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Encyclopedia > Gruffudd ap Llywelyn

See also Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. ...


Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1000August 5, 1063) was the ruler of all Wales from 1055 until his death, one of very few able to make this boast. He was of a cadet branch of the princely house of Mathrafal of Powys, though himself not described as being royal. // Events World Population 300 million. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom, England and Wales and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Mathrafal near Welshpool was the seat of the Kings and Princes of Powys probably from the 9th Century until its destruction in 1212 by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Gwynedd. ...

Contents


Genealogy and early life

Gruffydd was the only son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, who had been able to seize both Gwynedd and Powys from their traditional dynasties. On Llywelyn's death in 1033, a member of the traditional Aberffraw dynasty, Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig, became ruler of Gwynedd. Gruffydd according to tradition had been a lazy youth, but one New Year's Eve, he was driven out of the house by his exasperated sister. Leaning against the wall of another house, he heard a cook who was boiling pieces of beef in a cauldron complain that there was one piece of meat which kept coming to the top of the cauldron, however often it was thrust down. Gruffydd took the comment to apply to him, and began to work to gain power. Llywelyn ap Seisyll (died 1023) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth. ... Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. ... Medeival kingdoms of Wales. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey, by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (died 1039) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ...


King of Gwynedd and Powys 1039-1055

In 1039 Iago ab Idwal was killed by his own men (his son Cynan ap Iago went into exile in Dublin) and Gruffydd already the usurper-king of Powys was able to become king of Gwynedd by 1039. Soon after gaining power he surprised a Mercian army at Rhyd y Groes near Welshpool and totally defeated it, killing its leader, Edwin, the brother of Earl Leofric of Mercia. He then attacked the neighbouring principality of Deheubarth which was now ruled by Hywel ab Edwin. Gruffydd defeated Hywel in a battle at Pencader in 1041 and carried off Hywel's wife. Gruffydd seems to have been able to drive Hywel out of Deheubarth in about 1043, for in 1044 Hywel is recorded as returning with a Danish fleet to the mouth of the River Tywi to try to reclaim his kingdom. Gruffydd however defeated and killed him. Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... Cynan ap Iago was a Welsh Prince and father of Gruffydd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd. ... The general location of Mercia, along with the other peoples of Britain around the year 600. ... Welshpool (Welsh: Y Trallwng) is a town in eastern-mid Wales, only 4 miles (6 km) from the border with England. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Hywel ab Edwin (died 1044) was king of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1033. ... Categories: UK geography stubs | Rivers in Wales ...


Gruffydd ap Rhydderch of Gwent was able to expel Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from Deheubarth in 1047 and became king of Deheubarth himself after the nobles of Ystrad Tywi had suddenly attacked and killed 140 of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's household guard. He was able to resist several attacks by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn in the following years. Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was active on the Welsh border in 1052, when he attacked Herefordshire and defeated a mixed force of Normans and English near Leominster. Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (died 1055) was a king of Gwent and part of the kingdom of Morgannwg in south Wales and later king of Deheubarth. ... Gwent is the area of south-easternmost Wales, bordering on the Welsh Marches of southwest England. ...


King of Wales 1055-1063

In 1055 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed his rival Gruffydd ap Rhydderch in battle and recaptured Deheubarth. Gruffydd now allied himself with Ælfgar, son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson and his brothers. They marched on Hereford and were opposed by a force led by the Earl of Hereford, Ralph the Timid. This force was mounted and armed in the Norman fashion, but on October 24 Gruffydd defeated it. He then sacked the city and destroyed its Norman castle. Earl Harold was given the task of counter attacking, but was not able to penetrate very far. Shortly afterwards Ælfgar was restored to his earldom and a peace treaty concluded. Gruffydd married Ælfgar's daughter, Ealdgyth. Ælfgar (died 1062) was the elder brother of Hereward (later known as The Wake) and son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia and Eldiva (Godiva). ... Leofric (b. ... Harold Godwinson, or Harold II of England (c. ... Hereford Cathedral Hereford (pronounced hÄ›r-É™-füd or hÄ›r-i-füd) Welsh: Henffordd (pronounced Henforth) is a city in the west of England, close to the border with Wales and on the River Wye. ... Ralph the Timid was the earl of Hereford from before 1050 until his death in 1057. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ...


Around this time Gruffydd was also able to seize Morgannwg and Gwent, along with extensive territories along the border with England. In 1056 he won another victory over an English army near Glasbury. He now claimed sovereignty over the whole of Wales - a claim which was recognised by the English. Glamorgan or Morgannwg is a maritime traditional county of Wales, UK, and was previously a medieval kingdom or principality. ... Gwent is the area of south-easternmost Wales, bordering on the Welsh Marches of southwest England. ...


Death and aftermath

Gruffydd reached an agreement with Edward the Confessor, but the death of his ally Ælfgar in 1062 left him more vulnerable. In late 1062 Harold Godwinson obtained the king's approval for a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan. Gruffydd was nearly captured, but was warned in time to escape out to sea in one of his ships, though his other ships were destroyed. In the spring of 1063 Harold's brother Tostig led an army into north Wales while Harold led to fleet first to south Wales and then north to meet with his brother's army. Gruffydd was forced to take refuge in Snowdonia, but at this stage his own men killed him, on 5 August according to the annals, and sent his head and the figurehead of his ship to Harold. Gruffydd had probably made enemies in the course of uniting Wales under his rule. Walter Map has preserved a comment from Gruffydd himself about this: Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Tostig Godwinson (~1026- September 25, 1066), Earl of Northumbria, was son to Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his second wife Gytha Thorkelsdóttir. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Walter Map (~1137-1209) was a medieval writer, probably either of Welsh origin or from Herefordshire (which at the time was almost the same thing). ...

Speak not of killing; I but blunt the horns of the offspring of Wales lest they should injure their dam.

Following Gruffydd's death, Harold married his widow Ealdgyth, though she was to be widowed again three years later. Gruffydd's realm was divided again into the traditional kingdoms. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to an agreement with Harold and were given the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. Thus when Harold was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 the Normans reaching the borders of Wales were confronted by the traditional kingdoms rather than a single king. Gruffydd left two sons who in 1070 challenged Bleddyn and Rhiwallon at the battle of Mechain in an attempt to win back part of their father's kingdom. However they were defeated, one being killed and the other dying of exposure after the battle. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (died 1075) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Powys. ... Combatants Normans, supported by Bretons & Flemings Anglo-Saxons and Danish mercenaries Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson† Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly more than the Normans The Battle of...


Children

  • Maredudd ap Gruffydd (died 1070)
  • Idwal ap Gruffydd (died 1070)
  • Nesta verch Gruffydd, married Osbern FitzRichard
Preceded by:
Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig
Kings of Gwynedd Succeeded by:
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Preceded by:
Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig
Kings of Powys Succeeded by:
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn
Preceded by:
Meurig ap Hywel
Kings of Gwent Succeeded by:
Cadwgan ap Meurig
Preceded by:
Gruffydd ap Rhydderch
Kings of Glywysing
Kings of Deheubarth Succeeded by:
Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin

Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1130 - 1155) was a prince of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south west Wales. ... Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (died 1039) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Gwynedd was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. ... Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (died 1075) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Powys. ... Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (died 1039) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Medeival kingdoms of Wales. ... Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (died 1075) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Powys. ... Before the Norman Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent principalities, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. ... Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (died 1055) was a king of Gwent and part of the kingdom of Morgannwg in south Wales and later king of Deheubarth. ... Before the Norman Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent principalities, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Maredudd ab Owain ab Edwin (died 1072) was a prince of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south west Wales. ...

References

  • John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)

  Results from FactBites:
 
University of Wales Lampeter - Department of Welsh (177 words)
The Llywelyn ap Gruffudd module assesses the career of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd whose aspirations dominated and changed the face of the politics of the thirteenth century.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was faced with the challenge of dealing with the most potent threat to Welsh independence, the aspirations and ambitions of Edward 1.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, like his grandfather, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, realised that Wales needed to develop from being an insular and divided nation, to become part of the wider feudal world.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd Page One (850 words)
In 1256 he attacked Gruffudd ap Gwenwynwyn, the prince of Powys, forcing him to flee for protection into the arms of the Anglo/Norman garrison at the castle in Shrewsbury.
In 1267 Llywelyn's position as Prince of Wales and overlord of the Principality was duly recognised at the Treaty of Montgomery by Henry III, king of England.
As soon as he knew the castle was his, Llywelyn intended to advance across the river and occupy the castle and the high ground upon which it sat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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