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Encyclopedia > Guadalcanal
Guadalcanal
Native name: Isatabu
Guadalcanal, position (inset) and main towns
Guadalcanal, position (inset) and main towns
Geography
Location Pacific Ocean
Coordinates 9°37′S 160°11′ECoordinates: 9°37′S 160°11′E
Archipelago Solomon Islands
Area 5336 km²
Highest point Mt. Popomanaseu 2449 m[1]
Administration
Flag of the Solomon Islands Solomon Islands
province Guadalcanal Province
Largest city Honiara (49,107)
Demographics
Population 109,382 (as of 1999)
Density 20.4

Guadalcanal (local name: Isatabu) is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands. The island was the scene of the important Guadalcanal Campaign during World War II. The island, which is mainly jungle, contains the national capital of the Solomon Islands, Honiara, and has a population of 109,382 (1999). Guadalcanal can mean: Guadalcanal, an island in the Solomon Islands; see also Guadalcanal campaign Guadalcanal Province, a province in the Solomon Islands Guadalcanal, Seville, a town in Andalusia in Spain Ships named Guadalcanal: USS Guadalcanal (CVE-60), a World War II escort carrier USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7), an amphibious assault... Image File history File links GuadalcanalCloseup. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 485 pixelsFull resolution (932 × 565 pixels, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Solomon_Islands. ... Guadalcanal Province is one of the provinces of the Solomon Islands. ... Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. ... Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle usually refers to a dense forest in a hot climate, such as a tropical rainforest. ... Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. ...

Contents

Overview

Topographical map of Guadalcanal.
Topographical map of Guadalcanal.

Guadalcanal is mountainous. Most of the population is along the north coast. The southern coast is known as the Weather Coast. Rainfall here is very heavy, hence its name. Guadalcanal is infested with mosquitoes, and malaria is an endemic disease. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,244 × 1,531 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,244 × 1,531 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Transport is by a road along the north coast which extends most of the length of the island. Access to the Weather Coast is on foot or via boat or helicopter. Honiara International Airport, the Solomon Islands' main airport, is just to the east of Honiara. It was formerly known as Henderson Field and was built in 1942. For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... See also: Henderson Field Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ...


Much of the northern part of the island is fringed by steeply sloping raised coral reefs. Languages spoken on this island are Tok Pisin and several different Melanesian languages. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ...


History

Western Discovery

A Spanish expedition under Álvaro de Mendaña discovered the island in 1568. It was named by Mendaña's subordinate Pedro de Ortega after his home town in Andalusia, Guadalcanal. However, he did not spell the name consistently (using variously Guadarcana, Guarcana, and Guadalcana), and the island subsequently became known as Guadalcanar. Later it became part of the British Empire, and in 1932 the British changed the spelling to Guadalcanal. Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira or Neyra (1541 - November 1595) was a Spanish navigator. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Guadalcanal is a municipality in the province of Sevilla, Andalusia, Spain. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Significance in WWII

Main Article: Guadalcanal Campaign Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ...


Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor and Singapore, Japanese forces advanced into the South Pacific occupying many islands in an attempt to build a defensive ring around their conquests and threaten the lines of communication between the United States and Australia/New Zealand reaching Guadalcanal in May 1942. When the allied forces spotted construction of an airfield on Guadacanal, the United States conducted the first amphibious landing of the conflict and one of the most hotly contested campaigns for control of the ground, sea and skies of the war. Guadalcanal became a major turning-point in the war as it stopped Japanese expansion and after four months forced the Japanese to cease trying to contest the control of the island and finally evacuate it in February 1943. This article is about the actual attack. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early in the campaign, US ships would retire at night due to superior night fighting expertise of the Japanese. Immediately after landing on the island, the allies began finishing the airfield begun by the Japanese, named Henderson Field after a Marine aviator killed in combat during the Battle of Midway, and established what became known as the Cactus Air Force. Aircraft operating from Guadalcanal over the campaign were a hodge podge of Marine, Army, Navy and allied aircraft that defended the airfield and threatened any Japanese ships that ventured into the vicinity during the daylight hours. However, at night, Japanese battleships, cruisers and destroyers would venture within shelling range of the airfield on Guadacanal and shell it throughout the night and escape back up the Slot before daybreak when allied aircraft would regain air superiority. So many ships from both sides were sunk in the many engagements in and around the Solomon Island chain that the nearby waters were referred to as Ironbottom Sound. An informative account of the Marine Corps campaign, which began on August 7, 1942, can be found in the historical novel, "Every Shape, Every Shadow" (Pale Horse Books). Many other books and even movies have been written about the Guadalcanal campaign. Honiara International Airport (IATA: HIR, ICAO: AGGH), formerly known as Henderson Field, is an airport located on Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Islands. ... Cactus Air Force refers to the ensemble allied air power assigned to the island of Guadalcanal from August 1942 until December 1942 during the early stages of the Guadalcanal Campaign, particularly those operating from Henderson Field . ... Categories: Oceania geography stubs | Solomon Islands ... Ironbottom Sound is the name given by sailors of the United States Navy to the stretch of water between Guadalcanal, Savo Island, and Florida Island of the Solomon Islands. ...


The Battle of Cape Esperance was fought on October 11, 1942 off the northwest coast of Guadalcanal. In the battle, United States Navy ships intercepted and defeated a Japanese formation of ships on their way down 'the Slot' to reinforce and resupply troops on the island, but suffered losses as well. The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November marked the turning point in which Allied Naval forces took on the extremely experienced Japanese surface forces at night and forced them to withdraw after sharp action. Some Japanese viewpoints consider these engagements and the improving Allied surface capability to challenge their surface ships at night just as significant as the Battle of Midway in turning the tide against them. After six months of hard combat in and around Guadalcanal and dealing with jungle diseases that took a heavy toll of troops, Allied forces managed to halt the Japanese advance and dissuade them from contesting the control of the island finally driving the last of the Japanese troops into the sea on January 15, 1943. American authorities declared Guadalcanal secure on February 9, 1943. Combatants United States New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Norman Scott Aritomo Goto† Strength 4 cruisers 5 destroyers 3 cruisers 2 destroyers Casualties 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer heavily damaged, 163 killed[1] 1 cruiser, 1 destroyer sunk, 1 cruiser heavily damaged, 454 killed, 111 captured[2... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... Combatants Allied forces including:  United States  Australia  Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Daniel J. Callaghan† Willis A. Lee Isoroku Yamamoto Nobutake Kondo Hiroaki Abe Strength 1 carrier, 2 battleships, 5 cruisers, 12 destroyers 2 battleships, 8 cruisers, 16 destroyers Casualties 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers sunk, 36 aircraft destroyed... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two U.S. Navy ships have been named for the battle:

  • USS Guadalcanal (CVE-60), a World War II escort carrier.
  • USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7), an amphibious assault ship.

Interestingly, the crews of both Guadalcanals had the rare experience of capturing another warship. See those ships' pages for more information. The first USS Guadalcanal (CVE-60), an escort aircraft carrier, was converted from a Maritime Commission hull by Kaiser Co. ... The second USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7), an Iwo Jima class amphibious assault ship, was launched by the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 16 March 1963, sponsored by Mrs. ...


To date, the only Coast Guardsman recipient of the Medal of Honor is Signalman 1st Class, Douglas Albert Munro, awarded posthumously for his extraordinary heroism on September 27, 1942 at Point Cruz, Guadalcanal. Munro provided a shield and covering fire, and helped evacuate 500 besieged Marines from a beach at Point Cruz; he was killed during the evacuation. Douglas Munro giving covering fire Douglas Albert Munro (11 October 1919 – 27 September 1942) is the only member of the United States Coast Guard to have received the Medal of Honor, the U.S. militarys highest decoration. ...


Significance in civil war

See also: History of the Solomon Islands#Civil war

In early 1999 long-simmering tensions between the local Gwale people on Guadalcanal and more recent migrants from the neighbouring island of Malaita, erupted into violence. The ‘Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army’, later called Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM), began terrorising Malaitans in the rural areas of the island, to make them leave their homes. About 20,000 Malaitans fled to the capital and others returned to their home island; Gwale residents of Honiara fled. The city became a Malaitan enclave and the Malaita Eagle Force took over government. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFB) is a nationalist militant organisation of the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ... Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFB) is a nationalist militant organization of the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. ... Honiara, population 49,107 (1999), is the capital of the Solomon Islands and of Guadalcanal Province, although it is a separately administered town. ... Malaita Eagles Force is a militant organisation, originating in the island of Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. ...


In 2003, the Pacific Forum negotiated the intervention of RAMSI or Operation Helpem Fren involving Australia and other Pacific Island Nations. Headquarters Suva, Fiji Membership 16 member states 2 observers Establishment  -  as the South Pacific Forum 1971   -  as the PIF 2000  The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization which aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean and represent their interests. ... Map of the Solomon Islands Operation Helpem Fren, also known as the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor General of the Solomon Islands. ... Map of the Solomon Islands Operation Helpem Fren, also known as the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI), was created in response to a request for international aid by the Governor General of the Solomon Islands. ...


References

Frank, Richard B. Guadalcanal The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle Penquin Books, 1990 Richard B. Frank (born 1947 in Kansas) is an American lawyer and military historian. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Hammond World Travel Atlas. Union, N.J.: Hammond World Atlas Corporation, c. 2004-2005. ISBN 0843719826. Page 245

Hammond Map or Hammond World Atlas Corporation is an operating subsidiary of The Lagenscheidt Publishing Group, a major map publisher in the United States. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guadalcanal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (449 words)
Guadalcanal is a 2,510 square mile (6 500 km²) island in the Pacific Ocean and a province of the Solomon Islands.
Guadalcanal is infested with mosquitoes, and malaria is an endemic disease.
The Battle of Cape Esperance was fought on October 11, 1942 on the northwest coast of Guadalcanal.
Battle of Guadalcanal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1780 words)
The assault on the Japanese-occupied island of Guadalcanal by the Allied navies and 16,000 United States troops on 7 August 1942, was the first offensive by US land forces in the Pacific Campaign.
Guadalcanal is situated in the middle of the long Solomon Islands chain, north-east of Australia.
During the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, however, the transports carrying this reinforcement were badly damaged and the division was reduced to the strength of a regiment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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