent general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao and his successor Cao Pi during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


Further, at this time, it became known that Sun Quan, whom Guan had previously repeatedly provoked -- including, for example, forcibly seizing Sun's troops' food supply for his own troops while marching north against Cao -- had attacked Guan's home base of Jiangling, and that the two commanders that Guan had left in charge of the home base -- Mi Fang and Fu Shiren, whom Guan Yu had repeatedly insulted and threatened to punish -- had surrendered to Sun Quan. Instead of immediately sealing off the report of this, Guan Yu allowed this news be known to his army. The Wu forces held the families of the soldiers accompanying General Guan as hostages, because of his mercy for the soldiers and their families, he allowed them to rejoin their families in the captured territory to give the Wu forces no reason to harm the city's people. Mi Fang (169 - ?) was an official under the powerful warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Fu Shiren (傅士仁) was a general of Shu Han during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty. ...


With many of his troops deserting, Guan Yu attempted to retreat west to reunite with Liu Bei. However, he was encircled by Sun Quan's forces west of Maicheng (麥城, southeast of present day Dangyang, Hubei) and captured along with his son Guan Ping. Both were executed. Sun Quan sent Guan Yu's head to Cao Cao in an attempt to lay all the blame on Cao Cao, who buried the body with the honors befitting a marquis. Guan Yu was given the posthumous title of Marquis Zhuangmou (壯繆侯). Dangyang City, in Hubei Province, China, lies 70 km east of the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guan Ping (關平, ? – 219) was the first son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and elder brother of Guan Xing. ...


In 223, Liu Bei attempted a campaign to recapture Jingzhou and avenge Guan Yu, which culminated in his decisive defeat at the Battle of Yiling. Guan Yu's son Guan Xing and grandson Guan Tong both served as military commanders for Shu Han. According to the Record of Shu (蜀記) by Wang Yin (王隱), after Cao Wei conquered Shu in 263, many members of Guan Yu's household were massacred by Pang Hui, son of Pang De who was executed by Guan Yu at the Battle of Fancheng. Liu Shan becomes second emperor of Shu-Han upon the death of his father, Liu Bei. ... At the Battle of Yiling in 222, Liu Bei enraged at the execution of his sworn brother Guan Yu at the hands of the Kingdom of Wu, lead an attack force to the plains of Yi Ling. ... Guan Xing was the second son of the 3rd century Chinese military general Guan Yu and the younger brother of Guan Ping. ... Son of Guan Xing and Grandson of the God of War Guan Yu. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... Events The Wei Kingdom conquered the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms. ... The son of the general Pang De. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Note

¹ The title of marquis was divided into three grades during the late Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period. These are, in ascending order of prestige, tinghou (亭侯), xianghou (郷侯) and xianhou (縣侯). Guan Yu's was the first. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese characters: 三國, Simplified Chinese characters: 三国, pinyin Sānguó) is a period in the History of China. ...


Guan Yu in Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Portrait of Guan Yu (behind) from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Portrait of Guan Yu (behind) from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a historical novel based on the events that occurred before and during the Three Kingdoms era. Written by Luo Guanzhong more than a millennium after the Three Kingdoms period, the novel incorporates many popular tales and opera scripts into the character of Guan Yu, making him one of the most altered and aggrandized in the book. Significant incidents that deviate from true history include: Image File history File links Portrait of Guan Yu (behind) from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Portrait of Guan Yu (behind) from a Qing Dynasty edition of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ...


Brotherhood sworn in the garden of peach blossoms

One of the most well-known story from the novel, found in the first chapter, it speaks of Liu Bei, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei who, having met by chance in the county of Zhuo in 184, found that all three shared the same desire to serve the country in the tumultuous times. They swore to be brothers the next day in Zhang Fei's backyard, which was a garden full of peach blossoms. Liu Bei was ranked the eldest, Guan Yu the second, and Zhang Fei the youngest. Having done this, they recruited more than 300 local men and joined the resistance against the Yellow Turban rebels. Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ...


In real life, the three did not become sworn brothers; although the Records of Three Kingdoms says the three often shared a bed, and treated one another as brothers. Guan Yu was also a year older than Liu Bei, not younger.


The Oath of the Peach Garden inspired the present day secret societies in Chinese communities, such as the Triad, to use a similar ritual when swearing in new members. "Though not born on the same day of the same month in the same year, we hope to die so" — the phrase the three brothers made during the oath — had also become popular among the present day secret society members. The Oath of the Peach Garden (義重桃園 or 桃園三節義) was an oath by which the three fighters Liu Bei, Zhang Fei, and Guan Yu became sworn brothers in a ceremony amid peach blossom trees. ... Triad (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in Hong Kong and Macau and also operating in Taiwan, mainland...


Slaying Hua Xiong

In Chapter 5, warlords around the country formed a coalition against Dong Zhuo, the tyrannical warlord and minister who held the puppet Emperor Xian hostage in the capital Luoyang. Guan Yu and his sworn brothers were then serving in the camp of Gongsun Zan, a warlord from northern China who was also in the coalition. Combatants Anti-Dong Zhuo Coalition Dong Zhuo Commanders Yuan Shao Dong Zhuo The Campaign against Dong Zhuo (董卓討伐戰) in 190 was initiated by a coalition of regional officials hoping to end Chancellor Dong Zhuos influence in the ailing Han court in China. ... Dong Zhuo (董卓; Pinyin: Dǒng Zhuō) (139 – 192) was a warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Gongsun Zan (公孫瓚 gong1 sun1 zan4), courtesy name Bogui, was a warlord of northern China active toward the end of the second century AD. He was commander of a cavalry force and served on the northern and eastern frontiers of the Han Dynasty empire fighting against various non-Chinese peoples. ...


Dong Zhuo placed Hua Xiong at the Sishui Pass to ward off the attack. Having singlehandedly slain four generals of the coalition – Zu Mao, Pan Feng, Bao Zhong, and Yu She – Hua Xiong seemed indomitable. Despite mistrust from many warlords of the coalition, most notably their commander Yuan Shao, Guan Yu, who was a mere mounted archer then, volunteered to duel Hua Xiong. To convince them to give him the opportunity, he told them that if he failed against Hua Xiong, the coalition could take his head as punishment. Cao Cao, one of the eighteen coalition leaders, poured Guan Yu a cup of hot wine but the latter declined, claiming he would soon return. Within moments Guan Yu truly returned with Hua Xiong's head in hand, while the wine was still warm. Hua Xiong (? – 190) was a military commandant under the tyrannical warlord Dong Zhuo during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Combatants Coalition of Lords Dong Zhuo Commanders Yuan Shao, Sun Jian Hua Xiong† Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Sishui Pass (汜水關之戰) was a battle in 189, near the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty of China. ... Zu Mao is an officer of Sun Jian during the Three Kingdoms Period in China. ... Officer of Han fu. ... Brother of Bao Xin. ... Was an officer of Yuan Shu. ...


In true history Hua Xiong was executed after his force was defeated by Sun Jian at Yangren (陽人). SÅ«n Jiān (155 – 191) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ...


Repelling Lü Bu

In one of the more dramatic duels of the novel, Guan Yu's oath brother Zhang Fei attacked the infamous Lü Bu during the campaign against Dong Zhuo. Guan Yu came to his aid after the unyielding pair had fought savagely for 50 bouts, and he and Zhang Fei fought together against Lü Bu for a further 30 bouts. Still unable to gain an advantage, they were soon joined by Liu Bei. Lü Bu still managed to fend off all their attacks and they could not gain an advantage until 20 bouts later, when Lü Bu began to tire and retreated. This spectacle is one of the most consistently recreated in the Dynasty Warriors video game series. LÇš Bù (156 – 198) was a military general and minor warlord during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms period in ancient China. ... The Logo of Shin Sangokumusou 5 (Dynasty Warriors 6) Dynasty Warriors ( 真・三國無双:Shin Sangokumusou in Japan; literally meaning True - Unrivaled Three Kingdoms) is a series of video games created by Koei based loosely around the Romance of the Three Kingdoms epic, and is a spinoff series of another Koei game Romance...


Short service under Cao Cao

In Chapter 25, Cao Cao attacked Liu Bei's position in Xuzhou (徐州). The defeated Liu Bei escaped to seek refuge in the camp of Yuan Shao, a powerful warlord in the north. Guan Yu, along with two wives of Liu Bei, was besieged in the city of Xiapi. Taunting outside the city walls, Cao Cao's general Xiahou Dun managed to draw Guan Yu out. As he pursued his enemy far from the city gate, Guan Yu found his retreat cut off by the invading troops. He then made a stand on top of a nearby knoll, but the city was already taken. Xiahou Dun (? – 220) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...

Guan Yu submitting to Cao Cao in the 84-episode TV serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Guan Yu submitting to Cao Cao in the 84-episode TV serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Zhang Liao, another general under Cao Cao who was an old friend of Guan Yu, then came unarmed up the knoll. He tried to persuade Guan Yu to surrender using reason. Guan Yu agreed, but with three conditions: that the surrender was to the Han emperor and not Cao Cao; that the two wives of Liu Bei were to be suitably provided for and protected; and that all three would leave to seek Liu Bei once they found out his whereabouts. These conditions were agreed to and Guan Yu finally surrendered without breaking the code of loyalty. Cao Cao was very pleased and showered Guan Yu with many gifts, including Red Hare, a top-grade steed previously owned by the mighty warrior Lü Bu. Image File history File links Guan Yu submitting to Cao Cao in the 84-episode TV serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... Image File history File links Guan Yu submitting to Cao Cao in the 84-episode TV serial Romance of the Three Kingdoms This is a screenshot of a copyrighted movie or television program. ... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ... In 1995, Central Chinese Television(CCTV) produced a adaptation of the novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ... Zhang Liao (169 – 222) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Red Hare (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was the mount of Lü Bu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. ...


According to the Records of Three Kingdoms, both Guan Yu and family members of Liu Bei were captured after Xiapi was fallen, though it was not stated in any known historical records that Guan Yu made the three conditions of surrender. The gift of Red Hare was probably also fabricated later.


Slaying Yan Liang

Also in Chapter 25, Cao Cao confronted Yuan Shao on the shores of the Yellow River. To ensure a safe crossing south, Yuan Shao sent a diversionary force east under his trusted general Yan Liang to attack Baima (白馬, northeast of present day Huaxian, Henan). Cao Cao drew a 50,000-strong army and came personally to defend Baima. As the two armies made their stands across the plain, Cao Cao sent out Song Xian and Wei Xu to duel with Yan Liang, but both were slain within bouts. As suggested by advisor Cheng Yu, Cao Cao then sent for Guan Yu. Yellow River (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Huáng Hé ; Wade-Giles: Hwang-ho, sometimes simply called the River in ancient Chinese) is the second longest river in China (after the Yangtze River) and the seventh longest in the world, at 3,395 miles long [1]. Originating in the... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Song Xian was a general of the Later Han Dynasty who served under the warlord Lü Bu during the period. ... Wei Xu was an officer under Lü Bu during the Three Kingdoms era of China, he was part of the plot to capture Lu Bu and hand him over to Cao Cao due to the mistreatment of his friend Hou Cheng. ... The Chinese general Cheng Yu was one of the few people who stayed with Han Dynasty warlord Cao Cao during his escape from the Battle of Chi Bi. ...


The next day, as Yan Liang's army lined up on the battlefield, Guan Yu sat with Cao Cao on a hillock and looked down. From afar he saw Yan Liang sitting on a chariot under the army standard. Leaping onto the Red Hare, Guan Yu galloped straight into the enemy ranks, which broke before him like waves before a swift vessel. Before Yan Liang could react, he was struck down by his nemesis. Guan Yu severed Yan Liang's head, tied it to the neck of his steed and rode back unhindered.


In true history Cao Cao did not participate personally in the Battle of Baima but rather led his main force westwards along the Yellow River to draw Yuan Shao in the same direction. Guan Yu and Zhang Liao were then sent to defend Baima against Yan Liang's division.


Slaying Wen Chou

In Chapter 26, following the death of Yan Liang in Guan Yu's hands, Wen Chou, another trusted general of Yuan Shao, volunteered to avenge his close friend. Leading 100,000 troops, Wen Chou crossed the Yellow River and came for Cao Cao's camp. In an unusual move, Cao Cao turned his entire formation around, placing the supplies in front. While Wen Chou's soldiers made an easy task robbing the supplies, Cao Cao directed his men south onto a knoll, from where they allowed their horses to graze. Wen Chou's soldiers pounced upon the horses as they approached the knoll and became disorganized. Cao Cao then gave the order for a counterattack, forcing the enemies to retreat. Wen Chou was a great military general under Yuan Shao nearing the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ...


Zhang Liao and Xu Huang immediately gave chase. Wen Chou fired two arrows from atop his horse, one of which cut off the feather on Zhang Liao's helmet and the other hit Zhang Liao's horse in the face. With his poleaxe, Xu Huang came for Wen Chou but had to retreat when a band of enemy soldiers came to their commander's rescue. Leading a dozen riders, Guan Yu cut off Wen Chou's escape and engaged in a duel with the enemy. Within three bouts, Wen Chou withdrew and attempted to evade. However, Guan Yu's Red Hare was of a superior breed and soon caught up. Guan Yu then slew Wen Chou from behind.


It was not stated in historical records whether Wen Chou was killed by Guan Yu in battle, only that Wen Chou's force was defeated and himself was killed.


Crossing five passes and slaying six warriors

Mural of Guan Yu's Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles (千里走單騎) in the Summer Palace
Mural of Guan Yu's Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles (千里走單騎) in the Summer Palace

Another of the most popular stories surrounding Guan Yu, this tale speaks of the loyal man's hazardous journey to reunite with his lord and sworn brother Liu Bei, who was residing in Yuan Shao's camp. The five passes mentioned in fact only consist of two bona fide passes – Dongling and Sishui – while the rest were two cities and a guarded ferry point. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1284, 750 KB) 关云长千里走单骑 Shizhao2005å¹´11月于颐和园 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guan Yu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2580x1284, 750 KB) 关云长千里走单骑 Shizhao2005å¹´11月于颐和园 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Guan Yu Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... The Summer Palace in Beijing. ...


The story began late in Chapter 26 where, having found out the whereabouts of Liu Bei some time after the slaying of Wen Chou, Guan Yu prepared to leave Xuchang along with Liu Bei's two wives. Unable to keep the determined general, Cao Cao forbade his subjects from pursuing Guan Yu.


Riding beside the horse carriage carrying his sisters-in-law, Guan Yu set off for Luoyang. However, he was stopped at Dongling Pass (東嶺關, south of present day Dengfeng, Henan) by the pass defender Kong Xiu, who refused passage for the former without a document from Cao Cao. Guan Yu had no choice but to slay Kong Xiu in a duel and force through the pass. Kong Xiu (? – 200) is a fictional character in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong. ...


Having crossed the first pass, Guan Yu arrived outside Luoyang. The city governor Han Fu drew a thousand troops and blocked the city gate. Han Fu's aide Meng Tan (孟坦) came forward to duel Guan Yu. Within bouts, Meng Tan retreated in an attempt to draw Guan Yu into a trap, but Guan Yu's horse was fast and Meng Tan was slashed into halves before he could escape. However, Han Fu had already taken aim and fired an arrow at Guan Yu, who was struck in the left arm. Plucking the arrow out from the bleeding wound, Guan Yu then came for Han Fu and cleaved him clean below the shoulders. Han Fu (? – 200) is a fictional character in the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong. ...


Having dressed his wound, Guan Yu was anxious to move on. The company moved through the night to arrive at Sishui Pass (汜水關, north of present day Xingyang, Henan). The pass defender, Bian Xi, laid 200 men in ambush in a temple outside the pass, while he went out to meet Guan Yu. Having won the trust of the latter, Bian Xi then invited Guan Yu to a feast in the temple hall. One of the monks, who was also from the county of Xie, hinted the danger to his fellow townsfolk. The ambush then failed and Guan Yu slew the scheming Bian Xi and left for Xingyang. Bian Xi lived durring the early part of the Three Kingdoms period of China. ... Xingyang(Simplified: 荥阳;Traditional: 荥陽;Hanyu Pinyin: xíngyáng), is one of county-level cities of Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China. ...


Wang Zhi, the governor of Xingyang, attempted a similar scheme. Feigning kindness towards Guan Yu, Wang Zhi led the company to a relay station to settle for the night. He then ordered his deputy Hu Ban to draw a thousand troops to surround the station and burn it. Curious about how the famed Guan Yu looked like, Hu Ban decided to go into the station to take a peek. Guan Yu heard him and asked who he was, whereupon he learnt that Hu Ban was the son of Hu Hua (胡華), an old villager who had given Guan Yu's company lodging early in the journey. Guan Yu then passed Hu Ban a letter from his father, which told of the loyal and upright man Guan Yu was, whereupon Hu Ban divulged Wang Zhi's plot, and opened the city gate for Guan Yu to escape. However, Wang Zhi soon caught up and came for Guan Yu with his spear poised. Guan Yu spun around and cleaved him in half. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Minster under wang Zhi. ...


Trudging along, the company finally arrived at the ferry point on the southern shore of the Yellow River. Qin Qi, the defender of the crossing, met a similar fate as his colleagues who dared challenge Guan Yu. Within a bout, Guan Yu severed Qin Qi's head with a sweep of his sabre. Thus the company finally crossed the Yellow River and came to Yuan Shao's territory, though, unknown to them, Liu Bei had by then already moved to Ru'nan. In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Guan Yu(关羽) passed 5 gates and slew 6 generals. ... Runan is a county in Zhumadian, Henan, China. ...


After slaying Qin Qi, he encounters Xiahou Dun who seeks to battle Guan Yu in revenge for the death of his subordinate. However, the battle is averted as Zhang Liao arrives with a message from Cao Cao that Guan Yu is to be allowed to leave peacefully despite his slaying of the gate guardians. Xiahou Dun (? – 220) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ... Zhang Liao (169 – 222) was a military general under the powerful warlord Cao Cao during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China. ...


At the end of his departure, Guan was to meet Zhang Fei, who, against the advice of others, was infuriated with Guan for having defected and picked up his spear to engage him. Guan was unprepared for this but after beheading Cai Yang (蔡陽), a commander loyal to Cao Cao (who happened to be near by on a task unrelated to Cao Cao), Guan managed to convince Zhang that he was still true to their brotherhood.


Historically Guan Yu did not pass through the five gates nor did he slay the generals charged there.


Releasing Cao Cao at Huarong Trail

In Chapter 50, after the fire started burning his ships at the Battle of Red Cliffs, Cao Cao gathered all the men he could and escaped towards the city of Jiangling. Under instruction from advisor Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu led 500 foot soldiers and lay in wait along the Huarong Trail, a narrow shortcut in the woods leading to Jiangling. Prior to leaving, Guan Yu had duly sworn an oath not to allow Cao Cao passage over past favours from the warlord. This is a Chinese name; the family name is Zhuge (諸葛) Zhuge Liang (181 - 234) was one of the greatest Chinese strategists of the Three Kingdoms period, as well as a statesman, engineer, scholar, and inventor. ...


On the other hand, Cao Cao had come to a fork in the road during his perilous escape. Columns of smoke were seen rising from the narrower path. Cao Cao judged that the smoke was a trick of the enemy to divert him to the main road, where an ambush must have been laid. He then led his men towards the narrow path – the Huarong Trail.


The smoke was indeed a trick by Zhuge Liang. Grasping Cao Cao's psychology exactly, Zhuge Liang had meant to direct him to the Huarong Trail, where Guan Yu with his men were waiting. Upon being cut off, Cao Cao rode forward and appealed to Guan Yu to remember his kindness in former days. Seeing the plight of the defeated men and recalling the former favors he received from Cao Cao, Guan Yu eventually allowed the enemy to pass through without challenge, despite his previous oath. Upon returning, Guan Yu pleaded guilty but under the beseeching of Liu Bei, Zhuge Liang fully understood the compassion and mercy of General Guan Yu and forgave him.


Treatment of a poisoned arm

A 19th century Japanese woodcut of Guan Yu by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. In this scene he is being attended to by the physician Hua Tuo while playing Go.
A 19th century Japanese woodcut of Guan Yu by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. In this scene he is being attended to by the physician Hua Tuo while playing Go.

In Chapter 75, during a siege on Fancheng (樊城, present day Xiangfan, Hubei), Guan Yu had been struck in the right arm by a bolt fired by crossbowers from the city walls. The arrow was promptly removed but poison smeared on the arrowhead had already seeped deep to the bone. As he was unwilling to abandon the offensive campaign, his subjects had to send for physicians to the camp to treat the poisoned arm. Japanese woodblock of Guan Yu by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861). ... Japanese woodblock of Guan Yu by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... Utagawa Kuniyoshi (Japanese: 歌川国芳) (1798 - 1861) was one of the last great masters of the Japanese woodblock print. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Go is a strategic East Asian board game for two players. ...


One day, the famed physician Hua Tuo came by a boat from the east and went to see Guan Yu, who was playing a game of go with advisor Ma Liang. After examining the wound, Hua Tuo told Guan Yu he had to cut open the flesh and scrape off the residual poison on the surface of the bones. He also suggested that the patient place the injured arm through a ring fixed to a pillar to prevent movement in the absence of anaesthesia, and that blindfold be applied. However, Guan Yu requested that the primitive surgery be performed on the spot, while he continued the game. Those around him cringed at the sound of the knife scraping the bone, but Guan Yu ate and drank, talked and laughed as if he did not feel any pain, presumably not to affect the morale of his army. Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Go is a strategic East Asian board game for two players. ... Ma Liang (馬良; style name Jichang 季常; sometimes called Bomei 白眉 White eyebrows) was an advisor to Liu Bei, ruler of the Three Kingdoms state of Shu until his death in 222. ...


Within moments, the treatment was completed. Hua Tuo applied some medications to the wound and sewed it up. Guan Yu laughed and praised the skills of the physician, for the arm felt no more pain. Hua Tuo then left without accepting any reward.


Records of Three Kingdoms did record a similar incident, though the physician was not named. Also, the injury was sustained on the left arm instead of the right at an unspecified time. Hua Tuo was not alive at that time of treatment. He was credited to have died in 208 AD, 12 years before the scraping of the bones story happened.


Enlightenment on Yuqian Hill

In Chapter 77, after Guan Yu was beheaded by Sun Quan, lord of the Kingdom of Wu, his spirit roamed the land, crying, "Give me back my head!" Thus he came to Yuquan Hill (玉泉山) outside Dangyang County (present day city of Dangyang, Hubei), where he met the same monk who saved his life at the temple outside Sishui Pass many years ago during his journey to reunite with Liu Bei. The monk said to Guan Yu's spirit, "Now you ask for your head, but from whom should Yan Liang, Wen Chou, the guardians of the five passes and many others ask for theirs?" The spirit was enlightened and dissipated, though it henceforth often manifested itself around the hill and protected the locals. A temple was then built by the people on the hill to worship him.


The Buddhist monk mentioned in the novel, named Pujing (普淨) in his faith, was said to have built a grass hut for himself at the southeastern foot of Yuquan Hill during the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty. At the location of the hut was later built the Yuquan Temple (玉泉寺), the oldest temple in the Dangyang region from where Guan Yu worship originated, completed within the last decade of the 6th century, during the Sui Dynasty. Accordingly, it was to the first reverend of the Yuquan Temple Guan Yu's spirit manifested itself and requested entrance into Buddhism. One of the temple halls, named Sangharama Hall, is dedicated to Guan Yu (see Worship of Guan Yu below for more details). A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ...


Revenge on Lü Meng

Also in Chapter 77, after executing Guan Yu and reclaiming Jingzhou (荊州), Sun Quan threw a feast to celebrate and commend Lü Meng, chief planner and commander of the maneuver to capture Jingzhou and Guan Yu. On the feast, however, Lü Meng was possessed by Guan Yu's spirit and seized Sun Quan. As others rushed forward to save their lord, the possessed Lü Meng swore revenge. In moments, Lü Meng collapsed onto the floor and died. The frightened Sun Quan then sent Guan Yu's severed head in a wooden box to Cao Cao, meaning to sow a discord between the Kingdom of Shu and Kingdom of Wei. Jingzhou (Simplified Chinese: 荆州; Traditional Chinese: 荊州; pinyin: ) is a city in the Hubei province of the Peoples Republic of China, on the banks of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang). ... Lü Meng (å‘‚è’™ 178 - 219) was a great general of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period. ...


When Cao Cao opened the box, he saw that Guan Yu looked as he did alive. Cao Cao smiled and said to Guan Yu's head, "I hope you are well since we last parted." To his horror, Guan Yu opened his mouth, and the long beard and hairs stood on their ends. Cao Cao fell to the floor and did not regain consciousness for a long time. When he did, he exclaimed, "General Guan is truly a god from heaven!" He then ordered the head be buried with honors accorded a noble.


Historically, Lü Meng died of illness some time after Guan Yu's death, naming Lu Xun as his successor. In what can be seen as a case of irony, Lü Meng's death gave the brilliant young strategist his chance to inflict a far more devastating defeat on Liu Bei at Yiling, all but destroying Shu's war making capability.


Miscellaneous Information

Guan Yu had 3 sons: Guan Ping, Guan Xing and Guan Suo and a daughter, Guan Fengji. His sworn brothers were Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. Guan Yu was also often flanked by two generals, Zhou Cang and Liao Hua, who were both former Yellow Turbans who came to join Shu. Warrior during the three kingdoms period, serving Shu The son of Guan Yu Brother to both, Guan Ping and Guan Xing A warrior during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Zhou Cang was a fictional character created by Luo Guanzhong in his Romance of the Three Kingdoms . ... Liao Hua (廖化; ? - 263 CE), courtesy name Yuanjian (元儉), a military and political figure in ancient Chinese history. ...


Worship of Guan Yu

Emperor Guan Temple in the Chinatown of Yokohama, Japan
Emperor Guan Temple in the Chinatown of Yokohama, Japan

Guan Yu has been deified as early as the Sui Dynasty and is still popularly worshipped today among the Chinese people variedly as an indigenous Chinese deity, a bodhisattva in Buddhism and a guardian deity in Taoism. He is also held in high esteem in Confucianism. These are not necessarily contradictory or even distinguished in these Chinese religious systems, which merge multiple ancient philosophies and religions. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 892 KB) If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 892 KB) If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Yokohama Chinatowns Goodwill Gate Yokohama Chinatowns East Gate Temple in Yokohama Chinatown Yokohama Chinatown (Japanese: 横浜中華街; Traditional Chinese: 橫濱中華街; Mandarin Pinyin: ; Cantonese Jyutping: Waang4 ban1 zung1 waa4 gaai1) is located on Yokohama, Japan. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Wenmiao Temple, a Confucian Temple in Wuwei, Gansu, China Confucian temple in Kaohsiung, Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


In the Western world, Guan Yu is sometimes called the Taoist God of War, probably because he is one of the most well-known military generals in Chinese history. This is misconceived as, unlike Mars or Tyr, Guan Yu as a god does not necessarily bless those who go to battle but rather people who observe the code of brotherhood and righteousness. The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... This article is for the PlayStation 2 game. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that go back to the Three sovereigns and five emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ...


General worship

In general worship, Guan Yu is widely referred to as Emperor Guan (關帝), short for his Daoist title Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君), and as Guan Gong, literally "Lord Guan." Temples and shrines dedicated exclusively to Guan Yu can be found in parts of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and other places where Chinese congregate. Some of these temples, such as the Emperor Guan Temple in Xiezhou (解州), Shanxi, were built exactly in the layout of a palace, befitting his status as a "emperor". ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ...


The apotheosis of Guan Yu occurred in stages, as he was given ever larger posthumous titles. Liu Shan, the second emperor of the Kingdom of Shu, gave Guan Yu the posthumous title of Marquis Zhuangmou (壯繆侯) four decades after his death. During the Song Dynasty, Emperor Huizong bestowed upon Guan Yu the title of Duke Zhonghui (忠惠公), and later even the title of a prince. In 1187, during the reign of Emperor Xiaozong Guan Yu was established as Prince Zhuangmou Yiyong Wu'an Yingji (壯繆義勇武安英濟王). After Song was annihilated by Mongols, who established the Yuan Dynasty in China, Guan Yu was renamed Prince of Xianling Yiyong Wu'an Yingji (顯靈義勇武安英濟王) by Emperor Wenzong. A posthumous name (諡號/謚號 Pinyin: shì hào; Romaji: shigō/tsuigō; Revised Romanization of Korean: siho) is a honorary name given to royalty in some cultures posthumously, that is, after the persons death. ... Liu Shan, (commonly mispronounced as Liu Chan[1]), (207 – 271) was the second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication, and art, and ending in tragedy. ... Categories: Song Dynasty emperors | Stub ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Jayaatu Khan (Classical Mongolian: Jayaɤatu qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Заяат хаан Zayaat haan), born Tugh Temür, was the 11th and 13th grand-khan of the Mongol Empire (Dai-ön Ulus/Yuan Dynasty). ...


The escalation of Guan Yu's status to that of an emperor took place during the Ming Dynasty. In 1614, the Wanli Emperor bestowed on Guan Yu the title of Saintly Emperor Guan the Great God Who Subdues Demons of the Three Worlds and Whose Awe Spreads Far and Moves Heaven (三界伏魔大神威遠震天尊關聖帝君). During the Qing Dynasty, the Shunzhi Emperor gave Guan Yu the title of Zhongyi Shenwu Great Saintly Emperor Guan (忠義神武關聖大帝) in 1644. This title was expanded to Renyong Weixian Huguo Baomin Jingcheng Suijing Yizan Xuande Zhongyi Shenwu Great Saintly Emperor Guan (仁勇威顯護國保民精誠綏靖翊贊宣德忠義神武關聖大帝), a total of 24 characters, by mid-19th century. Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Wanli Emperor (September 4, 1563 - August 18, 1620) was emperor of China (Ming dynasty) between 1572 and 1620. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ...


Throughout history Guan Yu had also been credited with many military successes. During the Ming dynasty his spirit was said to have aided the founding emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's fleet at the Battle of Lake Poyang. In 1402, Zhu Di launched a coup d'état and successfully deposed his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor. Zhu Di claimed that he had been blessed by the spirit of Guan Yu. During the last decade of the 16th century, Guan Yu was also credited with the repulse of Japanese invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (called The Seven-Year War of Korea). The ruling Manchu house of the Qing dynasty also associated with Guan Yu's martial qualities. During the 20th century, Guan Yu was worshipped by the warlord Yuan Shikai, president and later a short-lived emperor of China. Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... The Hongwu Emperor (October 21, 1328 - June 24, 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang, was the founder of the Ming Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 1368 to 1398. ... Combatants Han rebel navy Ming rebel navy Commanders Chen Youliang† Zhu Yuanzhang Strength 650,000 200,000 Casualties Chen Youliang and most of his army 1,346 dead 11,347 wounded The naval battle of Lake Poyang (鄱陽湖之戰) took place 30 August - 4 October 1363 and was one of the final... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360 – August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di (Chu Ti) , was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... The Jianwen Emperor (December 5, 1377–July 13, 1402), with the personal name Zhu Yunwen, reigned as the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Toyotomi Toyotomi Hideyoshi ) February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598) was a sengoku daimyo who unified Japan. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: Yi Sun-sin, Gwon Yul, Won Gyun, Kim Myung Won, Yi Il, Sin Lip, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-min China: Li Rusong , Li Rubai, Ma Gui , Qian Shi-zhen, Ren Ziqiang, Yang Yuan, Zhang Shijue, Chen... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ...


Today Guan Yu is still widely worshipped by common folks. In Hong Kong, a shrine for Guan Yu is located in each police station. Though by no means mandatory, most Chinese policemen worship and pay respect to him. Seemingly ironic, members of the Triad gangs and the Hung clan worship Guan Yu as well. This exemplifies the Chinese belief that a code of honor, epitomized by Guan Yu, exists even in the underworld. In Hong Kong, Guan Yu is often referred to as "Yi Gor" (二哥, Cantonese for second big brother) for he was second to Liu Bei in their legendary sworn brotherhood. Guan Yu is also worshipped by Chinese businessmen in Shanxi Province, Hong Kong, Macau and Southeast Asia as an alternative God of Wealth, since he is perceived to bless the upright and protect them from the crooked. Another reason being related to the release of Cao Cao during the Huarong Pass incident where he let Cao Cao and his general passed through safely. As for that, he was perceived to be able to give a lifeline to those that needed it. Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... A typical suburban police station in the United States (this one is in San Bruno, California). ... For the band, see The Police. ... Triad (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Triad Society) or (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally Black Society, a general term for criminal organizations) is a term that describes many branches of Chinese underground society and/or organizations based in Hong Kong and Macau and also operating in Taiwan, mainland... The Hung clan (Traditional Chinese 洪門, Simplified Chinese 洪门), also called the Chinese Freemasons, is a fraternal organization which originated from China. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liú Bèi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) (161 – 223), courtesy name Xuándé (玄徳), was a powerful warlord and the founding emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Among the Cantonese Chinese who emigrated to California during the mid-19th century, worship of Guan Yu was an important element. Statues and tapestry images of the god can be found in a number of historical California joss houses (a local term for Taoist temples), where his name may be given with various Anglicized spellings, including Kwan Dai, Kwan Tai, Kuan Ti, Kuan Kung, Wu Ti, Mo Dai, Guan Di, Kuan Yu, Kwan Yu, or Quan Yu. The Mendocino Joss House, a historical landmark also known as Mo Dai Miu, The Military God-King's Temple, or Temple of Kwan Tai, built in 1852, is a typical example of the small shrines erected to Guan Yu in America. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... View of Mendocino from the Northwest Mendocino is a census-designated place (CDP) in Mendocino County, California, United States. ...


Worship in Taoism

Guan Yu is revered as Saintly Emperor Guan (Simplified Chinese: 关圣帝君; Traditional Chinese: 關聖帝君; Pinyin: Gūanshèngdìjūn) and a leading subduer of demons in Taoism. Taoist worship of Guan Yu began during the Song Dynasty. Legend has it that during the second decade of the 12th century, the saltwater lake in the present day Xiezhou County (解州鎮) gradually ceased to yield salt. Emperor Huizong then summoned Celestial Master Zhang Jixian (張繼先), thirtieth descendant of Celestial Master Zhang Daoling, to investigate the cause. The emperor was told that the disruption was the work of Chi You, a deity of war. The Master then recruited the help of Guan Yu, who did battle with Chi You over the lake and triumphed, whereupon the lake resumed salt production. Emperor Huizong then bestowed upon Guan Yu the title of Immortal of Chongning (崇寧真君), formally introducing the latter as a deity into Taoism. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960-976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Emperor Huizong (November 2, 1082 – June 4, 1135) was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song Dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication, and art, and ending in tragedy. ... Celestial Master Zhang Daoling Zhang Daoling (Chang Tao-ling), aka Zhang Ling. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In early Ming Dynasty, the forty-second Celestial Master Zhang Zhengchang (張正常) recorded the incident in his book Lineage of the Han Celestial Masters (漢天師世家), the first Taoist classic to affirm the legend. Today Taoism practices are predominant in Guan Yu worship. Many temples dedicated to Guan Yu, including the Emperor Guan Temple in Xiezhou County, show heavy Taoist influence. Every year, on the twenty fourth day of the sixth month on the lunar calendar (legendary birthday of Guan Yu, Emperor Guan was actually born on the twenty second day of the sixth month of the year 160), a street parade in the honor of Emperor Guan would also be held. Ming China under the Yongle Emperor Capital Nanjing (1368-1421) Beijing (1421-1644) Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1368-1398 Hongwu Emperor  - 1627-1644 Chongzhen Emperor History  - Established in Nanjing January 23, 1368  - Fall of Beijing 1644  - End of the Southern Ming April, 1662 Population  - 1393 est. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, akin to the Hebrew calendar & Hindu Calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...


Worship in Buddhism

In Chinese Buddhism, Guan Yu is honored as a bodhisattva and protector of the Dharma. He is called Sangharama Bodhisattva (Simplified Chinese: 伽蓝菩萨; Traditional Chinese: 伽藍菩薩,; Pinyin: Qíelán Púsà). Sangharama in Sanskrit means 'community garden' (sangha, community + arama, garden) and thus 'monastery'. Guan Yu is the guardian of the temple and the garden in which it stands. His statue is usually located on the far left of the main shrine, opposite his counterpart, Skanda Bodhisattva. This article explores how Buddhism, a Indian origin, has affected and been affected by Chinese culture, politics, literature and philosophy. ... Lands Bhutan â€¢ China â€¢ Korea Japan â€¢ Tibet â€¢ Vietnam Taiwan â€¢ Mongolia Doctrine Bodhisattva â€¢ Bodhicitta Karuna â€¢ Prajna Sunyata â€¢ Buddha Nature Trikaya â€¢ Eternal Buddha Scriptures Prajnaparamita Sutra Avatamsaka Sutra Lotus Sutra Nirvana Sutra VimalakÄ«rti Sutra Lankavatara Sutra History 4th Buddhist Council Silk Road â€¢ Nagarjuna Asanga â€¢ Vasubandhu Bodhidharma      A statue of a Bodhisattva, Akasagarbha. ...   (Sanskrit) (Devnagari: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pali) is the underlying order in nature and human life and behaviour considered to be in accord with that order. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... another name for Guan Gong when he died. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Skanda (Wei Tuo) Bodhisattva Skanda Bodhisattva (Ch. ...


According to the Buddhist account, in 592, Guan Yu manifested himself one night before the Tripitaka Master Zhiyi, founder of the Tientai school of Buddhism, with a retinue of spiritual beings. Zhiyi was then in deep meditation on Yuquan Hill (玉泉山) when he was distracted by Guan Yu's presence. After receiving Buddhist teachings from the master, Guan Yu acquired the Five Precepts. Henceforth he became the guardian of temples and the Dharma. Legends also claim that Guan Yu assisted Zhiyi in the construction of the Yuquan Temple (玉泉寺), which still stands today. The Tripitaka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ... Zhiyi (智顗 Wade-Giles: Chih-i) (538 - 597) is traditionally listed as the fourth patriarch, but actually is the founder of the Tiantai sect of Buddhism in China. ... Tiantai (天台宗, Wade-Giles: Tien Tai) is one of the thirteen schools of Buddhism in China and Japan, also called the Lotus Sutra School. ... This article is about the Buddhist concept; see Pancasila Indonesia for the Indonesian state philosophy. ...


In the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Luo Guanzhong wrote that Guan Yu manifested himself to a monk named Pujing (普淨) on Yuquan Hill on the night of his death, with his spirit shouting "Give me back my head." From Pujing Guan Yu sought the Buddhist teachings and entered the faith after being told by Pujing "Where will Yan Liang, Wen Chou, and the guardians of the five passes who you have slain should seek their heads?" While this being a modification of the "true" account, Pujing did exist in history. The location at which Pujing built a grass hut for himself was where the Yuquan Temple was later built on. A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). ... Luo Guanzhong (Traditional Chinese: 羅貫中, Wade Giles: Lo Kuan-chung) was a 14th century Chinese author attributed with writing Romance of the Three Kingdoms and editing Outlaws of the Marsh, two of the most revered adventure epics in Chinese literature. ...


In popular culture

Film

  • In Stephen Chow Sing-chi's 1994 comedy From Beijing with Love, Chow plays an absentminded spy named "Ling Ling Chai" (007) who is shot by a double agent during a mission. When it is discovered the bullet has lodged deep into his thigh bone, he watches an interracial pornographic film to divert his attention from the pain while the bullet is retrieved. He calls upon Guan's example of playing Chess while Dr. Hua Tuo performed surgery on his wounded arm to illustrate the effectiveness of diverting one's attention.

Zhang Yimou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ;  ) (born November 14, 1951) is an internationally acclaimed Chinese filmmaker and one-time cinematographer. ... Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles (Simplified Chinese: 千里走单骑, Traditional Chinese: 千里走單騎; pinyin: qiān lǐ zÇ’u dān qí) is a 2005 Chinese drama film, directed by Zhang Yimou and starring Takakura Ken. ... Stephen Chow (also Stephen Chiau) (traditional Chinese: 周星馳; simplified Chinese : 周星驰; often Romanized as Chow Sing Chi; pinyin : Zhōu XÄ«ngchí; jyutping : zau1 sing1 ci4) (born June 22, 1962) is a director and actor in many blockbuster movies in Hong Kong. ... From Beijing With Love From Beijing With Love (Chinese: 國產凌凌漆; pinyin: GuóchÇŽn Líng Líng QÄ«; home-produced 007) is a 1994 action comedy directed by Lee Lik Chi and Stephen Chow, a spoof of James Bond movies. ... 007 refers to either James Bond or Korean Airlines Flight 007 which was shot down in 1983 over Soviet airspace. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity of performers in pornography be merged into this article or section. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan (é—œ) Guan Yu (關羽) (160–219) was a general under the warlord Liu Bei during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. ...

Manga

In the manga Ikki Tousen, all the warriors from Romance of the Three Kingdoms are reborn as Japanese high school students whose lives have to replay the entire story. His reincarnation is schoolgirl Kan-u Unchou, who carries the Blue Dragon Crescent Blade with her. Ikki Tousen , literally one with the strength of a thousand) or Bakunyū Hyper-Battle Ikki Tōsen is a 13 episode anime series loosely based on the manga by Yuji Shiozaki, which is in turn based on the classic Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ... The following is a list of Ikki Tousen characters. ... The Blue Dragon Crescent Blade (青龍偃月刀) was a weapon supposedly used by Guan Yu in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ...


Games

Guan Yu, as he appears in Dynasty Warriors 5.
  • He is a playable character in the Koei video game Dynasty Warriors. In the game he is pictured as a tall, red-skinned man dressed in a green robe. In later releases of the game (3-5), he becomes more realistic, losing the red skin and wearing his armour over his robe. His weapon is a guan dao named "Blue Moon Dragon" and is often seen on Lu Bu's horse, Red Hare. Guan Yu has a strong attack status, but suffers from loss of speed. Players often equip him with both Speed Scroll and Red Hare to make up for his speed loss.
  • He is also an officer in the game series Sangokushi. He is often given one of the highest War and Leadership stats which make him one of the best characters to use.
  • Another game which features him is the Street Fighter-clone, Sango Fighter. Like Dynasty Warriors, in Sango Fighter, Guan Yu is also depicted as a tall, red-skinned man dressed in a green robe.
  • He is a playable warrior with his own pack of support cards in the second set of Anachronism (game).
  • MapleStory, a MMORPG from Wizet, has recently added a Guan Yu costume. It includes a turban hat, green battle gown, shoes, beard and his well known Green Dragon crescent-moon blade weapon.
  • A character in the Shining Force Series for the Sega Genesis and Gameboy Advance, General Elliot, bears a resemblance to him, wielding a guando-like weapon, and possessing the characteristic red skin. Elliot also demonstrates similar morals and values to those attributed to Guan Yu.
  • In Emperor: Rise of the Middle Kingdom, Guan Yu (called Guan Di) is a Taoist hero with some knowledge of Confucianism. He can fill warehouses with soybeans, lead troops into battle, and bless a military fort to fill it with weapons for training soldiers.
  • In the History Channel's Anachronism card game , His cards have high initiative. His weapon is "Qing Long Yan Yue Dao" , his armour is "Jiang Jun Zhil Kai", his Special card is "Tao Yuan San Jie Yi", and his inspiration card is "Guan Di", possibly alluding to his worship in the Taoist pantheon. Artwork for the five cards was done by Rob Alexander.
  • In Destiny of an Emperor from the original Nintendo Entertainment System, he is a general who becomes available to add on to your fighting group (led by Lui Bei) and is generally considered one of the strongest commanders in the game.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x900, 78 KB) Guan Yu, riding the famous Red Hare steed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (599x900, 78 KB) Guan Yu, riding the famous Red Hare steed. ... Dynasty Warriors 5 (真・三國無双4) is a beat em up video game set in China and the fifth installment in the Dynasty Warriors series, developed by Omega Force and published by Koei, the game was released on the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. ... Koeis Current Company Logo Koei Co. ... A guan dao or kwan dao is a type of Chinese pole weapon that is currently used in some forms of Chinese martial arts (wushu). ... Romance of the Three Kingdoms for the Nintendo Entertainment System Sangokushi, the Japanese transliteration of Sanguo Zhi (Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms) is a computer and video game that originated from Japan, a series of turn-based computerized wargames by Koei. ... Screenshot of Street Fighter (arcade version). ... Sango Fighter is a fighting game for DOS made by the chinese Panda Entertainment and released in 1993. ... Anachronism is a tabletop game with aspects of both miniatures and collectible card genres. ... This article is about the original game for Windows. ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... Wizet is a game development studio located in Seoul, South Korea, and is popular for its hit game MapleStory. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ... The correct title of this article is Portal: Three Kingdoms. ... Shining Force: The Legacy of Great Intention, more commonly referred to as Shining Force, is a 1992 turn-based strategy role-playing video game for the Mega Drive/Genesis console. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... Anachronism is a tabletop game with aspects of both miniatures and collectible card genres. ... The Blue Dragon Crescent Blade (青龍偃月刀) was a weapon supposedly used by Guan Yu in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Oath of the Peach Garden (義重桃園 or 桃園三節義) was an oath by which the three fighters Liu Bei, Zhang Fei, and Guan Yu became sworn brothers in a ceremony amid peach blossom trees. ... Destiny of an Emperor (Tenchi o Kurau) is a fairly traditional RPG for the Nintendo Entertainment System. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ In the Eastern Han Dynasty, one chi was approximately 23.1 cm, nine chi was approximately 2.079 meters (6 feet, 9.85 inches)
  2. ^ In the Eastern Han Dynasty, one chi was approximately 23.1 cm, two chi was approximately 46.2 cm (~18 inches)
  3. ^ his face had a dark red hue to it, like the color of dark jujube fruit
  4. ^ the corners of his eyes were turned up
  5. ^ they were long and tapered

References

  • Chen Shou (2002). San Guo Zhi. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 7-80665-198-5. 
  • Luo Guanzhong (1986). San Guo Yan Yi. Yue Lu Shu She. ISBN 7-80520-013-0. 
  • Lo Kuan-chung; tr. C.H. Brewitt-Taylor (2002). Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3467-9. 
  • (Chinese) 关羽生平. 关公文化. Retrieved on July 16, 2005.
  • (Chinese) 关公崇拜. 中国解州关帝庙. Retrieved on July 20, 2005.
  • (Chinese) 三国地名考. 明清小说研究. Retrieved on July 13, 2005.
  • (Chinese) 当阳玉泉寺. 当阳玉泉寺. Retrieved on July 14, 2005.

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See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Biography of Guan Yu

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Picture of a family of Malaysian Chinese Gods, including Kwan Yin Ma, Kwan Kong and Na Tuk Kong. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Statue of Yue Fei, from the Yue Fei Mausoleum in Hangzhou. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Guan Yu
  • (Chinese) Official website of Emperor Guan Temple in Xiezhou
  • Internet Go Server's large version of Utagawa Kuniyoshi's boneshaving print
  • List of generals slain by Guan Yu

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Guan Yu (96 words)
In the Romance of Three Kingdoms, Guan Yu or Guan Gong was probably one of the most respected men in the ancient Three Kingdoms of China.
Guan Yu was reffered to as "beautiful beard" because of his long, flowing beard and it was said that he was a match for 10,000 men.
Guan was given Lu Bu's horse "Red Hare" by Lord Cao Cao of the Wei Kingdom as a prize for his amazing fighting skills.
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