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Encyclopedia > Guadalcanal campaign
Guadalcanal campaign
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II

United States Marines rest in the field during the Guadalcanal campaign.
Date August 7, 1942February 9, 1943
Location Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
Result Allied strategic victory
Combatants
Allied forces including:
United States
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of United Kingdom British Solomon Is.[1]
Tonga[2]
Empire of Japan
Commanders
Robert Ghormley
William Halsey, Jr.
Alexander Vandegrift
Alexander Patch
Richmond K. Turner
Harukichi Hyakutake
Isoroku Yamamoto
Nishizo Tsukahara
Jinichi Kusaka
Gunichi Mikawa
Strength
60,000 (ground forces)[3] 36,200 (ground forces)[4]
Casualties
1,768 dead (ground),
4,911 dead (naval),
420 dead (aircrew),
4 captured,
29 ships sunk,
615 aircraft destroyed[5]
24,600-25,600 dead (ground),
3,543 dead (naval),
1,200 dead (aircrew),
1,000 captured,
38 ships sunk,
683-880 aircraft destroyed[6]
Guadalcanal campaign
Tulagi – Savo I.TenaruEastern SolomonsEdson's RidgeMatanikauCape EsperanceHenderson FieldSanta Cruz Is.Naval GuadalcanalTassafarongaKeRennell I.
Solomon Islands campaign
1st TulagiGuadalcanalBlackett StraitCartwheelDeath of YamamotoNew GeorgiaKula GulfKolombangaraVella GulfHoraniuVella LavellaNaval Vella LavellaTreasury Is.Choiseul – Bougainville – Rabaul carrier raidCape St. GeorgeGreen Is.

The Guadalcanal campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal, was fought between August 7, 1942 and February 7, 1943 in the Pacific theatre of World War II. This campaign, fought on the ground, at sea, and in the air, pitted Allied forces against Imperial Japanese forces, and was a decisive, strategically significant campaign of World War II. The fighting took place on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the southern Solomon Islands and was the first major offensive launched by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan. Combatants China (from 1937) Việt Minh (from 1941) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government Thailand (1942) Mengjiang... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Most of these Marines are armed with M1903 bolt-action rifles and carry M1905 bayonets and USMC 1941 type packs. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Guadalcanal, a 2,510 square mile (6,500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands, is largely a jungle. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Motto To Lead is to Serve Anthem God Save Our Solomon Islands Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Honiara Official languages English Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Nathaniel Waena  -  Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare Independence from the UK   -  Date 7 July 1978  Area  -  Total... Image File history File links Flag_of_Tonga. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Robert Lee Ghormley (15 October 1883 – 21 June 1958) was an admiral of the United States Navy during World War II. VADM Robert L. Ghormley, 1942 Ghormley was born in Portland, Oregon, on 15 October 1883. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Gen. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner (27 May 1885 – 12 February 1961) served in the United States Navy during World War II. Vice Admiral Turner, on board Eldorado Turner was born in Portland, Oregon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Harukichi Hyakutake was a Japanese Imperial Army officer who commanded Japanese forces during the Pacific War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was a Fleet Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and alumnus of the U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919 - 1921). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Nishizo Tsukahara, April 3, 1887 – January 10, 1966, was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Jinichi Kusaka, December 7, 1888 – August 24, 1972,[1] was a commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. At the beginning of the war Kusaka commanded the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Gunichi Mikawa Gunichi Mikawa (三河 軍一 Mikawa Gunichi, August 29, 1888 - February 25, 1981) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. External links Naval Historical Center biography of Gunichi Mikawa FUTURA DTP biography of Gunichi Mikawa Categories: Japanese people stubs | 1888 births... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, William H. Rupertus Isoroku Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 3,000[1] 886[2] Casualties 122 killed[3] 863 killed, 23 captured[4] The Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo was a land battle of the Pacific campaign of World War... Combatants United States, Australia, United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Victor A. C. Crutchley Isoroku Yamamoto, Gunichi Mikawa Strength 8 cruisers, 15 destroyers[2] 7 cruisers, 1 destroyer[3] Casualties 4 cruisers sunk, 1 cruiser, 2 destroyers damaged, 1,077 killed[4] 3 cruisers moderately damaged, 58... Combatants United States, Australia, Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Clifton B. Cates Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyonao Ichiki â€  Strength 1,500[1] 917[2] Casualties 44 killed[3] 777 killed, 15 captured[4] The Battle of the Tenaru, also known as the Battle of the Ilu River, took place... Battle of the Eastern Solomons Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 24, 1942 – August 25, 1942 Place North of Santa Isabel, United States Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Merritt A. Edson Harukichi Hyakutake Kiyotaki Kawaguchi Strength 12,500[1] 6,217[2] Casualties 96 killed[3] 800+ killed[4] The Battle of Edsons Ridge, also known as the Battle of the Bloody Ridge and Battle... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Merritt A. Edson, Chesty Puller, Samuel B. Griffith Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyotaki Kawaguchi, Akinosuka Oka, Masao Maruyama, Yumio Nasu Strength 3,000[1] 1,900[2] Casualties 156 killed[3] 750 killed[4] The Actions along the Matanikau in September and October... Combatants United States New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Norman Scott Aritomo Goto† Strength 4 cruisers 5 destroyers 3 cruisers 2 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer heavily damaged, 163 killed[1] 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser heavily damaged, 454 killed, 111 captured[2... Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Harukichi Hyakutake Strength 23,088[1] 14,000[2] Casualties 61-86 killed[3] 2,200+ killed[4] The Battle for Henderson Field, also known as the Battle of Henderson Field, took place October 23–26, 1942, and was a... Combatants United States (U.S.) Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... The Battle of Tassafaronga was a naval battle fought between United States and Japanese forces on 30 November 1942. ... Operation KE was the three-phase withdrawal of all Japanese forces from the Battle of Guadalcanal following the defeat of the Imperial Army in ground combat centered at Henderson Field and the near destruction of Japanese naval forces in the area. ... Battle of Rennell Island Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 29 January 1943 – 30 January 1943 Place Rennell Island, Solomon Islands Result Japanese victory The Battle of Rennell Island was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on 29 January – 30 January... The Solomon Islands Campaign was a large series of battles that occurred in the Pacific Theater of World War II. This was the first large-scale campaign in the War in the Pacific, and the victories achieved by the Americans in the battles of this campaign helped secure vital bases... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Battle of Blackett Strait Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date 6 March 1943 Place Blackett Strait, Solomon Islands Result American victory The Battle of Blackett Strait was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on 6 March 1943 in the Blackett Strait, between Kolombangara... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... To boost Japanese morale following the disastrous Battle of Guadalcanal, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy, decided to make an inspection tour throughout the South Pacific. ... The battle of New Georgia was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. It was part of Operation Cartwheel, and was fought in the New Georgia group of islands in the central Solomon Islands from 10 June 1943 to August 25, 1943 between forces of Japan and... The Battle of Kula Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought in the early hours of 6 July 1943, between United States and Japanese ships off the coast of Kolombangara in the Solomon Islands. ... Combatants United States New Zealand Japan Commanders Walden L. Ainsworth Shunji Izaki † Strength 3 light cruisers, 10 destroyers 1 light cruiser, 5 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 3 light cruisers heavily damaged, 89 killed[1] 1 light cruiser sunk, 482 killed[2] The Battle of Kolombangara (Japanese: コロンバンガラ島沖海戦) was a naval... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Frederick Moosbrugger Kaju Sugiura Strength 6 destroyers 4 destroyers Casualties None 3 destroyers sunk, 1,210 killed[1] The Battle of Vella Gulf (Japanese: ベラ湾夜戦) was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of August 6, 1943 – August... Battle off Horaniu Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 17, 1943 – August 18, 1943 Place Near Vella Lavella in the Solomon Islands Result Japanese strategic victory The Battle off Horaniu was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of... New Zealand soldiers land at Baka Baka, Vella Lavella to relieve the U.S. 35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Division, on September 17, 1943. ... Battle of Vella Lavella Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date October 7, 1943 Place Vella Lavella in the Solomon Islands Result Japanese victory The Battle of Vella Lavella was a naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought on the night of October 6, 1943 near... The Battle of the Treasury Islands was fought from October 25 to October 27 of 1943 between New Zealand and Japan in the Solomon Islands. ... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Victor H. Krulak Harukichi Hyakutake Strength 750[1] 3,000-7,000[2] Casualties 13 killed[3] 143 killed, two barges sunk[4] The Raid on Choiseul was a small unit engagement that occurred from October 28 to November 3, 1943, during... Combatants United States Australia New Zealand Fiji Empire of Japan Commanders Roy Geiger Theodore S. Wilkinson Oscar Griswold Stanley Savige Harukichi Hyakutake Masatane Kanda Strength 126,000 troops,[1] 728 aircraft[2] 65,000 troops,[3] 154 aircraft[4] Casualties 1,243 dead[5] 44,000 dead[6] The Bougainville... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders George Kenney (land air forces), William Halsey, Jr. ... Battle of Cape St. ... Troops from New Zealand disembark from U.S. Landing Craft Infantry ship LCI-444 to occupy Green Island on February 16, 1944. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants China (from 1937) Việt Minh (from 1941) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government Thailand (1942) Mengjiang... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Guadalcanal, position (inset) and main towns Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands. ... Anthem: Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ...


On August 7, 1942, Allied forces, predominantly composed of troops from the United States (U.S.), initiated landings on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida in the southern Solomons with the objective of denying their use by Japanese forces as bases to threaten supply routes between the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to eventually isolate the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The initial Allied landings overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders, who had occupied the islands in May 1942, and captured Tulagi and Florida as well as an airfield (later named Henderson Field) that was under construction by the Japanese on Guadalcanal. Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November 1942 to retake Henderson Field on Guadalcanal. These attempts resulted in three major land battles, five large naval battles, and continuous, almost daily, aircraft battles, culminating in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November 1942, in which the last Japanese attempt to land enough troops to capture Henderson Field was defeated. In December 1942, the Japanese abandoned further efforts to retake Guadalcanal and successfully evacuated their remaining forces from the island by February 7, 1943, leaving the island in Allied hands. August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Tulagi, less commonly Tulaghi, is a small island (5. ... The Florida Islands are a small island group in Solomon Islands, a nation in the Pacific Ocean. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ... Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... Operation KE was the three-phase withdrawal of all Japanese forces from the Battle of Guadalcanal following the defeat of the Imperial Army in ground combat centered at Henderson Field and the near destruction of Japanese naval forces in the area. ...


The Guadalcanal campaign marked the first significant strategic combined arms victory by Allied forces over Japanese forces in the Pacific theatre. For this reason, the Guadalcanal campaign is often referred to as a "turning point" in the war. The campaign marked the beginning of the transition by Allied forces from defensive operations to the strategic offensive while the forces of Japan were thereafter forced to cease strategic offensive operations and instead concentrate on strategic defense, culminating in the ultimate defeat of Japan and the end of World War II.

Contents

Background

On December 7, 1941, Japanese forces attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack crippled much of the U.S. battleship fleet and precipitated a state of war between the two nations. The initial goals of Japanese leaders were to neutralize the U.S. fleet, seize possessions rich in natural resources, and establish strategic military bases to defend Japan's empire in the Pacific and Asia. In further support of these goals, Japanese forces also attacked and took control of the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, Wake Island, New Britain, and Guam.[7] Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... (This article is about the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea. ...


Two later attempts by the Japanese to extend their defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific were thwarted in the battles of Coral Sea (May 1942) and Midway (June 1942). These two strategic victories for the Allies provided them with an opportunity to take the initiative and launch an offensive against the Japanese in the Pacific.[8] The Allies chose the Solomon Islands, specifically the southern Solomon islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida as the location for their first offensive.[9] Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier, 1... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties...

Japanese control of the western Pacific area between May and August, 1942. Guadalcanal is located in the lower right center of the map.
Japanese control of the western Pacific area between May and August, 1942. Guadalcanal is located in the lower right center of the map.

Allied strategists knew the Japanese Navy had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and had constructed a seaplane base near there. Allied concern grew when in early July 1942 the Japanese Navy began constructing a large airfield near Lunga Point on nearby Guadalcanal. By August 1942, the Japanese had about 900 troops on Tulagi and nearby islands, and 2,800 personnel (2,200 of whom were Korean construction specialists) on Guadalcanal. These bases, when fully completed, would protect Japan's major base at Rabaul, threaten Allied supply and communication lines, and establish a staging area for possible future offensives against Fiji, New Caledonia, and Samoa. The Japanese planned to deploy 45 fighter and 60 bomber aircraft to Guadalcanal once the airfield was complete.[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1199x873, 141 KB) World War II Pacific theater in 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1199x873, 141 KB) World War II Pacific theater in 1942. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (大日本帝國海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) was the navy of Japan before 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lunga Point is a promontory on the northern coast of Guadalcanal, the site of a naval battle during World War II. It was also the name of a nearby airfield, later named Henderson Field. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping boobs. ...


The Allied plan to attack the Japanese positions in the southern Solomons was conceived by U.S. Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. He proposed the offensive to deny the use of the southern Solomon islands by the Japanese as bases to threaten the supply routes between the U.S. and Australia, and to use them as starting points for a campaign with the goal of isolating the major Japanese base at Rabaul while also supporting the Allied New Guinea campaign under Douglas MacArthur, with the eventual goal of opening the way for the U.S. to retake the Philippines.[11] U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz, Allied commander in chief for Pacific forces, created the South Pacific theater, with U.S. Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley placed in command on June 19, 1942, to direct the Allied offensive in the Solomons.[12] Ernest King Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As CNO, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the... The United States Fleet was an organization in the United States Navy from 1922 until after World War II. Initially the abbreviation CINCUS, pronounced as sink us, was used for Commander-in-Chief, United States Fleet, officially replaced by COMINCH in December 1941. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompass related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 195 days remaining. ...

The airfield at Lunga Point on Guadalcanal under construction by Japanese and Korean workers in July, 1942.
The airfield at Lunga Point on Guadalcanal under construction by Japanese and Korean workers in July, 1942.

In preparation for the future offensive in the Pacific, in May, 1942, U.S. Marine Major General Alexander Vandegrift was ordered to move his U.S. 1st Marine Division from the U.S. to New Zealand. Other Allied land, naval, and air force units were sent to establish bases in Fiji, Samoa, New Hebrides, and New Caledonia.[13] Espiritu Santo in New Hebrides was selected as the headquarters and main base for the southern Solomons offensive, codenamed Operation Watchtower, with the commencement date set for August 7, 1942. At first, the Allied offensive was planned just for Tulagi and the Santa Cruz Islands, omitting Guadalcanal. However, after Allied reconnaissance discovered the Japanese airfield construction efforts on Guadalcanal, capture of that airfield was added to the plan and the Santa Cruz operation was (eventually) dropped.[14] Image File history File links GuadHendersonJuly1942. ... Image File history File links GuadHendersonJuly1942. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Gen. ... The 1st Marine Division is the oldest, largest (active duty), and most decorated division in the United States Marine Corps representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... Espiritu Santo (Spanish: Holy Ghost) is is the largest island in the nation of Vanuatu. ... The New Hebrides are an island group in the South Pacific that now form the nation of Vanuatu. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... The Santa Cruz Islands are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean, part of the nation of the Solomon Islands. ...


The Allied Watchtower expeditionary force of 75 warships and transports, which included vessels from both the U.S. and Australia, assembled near Fiji on July 26, 1942, and engaged in one rehearsal landing prior to leaving for Guadalcanal on July 31.[15] The on-scene commander of the Allied expeditionary force was U.S. Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, whose flagship was the U.S. aircraft carrier Saratoga. The Allied commander of the amphibious transport force was U.S. Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner. Vandegrift was the commander of the 16,000 Allied (primarily U.S. Marine) ground forces involved in the landings.[16] July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed on board ship, 17 September 1942. ... Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... The fifth USS Saratoga (CV-3) was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner (27 May 1885 – 12 February 1961) served in the United States Navy during World War II. Vice Admiral Turner, on board Eldorado Turner was born in Portland, Oregon. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ...


Landings

Routes of Allied amphibious forces for landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, August 7, 1942.
Routes of Allied amphibious forces for landings on Guadalcanal and Tulagi, August 7, 1942.

Due to bad weather, the Allied expeditionary force arrived in the vicinity of Guadalcanal undetected by the Japanese on the morning of August 7.[17] The landing force ships split into two groups, with one group assaulting Guadalcanal, and the other Tulagi, Florida, and nearby islands.[18] Allied warships bombarded the invasion beaches while U.S. carrier aircraft bombed Japanese positions on the target islands and destroyed 15 Japanese seaplanes at their base near Tulagi.[19] Image File history File links GuadTulagiLanding. ... Image File history File links GuadTulagiLanding. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ...


Tulagi, and the two nearby, small islands of Gavutu and Tamambogo were assaulted by 3,000 U.S. Marines on August 7.[20] The 886 Japanese Imperial Navy personnel manning the naval and seaplane bases on the three islands fiercely resisted the Marine attacks.[21] With some difficulty, the U.S. Marines finally secured all three islands, Tulagi on August 8, and Gavutu and Tanambogo by August 9.[22] The Japanese defenders were killed almost to the last man while the Marines suffered 122 killed.[23] Alright, so Gavutu is like this island in the pacific where this battle was fought. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (大日本帝國海軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun) was the navy of Japan before 1945. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo.
U.S. Marines come ashore on Guadalcanal on August 7, 1942.
U.S. Marines come ashore on Guadalcanal on August 7, 1942.

In contrast to Tulagi, Gavutu, and Tanambogo, the landings on Guadalcanal encountered much less resistance. At 09:10 on August 7, General Vandegrift and 11,000 U.S. Marines came ashore on Guadalcanal between Koli Point and Lunga Point. Advancing towards Lunga Point, they encountered no resistance except for "tangled" rain forest, and halted for the night about 1,000 yards from the Lunga Point airfield. The next day, again against little resistance, the Marines advanced all the way to the Lunga River, and secured the airfield by 16:00 on August 8. The Japanese naval construction units had abandoned the airfield area, leaving behind food, supplies, and intact construction equipment and vehicles.[24] Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, William H. Rupertus Isoroku Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 3,000[1] 886[2] Casualties 122 killed[3] 863 killed, 23 captured[4] The Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo was a land battle of the Pacific campaign of World War... Image File history File links GuadLandingsLunga. ... Image File history File links GuadLandingsLunga. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... (Redirected from 24 hour clock) The 24-hour clock, also referred to (only in the US) as military time or (only in the United Kingdom and now very rarely) as continental time is a convention of time-keeping in which the day runs from midnight to midnight and is divided... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ...


During the landing operations on August 7 and 8, Japanese aircraft based at Rabaul, under the command of Sadayoshi Yamada, attacked the Allied amphibious forces several times, setting afire the U.S. transport George F. Elliot (which eventually sank two days later) and heavily damaging the U.S. destroyer Jarvis.[25] In the air attacks over the two days, the Japanese lost 36 aircraft, while the U.S. lost 19 aircraft, both in combat and to accident, including 14 carrier fighter aircraft.[26] August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Sadayoshi Yamada was a Vice Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Beginning April 1, 1942, he commanded the 25th Air Flotilla at the Japanese base of Rabaul, New Britain. ... USS Jarvis (DD-393), a Bagley-class destroyer, was the 2nd ship of the United States Navy to be named for James C. Jarvis, WhoHeWas. ... Fighter has a number of meanings: A fighter aircraft is a warplane designed to destroy other warplanes in combat. ...

Japanese Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bombers attack Allied ships off Guadalcanal on August 8.
Japanese Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bombers attack Allied ships off Guadalcanal on August 8.

After these clashes, Fletcher was concerned about the losses to his carrier fighter aircraft strength, anxious about the threat to his carriers from further Japanese air attacks, and worried about his ship's fuel levels. Fletcher determined that he would withdraw from the Solomon Islands area with his carrier task forces the evening of August 8 to avoid further losses.[27] Due to the loss of carrier air cover, Turner decided that he would have no choice but also to withdraw his ships from Guadalcanal, even though less than half of the supplies and heavy equipment on the transport ships needed by the troops ashore had been unloaded.[28] Turner intended to unload as many supplies as possible on Guadalcanal and Tulagi throughout the night of August 8 and then depart with his ships early on August 9.[29] Image File history File links GuadBettyAttack. ... Image File history File links GuadBettyAttack. ... Mitsubishi G4M The Mitsubishi G4M (一式陸上攻撃機:Type 1 land-based attack aircraft; Allied reporting name Betty) was a twin-engined, land-based bomber aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. The bomber is nicknamed the Betty by the American military. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...


That night, as the transports unloaded, two groups of Allied warships screening the transports were surprised and defeated by a single Japanese force of seven cruisers and one destroyer, commanded by Japanese Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa. Three U.S. and one Australian cruisers were sunk and one other U.S. cruiser and two destroyers were damaged in this lopsided Japanese victory. Fortunately for the Allies, Mikawa, who was unaware that Fletcher had withdrawn with the U.S. carriers, immediately returned to his home ports of Rabaul and Kavieng without attempting to attack the now unprotected Allied transports. Mikawa was concerned about U.S. carrier air attacks during daylight hours if he tarried in the southern Solomons area. After this defeat, Turner withdrew all remaining Allied naval forces by the evening of August 9, leaving the Marines ashore without much of the heavy equipment, provisions, and troops still aboard the transports.[30] Gunichi Mikawa Gunichi Mikawa (三河 軍一 Mikawa Gunichi, August 29, 1888 - February 25, 1981) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. External links Naval Historical Center biography of Gunichi Mikawa FUTURA DTP biography of Gunichi Mikawa Categories: Japanese people stubs | 1888 births... Kavieng is the capital of the Papua New Guinean province of New Ireland and the largest town on the island of the same name. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...

For more details on this topic, see Battle of Savo Island.

Combatants United States, Australia, United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Richmond K. Turner, Victor A. C. Crutchley Isoroku Yamamoto, Gunichi Mikawa Strength 8 cruisers, 15 destroyers[2] 7 cruisers, 1 destroyer[3] Casualties 4 cruisers sunk, 1 cruiser, 2 destroyers damaged, 1,077 killed[4] 3 cruisers moderately damaged, 58...

Initial operations

Initial U.S. Marine defenses around the airstrip at Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, Aug 12, 1942.
Initial U.S. Marine defenses around the airstrip at Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, Aug 12, 1942.

The 11,000 Marines remaining on Guadalcanal initially concentrated on forming a loose defensive perimeter around Lunga Point and the airfield, moving the landed supplies within the perimeter, and finishing the airfield. In four days of intense effort, the supplies were moved from the landing beach into dispersed dumps within the perimeter. Work began on the airfield immediately, mainly using captured Japanese equipment. On August 12, the airfield was named Henderson Field after Major Lofton Henderson, a Marine aviator who had been killed at the Battle of Midway. By August 18, the airfield was ready for operation.[31] Five days worth of food had been landed from the transports which, along with caputured Japanese provisions, gave the Marines a total of 14 days worth of food.[32] To conserve the limited food supplies, the Allied troops were limited to two meals a day.[33] Allied troops encountered a "severe strain" of dysentery soon after the landings, with one in five Marines afflicted by mid-August. Although some of the Korean construction workers surrendered to the Marines, most of the remaining Japanese and Korean personnel gathered just west of the Lunga perimeter on the west bank of the Matanikau River and subsisted mainly on coconuts. A Japanese naval outpost was also located at Taivu Point, about 22 miles east of the Lunga perimeter. On August 8, a Japanese destroyer delivered 113 naval reinforcement troops to the Matanikau position.[34] Image File history File links GuadInitialLungaPerimeter. ... Image File history File links GuadInitialLungaPerimeter. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... Lofton R. Henderson (24 May 1903 – 4 June 1942) was a naval aviator in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. Henderson was born in Lorain, Ohio on 24 May 1903 and graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1926. ... Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dysentery is an illness (formerly known as the bloody flux or simply flux) involving severe diarrhea that is often associated with blood in the feces. ... The Matanikau River of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, is located in the northwest part of the island. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ...


On the evening of August 12, a 25-man U.S. Marine patrol, led by Lt. Col Frank Goettge and primarily consisting of intelligence personnel, landed by boat west of the Lunga perimeter, between Point Cruz and the Matanikau River, on a reconnaissance mission with a secondary objective of contacting a group of Japanese troops that the U.S. forces believed might be willing to surrender. Soon after the patrol landed, a nearby platoon of Japanese troops attacked and almost completely wiped-out the group of Marines.[35] August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... The Matanikau River of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, is located in the northwest part of the island. ... Platoon is a term from military science. ...

Chart showing the U.S. Marine attacks west of the Matanikau River on August 19.
Chart showing the U.S. Marine attacks west of the Matanikau River on August 19.

On August 19, Vandegrift sent three companies from the U.S. 5th Marine Regiment to attack the Japanese troop concentration west of the Matanikau. One Marine company attacked across the sandbar at the mouth of the Matanikau river while another company crossed the river 1,000 yards inland and attacked the Japanese forces located in Matanikau village. The third Marine company landed by boat further west and attacked Kokumbuna village. After briefly occupying the two villages, the three Marine companies returned to the Lunga perimeter, having killed about 65 Japanese soldiers while losing four themselves. This action, sometimes referred to as the "First Battle of the Matanikau", was the first of several major actions that would take place in the Matanikau river area during the campaign.[36] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1252x315, 66 KB) U.S. Marine forces in action in Matanikau area, Guadalcanal, Aug 19, 1942. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1252x315, 66 KB) U.S. Marine forces in action in Matanikau area, Guadalcanal, Aug 19, 1942. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Official force name 5th Marine Regiment Other names 5th Marines Motto No Better Friend, No Worse Enemy Branch United States Marine Corps Chain of Command 1st Marine Division I Marine Expeditionary Force Description Marine infantry regiment Readiness Capable of short notice world wide deployment. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Merritt A. Edson, Chesty Puller, Samuel B. Griffith Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyotaki Kawaguchi, Akinosuka Oka, Masao Maruyama, Yumio Nasu Strength 3,000[1] 1,900[2] Casualties 156 killed[3] 750 killed[4] The Actions along the Matanikau in September and October...


On August 20, the U.S. escort carrier Long Island delivered two squadrons of Marine aircraft to Henderson Field. One squadron consisted of 19 Grumman F4F fighters and the other was a squadron of 12 SBD Dauntless dive bombers. The aircraft at Henderson became known as the "Cactus Air Force" after the Allied codename for Guadalcanal. The Marine fighters went into action the next day, attacking one of the Japanese bomber air raids that occurred almost daily. On August 22, five U.S. Army P-400 fighters (a variant of the P-39 Airacobra) and their pilots arrived at Henderson Field.[37] August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... The second USS Long Island (CVE-1) (originally AVG-1 and then ACV-1) was lead ship of the Long Island class and the first escort aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat of VF-41, circa early 1942. ... The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the U.S. Navys main scout bomber and dive bomber from mid-1940 until 1943, when it was replaced by the SB2C Helldiver. ... Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal from August 1942 until December 1942 during the early stages of the Guadalcanal Campaign, particularly those operating from Henderson Field . ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... P400 class patrol vessel P-400 - early designation of P-39 Airacobra fighter Category: ... The Bell P-39 Airacobra was one of the principal American fighter aircraft in service at the start of World War II. Although innovative, the P-39 design was handicapped by the lack of an efficient turbo-supercharger, limiting it to low-altitude work, although the type was utilized with...


Battle of the Tenaru

Further information: Battle of the Tenaru
Dead Japanese soldiers on the sandbar at the mouth of Alligator Creek, Guadalcanal after the Battle of the Tenaru.
Dead Japanese soldiers on the sandbar at the mouth of Alligator Creek, Guadalcanal after the Battle of the Tenaru.

In response to the Allied landings on Guadalcanal, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters assigned the Imperial Japanese Army's 17th Army, a corps-sized command based at Rabaul and under the command of Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake, with the task of retaking Guadalcanal from Allied forces. The 17th Army, currently heavily involved with the Japanese campaign in New Guinea, had only a few units available to send to the southern Solomons area. Of these units, the 35th Infantry Brigade under Major General Kiyotaki Kawaguchi was at Palau, the 4th (Aoba) Infantry Regiment was in the Philippines and the 28th (Ichiki) Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel Kiyonao Ichiki, was onboard transport ships near Guam. The different units began to move towards Guadalcanal immediately, but Ichiki's regiment, being the closest, would ultimately arrive first. A "First Element" of Ichiki's unit, consisting of about 917 soldiers, landed from destroyers at Taivu Point, east of the Lunga perimeter, on August 19.[38] Combatants United States, Australia, Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Clifton B. Cates Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyonao Ichiki â€  Strength 1,500[1] 917[2] Casualties 44 killed[3] 777 killed, 15 captured[4] The Battle of the Tenaru, also known as the Battle of the Ilu River, took place... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1005x700, 229 KB) Dead Japanese soldiers lie on the sandbar at the mouth of Alligator Creek on Guadalcanal on August 21, 1942 after being killed by U.S. Marines during the Battle of the Tenaru. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1005x700, 229 KB) Dead Japanese soldiers lie on the sandbar at the mouth of Alligator Creek on Guadalcanal on August 21, 1942 after being killed by U.S. Marines during the Battle of the Tenaru. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Harukichi Hyakutake was a Japanese Imperial Army officer who commanded Japanese forces during the Pacific War. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Underestimating the strength of Allied forces on Guadalcanal, Ichiki's unit conducted a nighttime frontal assault on Marine positions at Alligator Creek (often called the "Ilu River" on U.S. Marine maps) on the east side of the Lunga perimeter in the early morning hours of August 21. Ichiki's assault was defeated with heavy losses for the Japanese attackers in what became known as the Battle of the Tenaru. After daybreak, the Marine units counterattacked Ichiki's surviving troops, killing many more of them, including Ichiki. In total, all but 128 of the original 917 members of the Ichiki Regiment's First Element were killed in the battle. The survivors of Ichiki's force returned to Taivu Point, notified 17th Army headquarters of their defeat in the battle, and awaited further reinforcements and orders from Rabaul.[39] August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States, Australia, Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Clifton B. Cates Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyonao Ichiki â€  Strength 1,500[1] 917[2] Casualties 44 killed[3] 777 killed, 15 captured[4] The Battle of the Tenaru, also known as the Battle of the Ilu River, took place...


Battle of the Eastern Solomons

Further information: Battle of the Eastern Solomons
The U.S. carrier Enterprise under aerial attack during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.
The U.S. carrier Enterprise under aerial attack during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons.

As the Tenaru battle was ending, more Japanese reinforcements were already on their way from Truk. Departing Truk on August 16 were three slow transports carrying the remaining 1,400 soldiers from Ichiki's (28th) Infantry Regiment plus 500 naval troops from the 5th Yokosuka Special Naval Landing Force.[40] Guarding the transports were 13 warships commanded by Japanese Rear Admiral Raizo Tanaka who planned to land the troops on Guadalcanal on August 24.[41] To cover the landings of these troops and provide support for the operation to retake Henderson Field from Allied forces, the Japanese Combined Fleet sortied from Truk on August 21 and headed towards the southern Solomon Islands with a force of three carriers and 30 other warships.[42] Battle of the Eastern Solomons Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 24, 1942 – August 25, 1942 Place North of Santa Isabel, United States Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Image File history File links EasternSolomonsEnterpriseBurning. ... Image File history File links EasternSolomonsEnterpriseBurning. ... Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and was only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Raizo Tanaka was a Japanese naval commander during World War II, noted for his actions in the Battle of Tassafaronga during the Battle of Guadalcanal. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Simultaneously, three U.S. carrier task forces under Fletcher approached Guadalcanal to counter the Japanese offensive efforts. On August 24 and 25, the two carrier forces fought the Battle of the Eastern Solomons that resulted in the fleets of both adversaries retreating from the area after taking some damage, with the Japanese losing one aircraft carrier sunk. Tanaka's convoy, after suffering heavy damage during the battle from an air attack by U.S. aircraft from Henderson Field, including the sinking of one of the transports, was forced to divert to the Shortland Islands in the northern Solomons in order for the surviving troops to be transferred to destroyers for later delivery to Guadalcanal.[43] August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Battle of the Eastern Solomons Conflict World War II, Pacific War Date August 24, 1942 – August 25, 1942 Place North of Santa Isabel, United States Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... The Shortland Islands are group of islands belonging to the Solomon Islands. ...


Air battles over Henderson Field and strengthening of the Lunga defenses

U.S. Marine F4F Wildcat fighters ascend from Henderson Field to attack incoming Japanese aircraft in late August or early September, 1942.
U.S. Marine F4F Wildcat fighters ascend from Henderson Field to attack incoming Japanese aircraft in late August or early September, 1942.

Throughout August, small numbers of U.S. aircraft and their crews continued to arrive at Guadalcanal. By the end of August, 64 aircraft of various types were stationed at Henderson Field.[44] On September 3, the commander of 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, U.S. Marine Brigadier General Roy S. Geiger, arrived with his staff and took command of all air operations at Henderson Field.[45] Air battles between the Allied aircraft at Henderson and Japanese bombers and fighters from Rabaul continued almost daily. Between August 26 and September 5, the U.S. lost about 15 aircraft while the Japanese lost approximately 19 aircraft. More than half of the downed U.S. aircrews were rescued while most of the Japanese aircrews were never recovered. The eight-hour round trip flight from Rabaul to Guadalcanal (about 1,120 miles total) seriously hampered Japanese efforts to establish air superiority over Henderson Field. Australian coastwatchers on Bougainville and New Georgia islands were often able to provide Allied forces on Guadalcanal with advance notice of inbound Japanese air strikes, allowing the U.S. fighters time to take off and position themselves to attack the Japanese bombers and fighters as they approached Henderson Field. Thus, the Japanese air forces were slowly losing a war of attrition in the skies above Guadalcanal.[46] Image File history File links HendersonF4FIntercept. ... Image File history File links HendersonF4FIntercept. ... F4F-3 Wildcat of Lt. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Roy Stanley Geiger (January 25, 1885 – January 23, 1947) was a United States Marine Corps general who, during World War II, became the first Marine to lead an army. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (239th in leap years). ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Captain Martin Clemens, Australian Coastwatcher on Guadalcanal, rendered services to Allied forces during the battle for the island (August, 1942-February, 1943). ... Bougainville and neighbouring islands Bougainville is part of Papua New Guinea and is the largest island of the Solomon Islands group. ... Categories: Oceania geography stubs | Solomon Islands ...

For more details on this topic, see Cactus Air Force.

During this time, Vandegrift continued to direct efforts to strengthen and improve the defenses of the Lunga perimeter. Between August 21 and September 3, he relocated three Marine battalions, including the 1st Raider Battalion, under U.S. Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson (Edson's Raiders), and the 1st Parachute Battalion from Tulagi and Gavutu to Guadalcanal. These units added about 1,500 troops to Vandegrift's original 11,000 men defending Henderson Field.[47] The 1st Parachute battalion, which had suffered heavy casualties in the Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo in August, was placed under Edson's command.[48] The other relocated battalion, the 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment (1/5), was landed by boat west of the Matanikau near Kokumbuna village on August 27 with the mission of attacking Japanese units in the area, much as in the first Matanikau action of August 19. In this case, however, the U.S. Marines were impeded by difficult terrain, hot sun, and well-emplaced Japanese defenses. The next morning the Marines found that the Japanese defenders had departed during the night, so the Marines returned to the Lunga perimeter by boat.[49] Losses in this action were 20 Japanese and 3 Marines killed.[50] Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal from August 1942 until December 1942 during the early stages of the Guadalcanal Campaign, particularly those operating from Henderson Field . ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marine Raider insignia The Marine Raiders were elite units established by the United States Marine Corps during World War II to conduct amphibious light infantry warfare, particularly in landing in rubber boats and operating behind the lines. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Major General Merritt Austin Edson Major General Merritt Austin Edson (April 25, 1897 – August 14, 1955), known as Red Mike, was a general in the United States Marine Corps. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alright, so Gavutu is like this island in the pacific where this battle was fought. ... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, William H. Rupertus Isoroku Yamamoto, Shigeyoshi Inoue Strength 3,000[1] 886[2] Casualties 122 killed[3] 863 killed, 23 captured[4] The Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo was a land battle of the Pacific campaign of World War... 1st Battalion 5th Marines (1/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and Sailors. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Small Allied naval convoys arrived at Guadalcanal on August 23, August 29, September 1, and September 8 to provide the Marines at Lunga with more food, ammunition, aircraft fuel, and aircraft technicians. The September 1 convoy also brought 392 U.S. Navy construction engineers to maintain and improve Henderson Field.[51] August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Seabees are the Construction Battalions of the United States Navy. ...


Tokyo Express

Japanese troops load onto a destroyer for a "Tokyo Express" run to Guadalcanal
Japanese troops load onto a destroyer for a "Tokyo Express" run to Guadalcanal

By August 23, Kawaguchi's 35th Infantry Brigade reached Truk and was loaded onto slow transport ships for the rest of the trip to Guadalcanal. The damage done to Tanaka's convoy during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons caused the Japanese to reconsider trying to deliver more troops to Guadalcanal by slow transport. Instead, the ships carrying Kawaguchi's soldiers were sent to Rabaul. From there, the Japanese planned to deliver Kawaguchi's men to Guadalcanal by destroyers staging through a Japanese naval base in the Shortland Islands. The Japanese destroyers were usually able to make the round trip down "The Slot" to Guadalcanal and back in a single night, thereby minimizing their exposure to Allied air attack. However, delivering the troops in this manner prevented most of the soldier's heavy equipment and supplies, such as heavy artillery, vehicles, and much food and ammunition, from being carried to Guadalcanal with them. These high speed destroyer runs to Guadalcanal, which occurred throughout the campaign, were later called the "Tokyo Express" by Allied forces and "Rat Transportation" by the Japanese.[52] Due to either the inability or unwillingness of Allied naval commanders to challenge Japanese naval forces at night, the Japanese controlled the seas around the Solomon Islands during the nighttime. However, any Japanese ship remaining within range of the aircraft at Henderson Field during the daylight hours (about 200 miles) was in great danger from damaging air attack. This "curious tactical situation" would exist for the next several months during the campaign.[53] Image File history File links TokyoExpress. ... Image File history File links TokyoExpress. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... Categories: Oceania geography stubs | Solomon Islands ... The Tokyo Express was the nickname given by United States sailors and marines to the Japanese attempts to reinforce and resupply their forces during the battle of Guadalcanal and subsequent operations in the Solomon Islands in World War II. Airplanes from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal made it too dangerous for...

For more details on this topic, see Tokyo Express.

Between August 29 and September 4 various Japanese light cruisers, destroyers, and patrol boats were able to land almost 5,000 troops at Taivu Point, including most of the 35th Infantry Brigade, much of the Aoba (4th) Regiment, and the rest of Ichiki's regiment. General Kawaguchi, who landed at Taivu Point on the August 31 Express run, was placed in command of all the Japanese troops on Guadalcanal.[54] A barge convoy took another 1,000 soldiers of Kawaguchi's brigade, under the command of Colonel Akinosuka Oka, to Kamimbo, west of the Lunga perimeter.[55] The Tokyo Express was the nickname given by United States sailors and marines to the Japanese attempts to reinforce and resupply their forces during the battle of Guadalcanal and subsequent operations in the Solomon Islands in World War II. Airplanes from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal made it too dangerous for... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Categories: Ship types ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Akinosuka Oka was a colonel in the Imperial Japanese Army and a commander of Japanese troops during the strategically significant Guadalcanal campaign in the Pacific theater of World War II. Oka commanded a portion of Japanese troops from the 35th Infantry Brigade in a losing effort during the Battle of...


Battle of Edson's Ridge

Further information: Battle of Edson's Ridge
U.S. Marine Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson (here photographed as a brigadier general) who led Marine forces in the Battle of Edson's Ridge
U.S. Marine Lieutenant Colonel Merritt A. Edson (here photographed as a brigadier general) who led Marine forces in the Battle of Edson's Ridge

On September 7, Kawaguchi issued his attack plan to "route and annihilate the enemy in the vicinity of the Guadalcanal Island airfield." Kawaguchi's attack plan called for his forces, split into three divisions, to approach the Lunga perimeter inland, culminating with a surprise night attack. Oka's forces would attack the perimeter from the west while Ichiki's Second Echelon, now renamed the Kuma Battalion, would attack from the east. The main attack would be by Kawaguchi's "Center Body," numbering 3,000 men in three battalions, from the south of the Lunga perimeter.[56] By September 7, most of Kawaguchi's troops had departed Taivu to begin marching towards Lunga Point along the coastline. About 250 Japanese troops remained behind to guard the brigade's supply base at Taviu.[57] Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Merritt A. Edson Harukichi Hyakutake Kiyotaki Kawaguchi Strength 12,500[1] 6,217[2] Casualties 96 killed[3] 800+ killed[4] The Battle of Edsons Ridge, also known as the Battle of the Bloody Ridge and Battle... Image File history File links Edson. ... Image File history File links Edson. ... Major General Merritt Austin Edson Major General Merritt Austin Edson (April 25, 1897 – August 14, 1955), known as Red Mike, was a general in the United States Marine Corps. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ...


Meanwhile, native scouts under the direction of Martin Clemens, a coastwatcher and officer in the Solomon Islands Protectorate Defense Force, brought reports to the U.S. Marines of Japanese troops at Taivu, near the village of Tasimboko. Edson planned a raid to "wipe-out" the Japanese troop concentration at Taivu.[58] On September 8, after being dropped-off near Taivu by boat, Edson's men captured Tasimboko as the Japanese defenders retreated into the jungle.[59] In Tasimboko, Edson's troops discovered "vast stockpiles" of food, ammunition, medical supplies, and a powerful shortwave radio. After destroying everything in sight, except for some documents and equipment carried back with them, the Marines returned to the Lunga perimeter. The mounds of supplies, along with intelligence gathered from the captured documents, informed the Marines that at least 3,000 Japanese troops were on the island and apparently planning an attack on the U.S. defenses.[60] Martin Clemens and his scouts Martin Clemens was born in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... Captain Martin Clemens, Australian Coastwatcher on Guadalcanal, rendered services to Allied forces during the battle for the island (August, 1942-February, 1943). ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than those commonly...


Edson, along with Colonel Gerald Thomas, Vandegrift's operations officer, believed that the Japanese attack would come at a narrow, grassy, 1,000-yard-long, coral ridge that paralleled the Lunga River and was located just south of Henderson Field. The unnamed ridge offered a natural avenue of approach to the airfield, commanded the surrounding area and, at that time, was almost undefended. On September 11, the 840 men of Edson's battalion deployed onto and around the ridge and prepared to defend it.[61] September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ...

Map of the Lunga perimeter on Guadalcanal showing the approach routes of the Japanese forces and the locations of the Japanese attacks during the battle. Oka's attacks were in the west (left), the Kuma Battalion attacked from the east (right) and the Center Body attacked "Edson's Ridge" in the lower center of the map.
Map of the Lunga perimeter on Guadalcanal showing the approach routes of the Japanese forces and the locations of the Japanese attacks during the battle. Oka's attacks were in the west (left), the Kuma Battalion attacked from the east (right) and the Center Body attacked "Edson's Ridge" in the lower center of the map.

On the night of September 12, Kawaguchi's 1st Battalion attacked the Raider's between the Lunga River and ridge, forcing one Marine company to fall back to the ridge. The next night, Kawaguchi faced Edson's 830 Raiders with 3,000 troops of his brigade, plus an assortment of light artillery. The Japanese attack began just after nightfall, with Kawaguchi's 1st battalion assaulting Edson's right flank, just to the west of the ridge. After breaking through the Marine lines, the battalion's assault was eventually stopped by Marine units guarding the northern part of the ridge.[62] Image File history File links EdsonMap2. ... Image File history File links EdsonMap2. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ...


Two companies from Kawaguchi's 2nd battalion charged up the southern edge of the ridge and pushed Edson's troops back to Hill 123 on the center part of the ridge. Throughout the night, Marines at this position, supported by artillery, defeated wave after wave of frontal Japanese attacks. Japanese units that infiltrated past the ridge to the edge of the airfield were also repulsed. Attacks by the Kuma battalion and Oka's unit at other locations on the Lunga perimeter were also defeated by the Marine defenses. On September 14, Kawaguchi led the survivors of his shattered brigade on a five day march west to the Matanikau Valley to join with Oka's unit.[63] In total, Kawaguchi's forces lost about 850 killed and the Marines 104.[64] September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ...


On September 15, General Hyakutake at Rabaul learned of Kawaguchi's defeat and forwarded the news to the Imperial General Headquarters in Japan. In an emergency session, the top Japanese army and navy command staffs concluded that, "Guadalcanal might develop into the decisive battle of the war." The results of the battle now began to have a telling strategic impact on Japanese operations in other areas of the Pacific. Hyakutake realized that in order to send sufficient troops and materiel to defeat the Allied forces on Guadalcanal, he could no longer at the same time support the major Japanese offensive currently ongoing on the Kokoda Track in New Guinea. Hyakutake, with the concurrence of the General Headquarters, ordered his troops on New Guinea, who were within 30-miles of their objective of Port Moresby, to withdraw until the "Guadalcanal matter" was resolved. Hyakutake prepared to send more troops to Guadalcanal for another attempt to recapture Henderson Field.[65] September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Combatants Australia Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500 killed including... Port Moresby town Port Moresby, (), population 255,000 (2000), is the capital of Papua New Guinea. ...


Reinforcement

The U.S. carrier Wasp burns after being hit by Japanese torpedoes on September 15.

As the Japanese regrouped west of the Matanikau, the U.S. forces concentrated on shoring up and strengthening their Lunga defenses. On September 14, Vandegrift moved another battalion, the 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (3/2), from Tulagi to Guadalcanal. On September 18, an Allied naval convoy delivered 4,157 men from the 3rd Provisional Marine Brigade (the U.S. 7th Marine Regiment plus a battalion from the U.S. 11th Marine Regiment and some additional support units), 137 vehicles, tents, aviation fuel, ammunition, rations, and engineering equipment to Guadalcanal. These reinforcements allowed Vandegrift, beginning on September 19, to establish an unbroken line of defense completely around the Lunga perimeter. While covering this convoy, the U.S. aircraft carrier Wasp was sunk by the Japanese submarine I-19 southeast of Guadalcanal, temporarily leaving only one Allied aircraft carrier (Hornet) in operation in the South Pacific area.[66] Vandegrift also made some changes in the senior leadership of his combat units, transferring several officers off the island that didn't meet his performance standards, and promoting junior officers who had "proved themselves" to take their places. One of these was the recently promoted Colonel Merritt Edson, who was placed in command of the 5th Marine Regiment.[67] Image File history File links USS_Wasp_(CV-7)_brennt. ... Image File history File links USS_Wasp_(CV-7)_brennt. ... The eighth USS Wasp (CV-7) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier. ... 3rd Battalion 2nd Marines (3/2) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and Sailors. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Official force name 7th Marine Regiment Other names 7th Marines Motto No Better Friend, No Worse Enemy. ... The 11th Marine Regiment is an artillery regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... The eighth USS Wasp (CV-7) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a watercraft that can operate underwater... I-19 was a Japanese B1 type submarine which saw service during World War II. // On February 23, 1942, I-19s floatplane made a night reconnaissance over Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in support of Operation K-1, a second attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese Navy. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz...


A lull occurred in the air war over Guadalcanal, with no Japanese air raids occurring between September 14 and September 27 due to bad weather, during which both sides reinforced their respective air units. The Japanese delivered 85 fighters and bombers to their air units at Rabaul while the U.S. brought 23 fighters and attack aircraft to Henderson Field. On September 20, the Japanese counted 117 total aircraft at Rabaul while the Allies tallied 71 aircraft at Henderson Field.[68] The air war resumed with a Japanese air raid on Guadalcanal on September 27, which was contested by U.S. Navy and Marine fighters from Henderson Field.[69] September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese immediately began to prepare for their next attempt to recapture Henderson Field. The 3rd Battalion, 4th (Aoba) Infantry Regiment had landed at Kamimbo Bay on the western end of Guadalcanal on September 11, too late to join Kawaguchi's attack on the U.S. Marines. By now, though, the battalion had joined Oka's forces near the Matanikau. Tokyo Express runs on September 14, 20, 21, and 24 by destroyers brought food and ammunition, as well as 280 men from the 1st Battalion, Aoba Regiment, to Kamimbo on Guadalcanal. The Japanese 2nd Infantry Division was transported to Rabaul and prepared for transport by Tokyo Express to Guadalcanal. Much of the Japanese 38th Division in the Dutch East Indies was notified to move to Rabaul in preparation for deployment to Guadalcanal. The Japanese planned to transport a total of 17,500 troops from the 2nd and 38th Divisions to the island to take part in the next major attack on the Lunga Perimeter, set for October 20, 1942.[70] September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dutch East Indies, or Netherlands East Indies, (Dutch: Nederlands-Indië) was the name of the colonies set up by the Dutch East India Company, which came under administration of the Netherlands during the 19th century (see Indonesia). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


Actions along the Matanikau

Further information: Actions along the Matanikau
U.S. Marines cross the Matanikau River in October, 1942.
U.S. Marines cross the Matanikau River in October, 1942.

General Vandegrift and his staff were aware that Kawaguchi's troops had retreated to the area west of the Matanikau and that numerous groups of Japanese stragglers were scattered throughout the area between the Lunga Perimeter and the Matanikau River. Vandegrift, therefore, decided to conduct another series of small unit operations around the Matanikau Valley. The purpose of these operations was to "mop-up" the scattered groups of Japanese troops east of the Matanikau and to keep the main body of Japanese soldiers off-balance to prevent them from consolidating their positions so close to the main Marine defenses at Lunga Point.[71] Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift, Merritt A. Edson, Chesty Puller, Samuel B. Griffith Harukichi Hyakutake, Kiyotaki Kawaguchi, Akinosuka Oka, Masao Maruyama, Yumio Nasu Strength 3,000[1] 1,900[2] Casualties 156 killed[3] 750 killed[4] The Actions along the Matanikau in September and October... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Matanikau River of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, is located in the northwest part of the island. ...


The first U.S. Marine operation and attempt to attack Japanese forces west of the Matanikau, conducted between September 23 and September 27, 1942 by elements of three U.S. Marine battalions, was repulsed by Kawaguchi's troops under Akinosuka Oka's local command. During the action, three U.S. Marine companies were surrounded by Japanese forces near Point Cruz west of the Matanikau, took heavy losses, and barely escaped with assistance from a U.S. Navy destroyer and landing craft manned by U.S. Coast Guard personnel.[72] September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols A battalion is a military unit usually consisting of between two and six companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ...


In the second action between October 6 and 9, a larger force of U.S. Marines successfully crossed the Matanikau River, attacked newly landed Japanese forces from the 2nd Infantry Division under the command of generals Masao Maruyama and Yumio Nasu, and almost completely destroyed the Japanese 4th Infantry Regiment. The second action forced the Japanese to retreat from their positions east of the Matanikau and hindered Japanese preparations for their planned major offensive on the U.S. Lunga defenses set for later in October, 1942.[73] October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Masao Maruyama (丸山政男), 1889 – November 11, 1957, was a lieutenant general and commander in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. As commander of the 6th Infantry Brigade, he was involved in the China Incident in July, 1937. ... Yumio Nasu (那須弓雄), 1892 - October 26, 1942, was a major general and commander in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. During the Guadalcanal campaign Nasu landed on Guadalcanal with the 2nd Infantry Division during the first week of October, 1942 in response to the Allied landings on the island. ...


Between October 9 and October 11 the U.S. 1st Battalion 2nd Marines raided two small Japanese outposts about 30 miles east of the Lunga perimeter at Gurabusu and Koilotumaria near Aola Bay. The raids killed 35 Japanese at a cost of 17 Marines and three U.S. Navy personnel killed.[74] October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1st Battalion 2nd Marines is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Lejeune, North Carolina consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and Sailors. ...


Battle of Cape Esperance

Further information: Battle of Cape Esperance

On October 11 the Japanese sent a force of three cruisers and two destroyers under Rear Admiral Aritomo Goto to bombard Henderson field. At about 23:30 the force encountered Task Force 64, made up of four cruisers and five destroyers under the command of Rear Admiral Norman Scott, patrolling off Cape Esperance. The short battle was a tactical victory for the Americans, sinking a cruiser and a destroyer and heavily damaging a second cruiser in exchange for the loss of a destroyer and heavy damage to a second destroyer and a cruiser. The Japanese force withdrew without firing on the airfield. Admiral Goto was mortally wounded in the battle and died early on October 12. Combatants United States New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Norman Scott Aritomo Goto† Strength 4 cruisers 5 destroyers 3 cruisers 2 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer heavily damaged, 163 killed[1] 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser heavily damaged, 454 killed, 111 captured[2... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aritomo Gotō (五藤 存知, Gotō Aritomo; 1884 - October 12,[1] 1942) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. From the beginning of the war he was in command of Cruiser Division 6 (CruDiv6), consisting of the four heavy cruisers Aoba (Gotos flagship), Furutaka, Kinugasa, and Kako. ... Norman Scott (10 August 1889 – 13 November 1942) was an admiral in the United States Navy and a recipient of the Medal of Honor. ... Chart of Ironbottom Sound and surrounding waters and islands. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ...


Battleship bombardment of Henderson Field

On the night of October 1314, the Japanese battleships Kongō and Haruna bombarded Henderson Field with special fragmentation shells. Many aircraft at the airfield were destroyed, most of the aviation fuel burned, and several of the aircrew members were killed. The field was not put completely out of action, however, and the Cactus Air Force continued to challenge Japanese air raids albeit with smaller numbers. October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Haruna (榛名) was a Kongo class battleship laid down by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Company at Kobe on 16 March 1912, launched on 14 December 1913 and completed on 19 April 1915. ...


Battle for Henderson Field

Further information: Battle for Henderson Field

Finally on 23 October, with the addition of more troops, the Japanese made another attempt to capture Henderson Field from the south of the salient. The newly arrived U.S. Army's 164th Infantry Regiment and 1st Battalion, 7th Marines defended this position, and after a determined battle the attack was finally repulsed after committing the U.S. reserves. Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Harukichi Hyakutake Strength 23,088[1] 14,000[2] Casualties 61-86 killed[3] 2,200+ killed[4] The Battle for Henderson Field, also known as the Battle of Henderson Field, took place October 23–26, 1942, and was a... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The 164th Infantry, the first Army unit on Guadalcanal, came ashore October 13, 1942 to reinforce the marines and took a 6,600-yard sector at the east end of the American perimeter. ... The 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment (1/7) is an infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. ... Official force name 7th Marine Regiment Other names 7th Marines Motto No Better Friend, No Worse Enemy. ...


On October 25 Platoon Sergeant Mitchell Paige and 33 marine riflemen, of (2/7/1) emplaced four water-cooled .30-caliber Browning machine guns on a ridge to defend Henderson Field. By the time the night was over the Japanese 29th Infantry Regiment had lost 553 killed or missing and 479 wounded among its 2,554 men. The Japanese 16th Regiment's losses were not accounted for but the 164th's burial parties handled 975 Japanese bodies. Total American estimates for Japanese casualties on that ridge were 2,200. All the men in Paige's platoon were either killed or wounded during the night of fierce fighting. Paige moved up and down the line placing dead and wounded troops back into foxholes and firing short bursts from each of the four Brownings to deceive the Japanese that a force still held the ridge. Paige was subsequently cited for a Medal of Honor for his actions that night. October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mitchell Paige (August 31, 1918-November 15, 2003) was a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor from World War II. He received this most prestigious military honor awarded by the United States of America for his actions at the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands on October 26... The Browning Model 1917 Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun used by the United States armed forces in World War I, World War II, Korea, and to a limited amount in Vietnam and by other nations. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


At dawn of the next day, battalion executive officer Major Odell M. Conoley reinforced Paige on the hill. It was decided that they would charge the remnants of the two Japanese regiments who were now regrouping. Conoley gathered his resources who consisted of "three enlisted communication personnel, several riflemen, a few company runners who were at the point, together with a cook and a few messmen who had brought food to the position the evening before."


Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

Further information: Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

In support of this Japanese Army offensive of October 20-25, and with the hope of engaging Allied naval forces, Japanese carriers and other large warships moved into a position near the southern Solomon Islands. From this location, the Japanese naval forces hoped to engage and decisively defeat any Allied naval forces, especially the carrier force, that responded to the ground offensive. However, Allied naval forces also hoped to meet the Japanese naval forces in battle, with the same objectives of breaking the stalemate and decisively defeating their adversary. Combatants United States (U.S.) Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ...


The Japanese ground offensive was defeated by Allied ground forces in the Battle for Henderson Field. Nevertheless, the naval warships and aircraft from the two adversaries confronted each other on the morning of October 26, 1942, just north of the Santa Cruz Islands. After an exchange of carrier air attacks, Allied surface ships were forced to retreat from the battle area with the loss of the carrier USS Hornet (CV-8) sunk and another, the USS Enterprise (CV-6) heavily damaged. However, the participating Japanese carrier forces also retreated due to high aircraft and aircrew losses, and significant damage to two carriers. Although an apparent tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk and damaged, the loss of many irreplaceable, veteran aircrews by the Japanese provided a long-term strategic advantage for the Allies, whose aircrew losses in the battle were relatively low, partially due to search and rescue efforts. Combatants United States Australia Solomon Islands Japan Commanders Alexander Vandegrift Harukichi Hyakutake Strength 23,088[1] 14,000[2] Casualties 61-86 killed[3] 2,200+ killed[4] The Battle for Henderson Field, also known as the Battle of Henderson Field, took place October 23–26, 1942, and was a... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ...


Aola Bay, Koli Point, and Carlson's "Long Patrol"

Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

Further information: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

In November the Japanese sent reinforcements in the form of the 38th Infantry Division. During the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, however, the transports carrying this reinforcement were badly damaged and the division was reduced to the strength of a regiment. Through November, American forces continued their offensive in an attempt to push the perimeter out beyond artillery range of the airfield. The Mantanikau River area was finally cleared after overcoming strong Japanese resistance. Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... Combatants United States, Australia, New Zealand Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Isoroku Yamamoto Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 light cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 26 aircraft destroyed, 1,732 killed[1] 2 battleships, 1 heavy cruiser, 3 destroyers, 11... The Matanikau River of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, is located in the northwest part of the island. ...


Final Allied offensives and Operation Ke

By December the weary 1st Marine Division was withdrawn for recuperation, and over the course of the next month the U.S. XIV Corps took over operations on the island. This corps consisted of the 2nd Marine Division, the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry Division, and the Americal Division. The 1st Marine Division is the oldest, largest (active duty), and most decorated division in the United States Marine Corps representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. XIV Corps. ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or... The U.S. 2nd Marine Division is a division of the United States Marine Corps, which forms the ground-force component of the II Marine Expeditionary Force. ... In American military history, the 25th Infantry Division (nicknamed Tropic Lightening) is a large military unit associated with operations in the Asia-Pacific region. ... Americal Division Shoulder Patch The Americal Division of the United States Army was formed in May 1942 on the island of New Caledonia. ...


Japanese strength on the island waned due to attrition and shortages of supplies brought on by the build-up of Allied ships and aircraft. The U.S. XIV Corps began offensive operations on 10 January 1943, and by February 8 they had forced the remaining Japanese to be evacuated from Cape Esperance. American authorities declared Guadalcanal secure on February 9, 1943, after more than six months of combat: General Alexander Patch signaled his superiors: "Tokyo Express no longer has terminus on Guadalcanal". Attrition means wearing down by friction or grinding and may refer to the following. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. XIV Corps. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chart of Ironbottom Sound and surrounding waters and islands. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... The Tokyo Express was the nickname given by United States sailors and marines to the Japanese attempts to reinforce and resupply their forces during the battle of Guadalcanal and subsequent operations in the Solomon Islands in World War II. Airplanes from Henderson Field on Guadalcanal made it too dangerous for...


The lack of supply on both sides meant that combat was especially intense and characterized by extreme desperation. The Japanese used fear as a tactic by placing the severed heads of dead Americans on pikes and planting them around the Marine perimeter. Additionally, neither side took many prisoners. Disease also played a significant role in the ground campaign, as both the Japanese and American forces were weakened by malaria in the insect-infested jungles. Both sides had difficulty maintaining their supplies to the island, the Japanese particularly, to the extent that island became also known as 'Starvation Island' to them. The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ...

Japanese POWs on Guadalcanal
Japanese POWs on Guadalcanal

Japanese prisoners on Guadalcanal Source: http://www. ... Japanese prisoners on Guadalcanal Source: http://www. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Aftermath and historical significance

The Battle of Midway is widely considered to be the turning point in the Pacific theater, as it was a strategic naval victory which stopped Japan's eastern expansion toward Hawaii and the U.S. west coast. However, the Empire of Japan continued to expand in the southern Pacific, until receiving two decisive defeats at the hands of the Allies. Australian land forces had defeated Japanese Marines in New Guinea at the Battle of Milne Bay in September 1942, which was the first land defeat suffered by the Japanese in the Pacific. And, by the end of 1942, it was clear that Japan also had lost the Guadalcanal campaign, a more serious blow to Japan's strategic plans and an unanticipated defeat at the hands of the Americans. Combatants United States of America Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties... The Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (海軍陸戦隊 Kaigun Rikusentai) were the marine troops of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) and was only part of the IJN Land Forces. ... Combatants Australia, United States (engineering support and minor combat) Japan Commanders Cyril Clowes Shojiro Hayashi, Minoru Yano Strength 9,000 (half non-combat personnel) 2400 Casualties less than 200 dead 600 dead The Battle of Milne Bay was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Japanese marines...


The Guadalcanal campaign was costly to Japan both strategically and in material losses. Japan lost control of the Solomons Islands and the ability to interdict Allied shipping to Australia. Japan's major base at Rabaul was now directly threatened by allied air power. Most importantly, scarce Japanese land, air, and naval forces had disappeared forever into the Guadalcanal jungle and surrounding sea. The Japanese aircraft and ships destroyed and sunk in this campaign were irreplaceable, as were their highly-trained and veteran crews. It thus can be argued that this Allied victory was the first step in a long string of successes that eventually led to the surrender of Japan and the occupation of the Japanese home islands. The Japanese Archipelago which forms the country of Japan extends from north to south along the eastern coast of the Eurasian Continent, the western shore of the Pacific Ocean. ...


The Battle of Guadalcanal was one of the first prolonged campaigns in the Pacific. The campaign was a battle of attrition that strained the logistical capabilities of both sides. For the U.S. this need prompted the development of effective combat air transport for the first time. Japan was forced to rely on reinforcement by barges, destroyers, and submarines, with very uneven results. Early in the campaign the Americans were hindered by a lack of resources due to the "Germany First" policy of the United States. However, as the campaign continued, and the American public became more and more aware of the plight and perceived heroism of the American forces on Guadalcanal, more forces were dispatched to the area. This spelled trouble for Japan as its military-industrial complex was unable to match the output of American industry and manpower. Thus, as the campaign wore on the Japanese were losing irreplaceable units while the Americans were rapidly replacing and even augmenting their forces. South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command (SCAT) was a joint command of U.S. military logistics units in World War II. It contributed notably to the success of U.S. forces in the battles for Guadalcanal (1942-1943) and New Georgia (1943). ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ...


After Guadalcanal the Japanese were clearly on the defensive in the Pacific. The constant need to reinforce Guadalcanal had weakened Japanese efforts in other theatres, contributing to a successful Australian counteroffensive in New Guinea which culminated in the capture of the key bases of Buna and Gona in early 1943. In June, the Allies launched Operation Cartwheel, which initiated a strategy of isolating the major Japanese forward base, at Rabaul, and concentrated on cutting its sea lines of communication. This prepared the way for the island hopping campaigns of General Douglas MacArthur in the South West Pacific and Admiral Chester Nimitz in the Central Pacific towards Japan. Combatants Australia, United States Japan Commanders George Vasey (Australia); Edwin F. Harding/ Robert L. Eichelberger (United States) Ken Yamagata Strength 20,000+ 7,400+ Casualties 3,500 (not counting tropical diseases); 1,300 Australian and 1,000 US personnel killed in action. ... The eastern part of the Territory of New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands; the area in which Operation Cartwheel took place, from June 1943. ... A view from Rabaul Volcano Observatory across the relatively undamaged western half of Rabaul and towards Tavurur Rabaul, Papua New Guinea, was the headquarters of German New Guinea and then the Australian mandatory territory of New Guinea from 1910 until 1937, the base of Japanese activities in the South Pacific... Sea lines of communication (abbreviated as SLOC) is a term describing the primary maritime trade routes between ports. ... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ... Douglas MacArthur (January 26, 1880 - April 5, 1964), was an American general who played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was poised to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945 but was instead instructed to accept their surrender on September 2, 1945. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... External link Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum Categories: Corporation stubs | Historical stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | California railroads | Nevada railroads | Utah railroads | Historic civil engineering landmarks ...


According to U.S. historian Gerhard L. Weinberg, Guadalcanal's broader effect on the war has often been overlooked. Japan's leaders planned a major offensive in the Indian Ocean and so notified their German ally, but the ships and planes required for the undertaking were instead drained into the Guadalcanal quagmire. At the time Guadalcanal began, Britain Commonwealth forces were struggling to hold the German Afrika Korps away from the Suez Canal. Resupply and reinforcements which contributed to the victory at El Alamein were sent because the Indian Ocean was open to Allied shipping.[75] In addition, vital Lend-Lease supplies from the U.S were able to travel through the Indian Ocean and across Iran just as the Soviet Union was struggling to defeat Germany's Operation Blue. British power in India itself was at its weakest in 1942; the Axis' one and only chance of toppling the Raj, and severing the last supply routes to Nationalist China, slipped away in the Southwest Pacific.[76] The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK  ) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the term is... Ships moored at El Ballah during transit Egypt: Site of Suez Canal (top). ... For the Battle of Alam Halfa, which is also often termed the Second Battle of El Alamein, see Battle of Alam Halfa Combatants British Eighth Army Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 220,000 men 1,100 tanks[1] 116,000 men[1] 559 tanks(220 panzers... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... In many Indian languages, Raj literally means Prince or Royalty though is often used to mean something more like the English term of empire and as such is often used in reference to the Mughal Raj and the British Raj: the period of direct colonial rule of India by the...


Popular culture

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Guadalcanal Campaign

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Thin Red Line is a 1998 war film which tells the story of United States forces during the Battle of Guadalcanal in World War II. It marked Terrence Malicks return to filmmaking after a twenty year absence. ... Terrence Terry Malick (born November 30, 1943 in Waco, Texas) is an Assyrian American film director. ... James Jones (November 6, 1921 – May 9, 1977) is an American author most famous for his explorations of World War II and its aftermath. ... The Thin Red Line is author James Jones fictional account of the World War II Battle of Guadalcanal, which he experienced firsthand in the US 25th Infantry Division. ... Guadalcanal Diary album cover Guadalcanal Diary is an alternative rock group from Marietta, Georgia. ...

See also

Guadalcanal Order of Battle is a list of the significant land units that fought in the Battle of Guadalcanal between August 7th, 1942 and February 9th, 1943. ... Ironbottom Sound is the name given by sailors of the United States Navy to the stretch of water between Guadalcanal, Savo Island, and Florida Island of the Solomon Islands. ... Categories: Oceania geography stubs | Solomon Islands ...

References

Notes


  1. ^ Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 173-175 documents the participation by native Solomon Islanders in the campaign [1]. Guadalcanal and the rest of the Solomon Islands were technically under UK/Australian political control during World War II.
  2. ^ Vava'u Press Ltd, Matangi Tonga Online, 2006 [2] states that 28 Tongan soldiers fought on Guadalcanal, with two of them killed in action.
  3. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 57, 619-621 and Rottman, Japanese Army, p. 64. Approximately 20,000 U.S. Marines and 40,000 U.S. Army troops were deployed on Guadalcanal at different times during the campaign.
  4. ^ Rottman, Japanese Army, p. 65. 31,400 Imperial Japanese Army and 4,800 Imperial Japanese Navy troops were deployed to Guadalcanal during the campaign.
  5. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 598-618 and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal campaign, p. 456. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Four U.S. aircrew were captured by the Japanese during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands and survived their captivity. A few other U.S. ground and aircrew personnel were captured by the Japanese during the campaign but didn't survive their captivity. Ships sunk includes warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses.
  6. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 598-618 and Rottman, Japanese Army, p. 65. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Approximately 9,000 died from disease. Many of the captured personnel were actually Korean construction workers, not Japanese military. Ships sunk includes warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses.
  7. ^ Murray, War to be Won, p. 169-195
  8. ^ Murray, War to be Won, p. 196.
  9. ^ Loxton, Shame of Savo, p. 3.
  10. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 23-31, 129, 628, Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 5, and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 39.
  11. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 12.
  12. ^ Murray, War to be Won, p. 199-200 and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 5.
  13. ^ Loxton, Shame of Savo, p. 5 and Miller, Cactus Air Force, p. 11.
  14. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 35-37, 53.
  15. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 15 and McGee, The Solomons Campaigns, p. 20-21.
  16. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 57, 619-621.
  17. ^ McGee, The Solomons Campaigns, p. 21
  18. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 60.
  19. ^ Hammel, Carrier Clash, p. 46-47 and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 38.
  20. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 51.
  21. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 50.
  22. ^ Shaw, First Offensive, p.8-9 and McGee, The Solomons Campaigns, p. 32-34.
  23. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 79. Approximately 80 Japanese personnel escaped from the islands to Florida Island, where they were found and killed by Marine patrols over the next two months.
  24. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 15 and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 61-62 & 81.
  25. ^ Loxton, Shame of Savo, pp. 90–103.
  26. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 80.
  27. ^ Hammel, Carrier Clash, p. 99 and Loxton, Shame of Savo, pp. 104–5. Loxton, Frank (Guadalcanal p. 94), and Morison (Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 28) contend that Fletcher's fuel situation wasn't at all critical but that Fletcher implied it was in order to provide further justification for his withdrawal from the battle area.
  28. ^ Hammel, Carrier Clash, p. 100.
  29. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal p. 31.
  30. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 19-59.
  31. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 14-15. At this time there were exactly 10,819 Marines on Guadalcanal and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 125-127.
  32. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 16-17.
  33. ^ Shaw, First Offensive, p. 13.
  34. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 20, 35-36.
  35. ^ Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 58-60 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 35. Only three members of the patrol made it back to the Allied Lunga Point perimeter. Goettge was one of the first killed. More details of the event are at: [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], and [8]
  36. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 132-133 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 36-42.
  37. ^ Shaw, First Offensive, p. 18.
  38. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 88 and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 141–143. The Ichiki regiment was named after its commanding officer. The Aoba regiment took its name from Aoba Castle in Sendai, because most of the soldiers in the regiment were from Miyagi prefecture (Rottman, Japanese Army, p. 52).
  39. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 156-158 & 681 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 43.
  40. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 33-34.
  41. ^ Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 70 and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 159.
  42. ^ Hammel, Carrier Clash, 124–125, 157.
  43. ^ Hara, Japanese Destroyer Captain, 118-119 and Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 293. An unknown, but "large" number of the 5th Yokosuka troops were killed in the sinking of their transport ship.
  44. ^ Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 74.
  45. ^ Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 297.
  46. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 194-213 and Lundstrom, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 45. In comparison to the 560 miles separating Lunga Point from Rabaul, Berlin was about 460 miles from Allied air bases in eastern England.
  47. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 15 and Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 298.
  48. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 103 and Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 298.
  49. ^ Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 78-79.
  50. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 197.
  51. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 79, 91-92 & 94-95.
  52. ^ Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 113 and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 198-199, 205, and 266.
  53. ^ Morison, Struggle for Guadalcanal, p. 113-114
  54. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 201-203, Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 116-124, and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 87-112.
  55. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 218-219.
  56. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 219-220 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 113-115 & 243. Most of the men in Ichiki's second echelon were from Asahikawa, Hokkaidō. "Kuma" refers to the brown bears that lived in that area.
  57. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 220 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 121.
  58. ^ Zimmerman, Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 80 and Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 125.
  59. ^ Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 298-299, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 221-222, Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 129 and Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 129-130.
  60. ^ Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 130-132, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 221-222 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 130.
  61. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 223 & 225-226, Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 132 & 134-135 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 130-131, 138.
  62. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 161-167. The Marine defenders that finally defeated Kokusho's charge were most likely from the U.S. 11th Marine Regiment with assistance from the 1st Pioneer Battalion (Smith, p. 167 and Frank, p. 235).
  63. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 162-193, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 237-246, and Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 141-147.
  64. ^ Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 144 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 184-194.
  65. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 197-198.
  66. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 247-252, Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 156 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 198-200.
  67. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 263.
  68. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 264-265.
  69. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 272.
  70. ^ Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 152, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 224, 251-254, & 266 and Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 132 & 158.
  71. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 204 and Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 270.
  72. ^ Smith, Bloody Ridge, p. 204-215, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 269-274, Zimmerman, The Guadalcanal Campaign, p. 96-101.
  73. ^ Griffith, Battle for Guadalcanal, p. 169-176, Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 282-290, and Hough, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, p. 318-322.
  74. ^ Frank, Guadalcanal, p. 290-291. Fifteen of the Marines and the three U.S. Navy sailors were killed when their Higgins boat carrying them from Tulagi to Aola Bay on Guadalcanal was lost. One of the Japanese killed in the raid was "Ishimoto," a Japanese intelligence agent who had worked in the Solomon Islands area prior to the war and had murdered two Catholic priests and two nuns at Tasimboko on September 3, 1942.
  75. ^ Weinberg, G. L.: Germany, Hitler and World War II, pp. 208–209. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  76. ^ Ibid., pp. 209–210.

The Imperial Japanese Army (: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945 when it was Imperial Japan. ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Combatants United States (U.S.) Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr. ... Sendai ) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, and the largest city in the Tōhoku (northeast) region. ... Miyagi Prefecture (宮城県; Miyagi-ken) is located in the Tōhoku Region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Asahikawa (旭川市; -shi) is a city located in Kamikawa Subprefecture, Hokkaidō, Japan. ... Binomial name Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ... The 11th Marine Regiment is an artillery regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...

Media

Books

  • Alexander, Joseph H. (2000). Edson's Raiders: The 1st Marine Raider Battalion in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-020-7. 
  • Bergerud, Eric M. (1997). Touched with Fire : The Land War in the South Pacific. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-024696-7. 
  • Dull, Paul S. (1978). A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-097-1. 
  • Frank, Richard (1990). Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-58875-4. 
  • Griffith, Samuel B. (1963). The Battle for Guadalcanal. Champaign, Illinois, USA: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06891-2. 
  • Hammel, Eric (1999). Carrier Clash: The Invasion of Guadalcanal & The Battle of the Eastern Solomons August 1942. St. Paul, MN, USA: Zenith Press. 0760320527. 
  • Hammel, Eric (1999). Carrier Strike: The Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, October 1942. Pacifica Press. ISBN 0-935553-37-1. -Book review:[9]
  • Loxton, Bruce; Chris Coulthard-Clark (1997). The Shame of Savo: Anatomy of a Naval Disaster. Australia: Allen & Unwin Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-86448-286-9. 
  • Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (New edition)). First Team And the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-472-8. 
  • McGee, William L. (2002). The Solomons Campaigns, 1942-1943: From Guadalcanal to Bougainville--Pacific War Turning Point, Volume 2 (Amphibious Operations in the South Pacific in WWII). BMC Publications. ISBN 0-9701678-7-3. 
  • Miller, Thomas G. (1969). Cactus Air Force. Admiral Nimitz Foundation. ISBN 0-934841-17-9. 
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (1958). The Struggle for Guadalcanal, August 1942 – February 1943, vol. 5 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-58305-7.  Online views of selections of the book:[10]
  • Murray, Williamson; Allan R. Millett (2001). A War To Be Won : Fighting the Second World War. United States of America: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-00680-1. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L.; Dr. Duncan Anderson (consultant editor) (2005). Japanese Army in World War II: The South Pacific and New Guinea, 1942-43. Oxford and New York: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-870-7. 
  • Smith, Michael T. (2000). Bloody Ridge: The Battle That Saved Guadalcanal. New York: Pocket. ISBN 0-7434-6321-8. 
  • Tregaskis, Richard (1943). Guadalcanal Diary. Random House. ISBN 0-679-64023-1. 
  • Twining, Merrill B. (1996). No Bended Knee: The Battle for Guadalcanal. Novato, CA, USA: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-826-1. 

Audio/visual

  • Adams, M. Clay (Director). (1952) Victory at Sea- Episode 6: Guadalcanal [Video documentary]. National Broadcasting Company (NBC) Film. — One episode from a 26-episode series about naval combat during World War II.
  • Malick, Terrence (Director). (1998) The Thin Red Line [Feature-length film]. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. — Film adaptation of James Jones' fictional, dramatic novel of the same title set on Guadalcanal.
  • Ray, Nicholas (Director). (1951) Flying Leathernecks [Feature-length film]. RKO Radio Pictures. - Fictional drama about U.S. Marine pilots involved in the Battle of Guadalcanal.
  • Seiler, Lewis (Director). (1943) Guadalcanal Diary [Feature-length film]. 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. - Film adaptation of Tregaskis' book referenced in "Books" section above.

Web

Richard B. Frank (born 1947 in Kansas) is an American lawyer and military historian. ... Eric M. Hammel is a popular military historian, with a focus on the military campaigns of the United States Marine Corps, and military action in World War II. Bibliography Carrier Clash: The Invasion of Guadalcanal & The Battle of the Eastern Solomons August 1942, 2004 ISBN 0760320527 Chosin : Heroic Ordeal of... RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by eminent historian Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962. ... Little, Brown and Company is a publishing house established by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown. ... Guadalcanal Diary is a memoir written by war correspondent Richard Tregaskis. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants China (from 1937) Việt Minh (from 1941) United States (from 1941) United Kingdom (from 1941) British India (1941) Australia (1941) Free France (1941) Philippines (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (from 1945) Mongolia (from 1945) Empire of Japan Wang Jingwei Government Thailand (1942) Mengjiang... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ...


Coordinates: 9°25′40.80″S, 160°03′17.24″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guadalcanal campaign - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4333 words)
This campaign, fought on the ground, at sea, and in the air, pitted Allied forces against Imperial Japanese forces, and was a decisive campaign of World War II.
This campaign marked the beginning of the transition by Allied forces from defensive operations to the strategic offensive while the forces of Japan were forced to focus on strategic defense.
During the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, however, the transports carrying this reinforcement were badly damaged and the division was reduced to the strength of a regiment.
Guadalcanal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (445 words)
Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands.
Guadalcanal is infested with mosquitoes, and malaria is an endemic disease.
The Battle of Cape Esperance was fought on October 11, 1942 on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal.
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