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Encyclopedia > Guadalajara, Spain
Ciudad de Guadalajara

Flag
Location
Coordinates: 40°38′7″N, 3°9′59″W
Country Spain
Autonomous Community Castile-La Mancha
Province Guadalajara
Tows 5 (Guadalajara, Iriépal, Taracena, Usanos & Valdenoches)
Founded 8th century, probably, by moors
Government
 - Mayor Jesús Alique (PSOE)
Area
 - Land 236 km² (91.1 sq mi)
Elevation 685 m (2,247.4 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 75.493
 - Density 320/km² (828.8/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 19001-2-3-4-5
Area code(s) 34 (Spain) + 949 (Guadalajara)
Website: http://www.guadalajara.es/

Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain, and in the natural region of La Alcarria. It is the capital of the province of Guadalajara. It is located roughly 60 km northeast of Madrid on the Henares River, and has a population of 75,493(2006). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Guadalajara, Spain ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Guadalajara province Guadalajara is a province of central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Postal codes are generally clearly visible outside local Australian post offices. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Guadalajara, Spain ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Capital Toledo Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 3rd  79,463 km²  15. ... Map of the region (see the names are different from those in Spanish since the map is in Catalan) The Alcarria (Spanish: La Alcarria) is a natural region in central Spain. ... Guadalajara province Guadalajara is a province of central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...

Contents

History

Pre-Arab Settlements

It is known that in the area there was a Roman town called Arriaca, possibly founded by a pre-Roman culture. But there are no archeological proofs of it, only references to it in certain texts (like Ruta Antonina) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Castile-La Mancha Province Guadalajara Tows 5 (Guadalajara, Iriépal, Taracena, Usanos & Valdenoches) Founded 8th century, probably, by moors Government  - Mayor Jesús Alique (PSOE) Area  - Land 236 km² (91. ...


Arab Foundation

The former town of Guadalajara was founded by the Arabs in the VIII century, being a fortress on the border its chief function. They named it Wad-al-Hayara (واد الحجرة or وادي الحجرة), meaning "River of Stones" or "Valley of the Fortress"; in theory the literal translation of the Iberian name (Arriaca) - "Stony River". The history of the town during the Arab times is not very well known. Some remains of that time are the Arab Bridge over the River Henares, the ruins of the old alcazar (Arab for 'castle') and the former Co-Cathedral of St. Mary, which was by then a mosque. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article is about Spanish Alcazars. ...


Conquest and Middle Ages

In 1085, Guadalajara was taken by the Christian forces of Alfonso VI (king of Leon and Castile). The chronicles say that the Christian army was leaded by Alvar Fanez de Minaya, one of the lieutenants (and according to the legiend, brother in law) of El Cid. From 1085 till the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, the city suffered wars against the Almoravid and the Almohad Empires. In spite of the wars, the new Christian population could definitely settle down in the area thanks to the repopulation with people from the North (Castilians from the mountains and Merindades, Basques and Navarreses mainly) who received their first fuero in 1133 from Alfonso VII. In 1219, the king Fernando III gave a new fuero to the city (the one know as Fuero Largo or Big Fuero). During the reign of Alfonso X of Castile, the protection of the king allowed the city to develop its economy by protecting merchants and allowing markets. April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... A former kingdom of Spain, Castile comprises the two regions of Old Castile in north-western Spain, and New Castile in the centre of the country. ... Located in the north of the province of Burgos, the Merindades are the birth place of the name Castilla. Most of the villages of the Merindades were quoted in the Becerro de Behetrias at the moment of the creation of the subdivision Merindad by Pedro of Castile. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... The fuero is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, the foral. ... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun June 4 - Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II Births March 5 - King Henry II of England (died 1189) Honen Shonin, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (died 1212... Alfonso VII of Castile (March 1, 1104/5 _ August 21, 1157), nicknamed the Emperor, was the king of Castile and Leon since 1126, son of Urraca of Castile and Count Raymond (the third?) of Burgundy. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used. ... Alfonso X and his court. ...


Renaissance: The Mendoza Family

During the XIV Century, the Mendoza Family, who marked the future of the town. Among the members of this family are specially well known: Íñigo López de Mendoza, also known as Marqués de Santillana (1398-1458), Pedro González de Mendoza (1428-1495), Great Cardinal of Spain and adviser of the Catholic Monarchs. The arising of the Mendoza Family, who have been holding the title of Dukes and Duchesses of El Infantado since 1475, granted the economic and urban development of Guadalajara. In 1460, the King Enrique IV gave to Guadalajara the title of 'City' and other privileges like the Cortes. Íñigo López de Mendoza, marqués de Santillana (August 19, 1398 - March 25, 1458), Castilian poet, was born at Carrión de los Condes in Old Castile. ... Pedro González de Mendoza (May 3, 1428 - January 11, 1495), Spanish cardinal and statesman, was the fourth son of Íñigo López de Mendoza, marquess of Santillana, and duke of Infantado. ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Henry IV of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent (ruled 1454-1474), was not a strong king. ...


Modern Times

After the peak during the XVI century, the Mendoza Family moved to Madrid, disminishing the development speed of the city. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Guadalajara was sacked. Felipe V ordered the establishment of the Real Fábrica de Paños (Royal Factory of Clothes) that worked in the Alcazar till the early XIX Century. Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ...


Contemporary Times

The XIX Century started with two major setbacks: the damages caused by the Peninsular War(1808-1814) and the closing of the Real Fábrica de Paños in 1822. In 1808, Guadalajara was taken by the French Army leaded by General Hugo and the city was destroyed. In 1840 Guadalajara was established as capital of the province with the same name by the Plan de Burgos. The Academy of Military Engineers was brought to the city. The development during the second half of the XIX Century till the first quarter of the XX Century was slow and centred on the developing of the administration without any special interest on industrial development. After the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), that supposed great damages to the city, Guadalajara was included in 1959 in the development plans, increasing specially the industry that was brought from the Descongestion of Madrid's Industrial Estates. Since then, Guadalajara has been one of the cities in Spain with greatest relative growing. Nowadays, Guadalajara is involved in urban developing plans that are quickly increasing the population of the city. New districts like Aguas Vivas (Live Waters) have recently been inaugurated. Ciudad Valdeluz will give 30.000 inhabitants more to Guadalajara, creating a whole brand new city around the AVE Station(Spanish High-Speed Trains). The recent town-plannings have dramatically increased the cost of the new houses, changing in the last 10 years of being one of the cheapest provinces in Spain for house-buying to be the 3rd province in Spain with most expensive square meter. Combatants Kingdom of Spain, United Kingdom, Kingdom of Portugal French Empire The Peninsular War or Spanish War of Independence (Guerra de la Independencia Española) was a war in the Iberian Peninsula. ... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mayoralty

Since 2003 local election, the Town Hall is controlled by a coalition (made up of social democratic party -PSOE- members and also one IU town councilor). J. Alique (from PSOE) helds the post of mayor since then.


Sights

The bridge across the Henares river is Arab but built on Roman foundations. It has several historic buildings such as the Palacio del Infantado, as well as many churches. Although Guadalajara is the biggest city in its diocese, the cathedral is located in the nearby town of Sigüenza. However, in Guadalajara, there is a "co-cathedral": the church of Saint Mary, in Mudejar style. Very close to this church, is placed the chapel known as "Capilla de Luis de Lucena", which has several fresco paintings on its walls and ceiling.

Miscellaneous

The Mexican city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, was founded by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, a native of the Spanish Guadalajara. This article is about the Mexican city of Guadalajara. ... Nuño Guzmán de Beltrán or Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán (15th century-1550) was a Spanish conquistador and dictator in colonial Mexico. ...


The Coat of Arms of Guadalajara represents Alvar Fanez de Minaya entering in the town at night during the conquest.

Image:Escudo Guadalajara.jpg
Coat of Arms of Guadalajara

Distinguished people from or related to the town were:

  • Alvar Fanez de Minaya, "Conqueror of Guadalajara for the Christianity".
  • Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, founder of Guadalajara in Mexico.
  • Antonio Buero Vallejo, writer of the XX Century.
  • María Diega Desmaissières y Sevillano, Countess of Vega del Pozo and Duchess of Sevillano.
  • Francisco Fernández Iparraguirre, pharmacist, linguist and botanist
  • José Ortiz-Echagüe, militar engineer and photographer

Nuño Guzmán de Beltrán or Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán (15th century-1550) was a Spanish conquistador and dictator in colonial Mexico. ... Antonio Buero Vallejo (September 29, 1916 – April 28, 2000) was a Spanish playwright. ...

Twin Towns

Guadalajara is twinned with numerous cities. Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...


They include:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Guadalajara is a large city in the Western-Pacific region of Mexico, located at 20. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... In Tungus mythology, Buga is the supreme god (akin to Tengri) and represents the entire universe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia_(bordered). ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Nuneaton is the largest town in the English county of Warwickshire, and the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Elvio Ubaldi (since May 28, 2002) Elevation 55 m Area 260 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 175,789  - Density 676/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Parmigiani (Parmensi are called the provinces inhabitants) Dialing code... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Roanne is a town and commune in southern France in the Loire département, about 90km north-west of Lyon. ...

See also

The Guadalajara Offensive (8 March – 23 March 1937) was an engagement in the Spanish Civil War. ... Guadalajara province Guadalajara is a province of central Spain, in the northern part of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. ... Map of the region (see the names are different from those in Spanish since the map is in Catalan) The Alcarria (Spanish: La Alcarria) is a natural region in central Spain. ...

External links

References


Coordinates: 40°38′N, 3°10′W The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, published in 1854, was the last a series of classical dictionaries edited by the english scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guadalajara, Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (231 words)
Guadalajara is a city and municipality in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain.
It is the capital of the province of Guadalajara.
The Mexican city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, was founded by Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán, a native of the Spanish Guadalajara.
Guadalajara, Mexico (2128 words)
Guadalajara is known as the 'Perla de Occidente' the Pearl of the West- or 'La Ciudad de las Rosas' the City of Roses-.
Guadalajara is a city full of attractions; the visitor will enjoy its cosmopolitan atmosphere which has not forgotten its rural traditions and customs.
Today, Guadalajara is the capital of the state of Jalisco, the second largest and most important city in the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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