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Encyclopedia > Grozny
Grozny (English)
Грозный (Russian)
Соьлжа-ГIала (Chechen)

Grozny in the 1950s
Location of Grozny on the map of Russia
Coordinates
43°19′N 45°41′E / 43.317, 45.683Coordinates: 43°19′N 45°41′E / 43.317, 45.683
Coat of Arms
Administrative status
Federal subject
In jurisdiction of
Capital of
Chechnya

Chechnya
Local self-government
Charter
Municipal status Urban okrug
City Head
Legislative body
Area
Area n/a
Population (as of the 2002 Census)
Population
- Rank
- Density
210,720 inhabitants

n/a
Events
Founded 1818
Town status December 1869
Other information
Postal code
Dialing code n/a
Official website

Grozny or Groznyy (Russian: Гро́зный; Chechen: Соьлжа-ГIала, Sölƶa-Ġala sometimes referred to as Джовхар-ГIала, Dƶovxar-Ġala) is the capital of the Chechen Republic in Russia. The city lies on the Sunzha River. According to the 2002 All-Russia population census, the city had a population of 210,720 people (a little more than half of the population a decade before). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Grozny_tram. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 285 pixelsFull resolution (3347 × 1193 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kemerovo Vladivostok Khabarovsk Nizhny Novgorod Birobidzhan... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 86 subjects[1]. These subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Russian parliament). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Federal subjects of the Russian Federation Being the largest country in the world, and one of the most populated, Russia incorporates several types and levels of subdivisions. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with population over 50,000, grouped by federal subject and sorted by population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... // Proposed Country Code: 3 In 1996, the European Commission proposed the introduction of a single telephone numbering plan, in which all European Union member states would use the code 3. Calls between member states would no longer require the use of the international access code 00. This proposal would have... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Grozny may refer to: Grozny, a city in Russia; capital of the Chechen Republic Ivan the Terrible (Grozny) (1530–1584), Grand Prince of Moscow (1533–1547) and the Tsar of Russia (1547–1584) Grozny Group, a volcano on the Kuril Islands, Russia Grozny, Pobedensky Rural Okrug, Maykopsky District, Republic of... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Headline text Headline text Headline text Headline text Bold text Headline text Media:Example. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ...

Contents

Name

In Russian "Grozny" means "fearsome", "menacing", or "terrible" (for example, the figure known in English as "Ivan the Terrible" is called "Ivan Grozny" (Иван Грозный) in Russian). Chechen separatists sometimes refer to the city as Dzhokhar or Djohar (Chechen: Djovkhar Ghaala); it was named so after Dzhokhar Dudaev, the first president of the separatist Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. As of December 2005, the Chechen parliament voted to rename the city Akhmadkala after Akhmad Kadyrov, a proposition which was rejected by his son Ramzan Kadyrov, the prime minister of the republic. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... The Chechen language has about 1,200,000 speakers, most of whom live in Russia. ... Dzhokhar Dudaev and his son Dzhokhar Dudaev and his family Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Chechen Latin: Dzoxar Dudayev; Cyrillic: Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев, 15 April 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and a Chechen leader, the first president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Official language Chechen Capital Grozny (Dzhokharabad, after 1996) President Doku Umarov Independence  â€“ Declared  â€“ Recognition From Russia  â€“ November 1, 1991  â€“ Georgian Republic National anthem Death or Freedom The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria IPA: (Нохчийн Республика Нохчийчоь) is the unrecognized secessionist government of Chechnya. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Akhmat Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Russian: Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров (August 23, 1951 – May 9, 2004) was the president of the Chechen Republic (elected on October 5, 2003). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


History

Russian fort

The Groznaya fortress was founded in 1818 as a Russian military outpost on the Sunzha River by Terek Cossacks and was a prominent defence centre during the Caucasian War. After the pacification of the region, the military use of the old fortress was obsolete and in December 1869 it was renamed Grozny. (The change of the name ending follows the rules for adjectives when the modified noun was changed from the feminine gender ("threatening fortress") to masculine ("threatening town"). As most of the residents there were Terek Cossacks, the town grew slowly until the development of Oil reserves in the early 20th century. This spiralled development of industry and petrochemical production. In addition to the oil drilled in the city itself, the city became a geographical centre of Russia's network of oil fields, and also in 1893 became part of the Transcaucasia - Russia Proper railway. The result was the population almost doubled from 15.6 thousand in 1897 to 30.4 in 1913. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Outpost may mean: a trading post is a place for trading goods, typically in a remote wilderness area Outpost (computer game) outpost (chess) Outpost. ... Headline text Headline text Headline text Headline text Bold text Headline text Media:Example. ... Terek Cossack Host (Russian: ) was a cossack host created in 1577 from free Cossacks resettled from Volga to Terek River. ... Construction of the Georgian Military Road through disputed territories was a key factor in the eventual Russian success A Scene from the Caucasian War, by Franz Roubaud Russian Invasion of the Caucasus, better known in Russia as the Caucasian War of 1817-1864, was a series of military actions of... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ...


Soviet regional capital

The day after the October Revolution (November 8, 1917), the Bolsheviks headed by N. Anisimov seized Grozny and established a Proletariat control. As the Russian Civil War escalated, the Proletariat formed the 12th Red Army, and the garrison held out against numerous attacks by Terek Cossacks from August 11, 1918 until November 12. However, with the arrival of Denikin's armies, the Bolsheviks were forced to withdraw and Grozny was captured on February 4, 1919 by the White Army. Underground operations were carried out, but only the arrival of the Caucasus front of the Red Army in 1920 allowed the town to permanently end up with the RSFSR on 17 March. Simultaneously it became part of the Soviet Mountain Republic, which was formed on 20 January 1921, and was the capital of the Chechen National District inside it. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Mountain Republic (Russian: Го́рская АССР, part of RSFSR) existed from January 20, 1921 to July 7, 1924. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On 30 November 1922, the mountain republic was dissolved, and the national district became the Chechen Autonomous Oblast (Chechen AO) with Grozny as the capital. At this time most of the population was still Russian, but of Cossack descent. As Cossacks were viewed as a potential threat to the Soviet nation, Moscow actively encouraged the migration of Chechens into the city from the mountains. In 1934 the Chechen-Ingush AO was formed, which then grew into the Chechen-Ingush ASSR in 1936. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The Ingush are a people of the northern Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. ... Chechen-Ingush Aautonomous Soviet Socialist Rrepublic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Russian: ) was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny. ...


However in 1944 the whole population of Chechens and Ingush was deported after accusations of collaboration with Nazi Germany, about 10,000 died. All traces of them in the city, including books[1] and graveyards,[2] were destroyed by the NKVD troops. Grozny became the capital of the Grozny Oblast of RSFSR, and the city at the time was again wholly Russian. In 1957 Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored, and the Chechens were allowed to return. Once again migration of non-Russians into Grozny continued whilst the ethnic Russian population, in turn, moved to other parts of the USSR, notably the Baltic states, after the interethnic conflict had nearly occurred. By the late 1960s, Chechens and Ingush outnumbered ethnic Russians. Not by Their Own Will. ... Combatants Chechen, Ingush and other mountaineer rebels German parachutists Soviet Union (NKVD) Commanders Hasan Israilov Mairbek Sheripov Lavrenty Beria Strength 5,000 (November 1941) 6,540-18,000 (February 1943)[1] Several dozen Germans [2][3] 110,000 (Operation Lentil) Casualties At least 4,368 killed (combatants)[2] 12,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The Grozny Riots of 1958 occurred between 23-27 in Grozny. ...


At the same time a great deal of development occurred in the city. Like many other Soviet cities, the Stalinist style of archetecture was prevalent during this period, with apartments in the centre as well as administrative buildings including the massive Council of Ministers and the Grozny University buildings being constructed in Grozny. Later projects included the high-rise apartment blocks prominent in many Soviet cities, as well as a city airport. In 1989, the population of the city was almost 400,000 people. Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was...


Collapse of Russian authority

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Grozny became the seat of a separatist government led by Dzhokhar Dudaev. At this time of chaos, many of the remaining Russian minority were expelled by groups of militants, adding to a harassment and discrimination from the new authorities. These events are perceived by some as an act of an ethnic cleansing, although this was never confirmed by the Russian government or the international community. Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Dzhokhar Dudaev and his son Dzhokhar Dudaev and his family Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (Chechen Latin: Dzoxar Dudayev; Cyrillic: Джоха́р Муса́евич Дуда́ев, 15 April 1944 – 21 April 1996) was a Soviet Air Force general and a Chechen leader, the first president of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, an unrecognized breakaway state in the North... After World War II terms, expulsion was a euphemism for ethnic cleansing of territories settled by Germans. ... The word militant can refer to any individual engaged in warfare, a fight, combat, or generally serving as a soldier. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... In politics, authority generally refers to the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enforce them, or the ability to permit something. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in a framework of a federal presidential republic, whereby the President of Russia is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ...


The covert Russian attempts of overthrowing Dudayev by a means of an armed Chechen opposition forces resulted in repeated failed assaults on the city. The last one on 26 November 1994 ended with capture of 21 Russian Army tank crew members, secretly hired as mercenaries by the FSK (former KGB, soon renamed FSB); their capture was sometimes cited as one of the reasons of Boris Yeltsin's decision to launch the open intervention. In meantime, Grozny airport and other targets were bombed by unmarked Russian aircraft. Combatants Provisional Council FSK Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Strength 1,200-4,000 men 50 tanks Casualties 500 KIA 200 POW (including 70 Russian mercenaries) 1 Su-25 4 helicopters 32 tanks destroyed 5 tanks captured Categories: | | | | ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... In russian, word army means armed forces in general. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organisation in Russia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


First Chechen War

A Chechen fighter near the Presidential Palace in Grozny, January 1995. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
A Chechen fighter near the Presidential Palace in Grozny, January 1995. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev
See also: Battle of Grozny (1994-1995) and Battle of Grozny (August 1996)

During the First Chechen War, Grozny was the site of an intense battle lasting from December 1994 to February 1995 and ultimately ending with the capture of the city by the Russian military. Intense fighting and carpet bombing carried out by the Russian Air Force destroyed much of the city. Thousands of combatants on both sides died in the fighting, alongside civilians, many of which were reportedly ethnic Russians; unclaimed bodies were later collected and buried in mass graves on the city outskirts. The main federal military base in Chechnya was located in the area of Grozny air base. Image File history File links Evstafiev-chechnya-palace-gunman. ... Image File history File links Evstafiev-chechnya-palace-gunman. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Ivan Babichev Vadim Orlov Lev Rokhlin Vladimir Shamanov Viktor Vorobyov â€  Aslan Maskhadov Turpal-Ali Atgeriev Shamil Basayev Ruslan Gelayev Strength 60,000 in all (est. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Konstantin Pulikovsky Doku Zavgayev Aslan Maskhadov Shamil Basayev Strength August 6: 15,000-20,000 August 6: 1,500-2,000 Casualties Official losses: 494 killed 182 missing 1,407 wounded More than 40 to 500 killed In the August 1996 battle... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... The Russian Air Force (Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России, transliteration: Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii) is the air force of Russia. ... A combatant (also referred to as an enemy combatant) is a soldier or guerrilla member who is waging war. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A mass grave is a grave containing more than one human corpse. ... A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by and/or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ...


Chechen guerrilla units operating from nearby mountains managed to harass and demoralize the Russian Army by means of guerilla tactics and raids, such as the attack on Grozny in March 1996, which aided to political and public pressure for a withdrawal of Russian troops. In August 1996, a raiding force of 1,500 to 3,000 militants recaptured the city in a surprise attack. They surrounded and routed its entire garrison of 10,000 MVD troops, while fighting off the Russian Army units from the Khankala base. The battle ended with a final ceasefire and Grozny was once again in the hands of Chechen separatists. The name was changed to Djohar in 1997 by the President of the separatist Ichkeria republic, Aslan Maskhadov. By this time most of the remaining Russian minority fled. “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The acronym MVD can stand for: Mitral valve disease, or Mitral regurgitation. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... Aslan Maskhadov Aslan Aliyevich Maskhadov (Russian: Аслан Алиевич Масхадов) (September 21, 1951 – March 8, 2005) was a leader of the separatist movement in the southern Russian republic of Chechnya. ...


Second Chechen War

See also: Battle of Grozny (1999-2000)

Grozny was once again the epicenter of fighting after the outbreak of the Second Chechen War, which further caused thousands of fatalities. During the early phase of the Russian siege on Grozny in October 25, 1999, Russian forces launched five SS-21 ballistic missiles at the crowded central bazaar and a maternity ward, killing more than 140 people and injuring hundreds. During the massive shelling of the city that followed, most of the Russian artillery were directed toward the upper floors of the buildings; although this caused massive destruction of infrastructure, civilian casualties were much less than in the first battles. The enormous scale of the devastation prompted numerous comparisons with Hiroshima [3] and other cities leveled during World War II. Combatants Russian Federation Ichkeria Commanders Viktor Kazantsev Mikhail Malofayev† Valentin Astaviyev Chechen loyalist militia: Beslan Gantamirov Aslan Maskhadov Aslambek Ismailov† Shamil Basayev Ruslan Gelayev Khunkarpasha Israpilov† Strength About 50,000 [1] Russian estimates [2] of 3,000[3] to 6,000[4] Casualties Official losses in Grozny: 368 killed (157... Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... SS-21 (NATO reporting name Scarab, Russian designation 9K79, or OTR-21) was a Soviet short-ranged tactical ballistic missile. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... The Grozny ballistic missile attack was a series of a devastating Russian ballistic missile strikes on the Chechen capital Grozny on October 21, 1999. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The final seizure of the city was set in early February 2000, when the Russian military lured the besieged militants to a promised safe passage.[citation needed] Seeing that there was no build-up of forces outside, the militants agreed. During one day prior to the planned evacuation, the Russian Army mined the path between the city and the open the village of Alkhan-Kala and concentrated most firepower on that point.[citation needed] As the result, both the city mayor and military commander both were killed; a number of other prominent separatist leaders were also killed or wounded, including Shamil Basayev and several hundred rank-and-file militants. Afterwards, the Russians slowly entered the empty city and on February 6 raised the Russian flag in the centre. Many buildings and even whole areas of the city were systematically dynamited. A month later, it was declared safe to allow the residents to return to their homes, although demolishing continued for some time. In 2003 the United Nations called Grozny the most destroyed city on earth.[4] Shamil Basayev in Dagestan, 1999 Shamil Salmanovich Basayev (Russian: Шамиль Салманович Басаев) (January 14, 1965 – July 10, 2006) was a Vice-President of the internationally unrecognized separatist government of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Islamist guerrilla leader, self-admitted terrorist and a national hero for many Chechens. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Today

Today, the federal government representatives of Chechnya are based in Grozny. Even though the war is officially over, political murders, bombings and clashes between the Russian forces and the separatists continue but are becoming increasingly sporadic. The city's central Leninsky district has acquired a sinister reputation in 2001 as the police regularly came across bodies of civilians, many ethnic Russians, killed for no apparent reason. In August 2002, an entire residential area near Khankala was demolished by the military in response to the Khankala Mi-26 disaster. On December 27, 2002, insurgent suicide bombers destroyed the republican government complex, killing about 72 people. On May 9, 2004, the Chechen president Akhmad Kadyrov and several other top officials were killed by a bomb blast in Grozny. In August 2004 at least 77 people were killed in the night-time rebel raid on the city center. On August 19, 2002, a Russian-made Igla shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile hit an overloaded Mil Mi-26 helicopter, causing it to crash in a minefield and burn at the main military base at Khankala near the capital city of Grozny, Chechnya. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... Grozny bombing in insurgent video 2002 Grozny suicide bombing happened on December 27, 2002, when three Chechen suicide bombers ran vehicles into the heavily guarded republics government headquarters in the regional capital Grozny. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Akhmat Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Russian: Ахмат Абдулхамидович Кадыров (August 23, 1951 – May 9, 2004) was the president of the Chechen Republic (elected on October 5, 2003). ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen separatists Strength N/A 250-400 Casualties At least 63 killed At least 1 killed and 3 captured 2004 raid on Grozny was a series of overnight attacks in central Grozny, capital of Chechnya which killed at least 58 members of security forces, five federal soldiers...


Meanwhile, reconstruction is progressing. By June 2006, out of more than 60,000 apartment buildings and private homes destroyed, 900 have been rebuilt. Out of several dozens of industrial enterprises, three have been partially rebuilt - the Grozny Machine-Building Factory, the Krasny Molot (Red Hammer) and Transmash factories. The railway communication was restored in 2005, and Grozny's Severny airport was reopened in 2007 with three weekly flights to Moscow. Most of the city's infrastructure was destroyed and many continue to live in ruined buildings without heating and running water, even as electricity was mostly restored since 2006, as the city has undergone substantial reconstruction.[5] Before the war, Grozny had about 79,000 apartments, and the city authorities expect to be able to restore about 45,000 apartments; the rest were in the buildings that were completely destroyed.[6] Grozny Airport (Russian: ) (IATA: GRV, ICAO: URMG) is a mixed-use military and civilian airport located 9km north of Grozny. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... A water tap In most developed nations water is piped to homes, and is available on tap. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


Features

The city is divided into four administrative city districts: Leninsky, Zavodskoy, Staropromyslovsky, and Oktyabrsky. All of the districts are residential, but Staropromyslovsky district is also the city's main illegal oil drilling area, and Oktyabrsky district hosts most of the city's industry. However, nearly all of Grozny was destroyed or seriously damaged during the Chechen Wars. Grozny was also known for its modern architecture and as a spa town. It has a university and is home to FC Terek Grozny. A residential area is a type of land use where the predominant use is residential. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Taking the waters at Bath became a fashionable means of leisure Lucy, A spa town is a town frequented many Lucys, mainly for health reasons, to take the waters. The often historical term derives from the Belgian town Spa. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... FC Terek Grozny (Russian: Футбольный клуб Терек) is a Russian football club, currently playing in Russian First Division. ...


Transport

The first train pulled into the Grozny Railway station on May 1, 1893. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Tram & Trolley

On November 5, 1932, Grozny Tram was opened to the public, and by 1990 was 85 kilometres long, and 107 factory-fresh KTM-5 trams that it recieved in the late 1980s, and two depots. The Grozny Trolley, began operation in December 31, 1975, and by 1990 was approximately 60 kilometres with 58 buses and one depot. Both versions of transport came under difficult pressure in the early 1990s, with frequent theft of equipment, lack of pay to the staff and resultant strikes. A major planned Trolley extension to the airport was cancelled. With the outbreak of the First Chechen War both transport services stopped opperation. During the destructive battles, the tram tracks were blocked or damaged, cars and busses were turned into barricades. The trolley was more lucky, as most of its equipment, including the depot survived the war. In 1996 it was visted by specialists from the Vologda Trolley Company, who repaired some of the lines, with service planned to be re-started in 1997. However after they returned, most of the equipment was stolen, and instead the surviving buses were transported to Volzhsky where they were re-paired and used in the new Trolley system. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... St. ... Volzhsky (Russian: ) is an industrial city in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ...


After the Second Chechen War, little of the infrastrcuture of both systems was left. The created Ministry of Transport of the Chechen Republic in 2002, decided not to build the tram (rated as too expensive, and not answering to the city's needs, which lost half of its population since). The trolley however was more fortunate, and despite delays, Grozny hopes to open it by 2010. Combatants Russian Federation Pro-Russian Chechens Republic of Ichkeria Caucasian insurgents and foreign fighters Commanders Vladimir Putin Akhmad Kadyrov† Ramzan Kadyrov Aslan Maskhadov† Abdul Halim Sadulayev† Doku Umarov Shamil Basayev† Strength At least 93,000 in Chechnya in 1999. ...


References

Olga Oliker, Russia's Chechen Wars 1994-2000: Lessons from Urban Combat. (Santa Monica CA: RAND Arroyo Center, 2001)


Twin cities (Sister Cities)

Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lublin Powiat Łuków County Gmina Łuków Government  - Mayor Zbigniew ZemÅ‚o Area  - Town 35. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II...

Famous people from Grozny

Lyudmila Ivanovna Turishcheva (born July 10, 1952 in Grozny) is a Ukrainian, former Soviet, gymnast, four times Olympic Champion. ... Makka Umarovna Sagaipova (Chechen: Макка Умаровна Сагаипова) (b. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Grozny
Wikinews has related news:
First plane arrival for more than 10 years to the renewed airport in Grozny, Russia
  • City Grozny. History of Grozny. Photos, virtual museum.
  • Photo Essay: A Walk Through Grozny PBS
  • Grozny - Chechnya : Photo Essay Time (magazine)
  • Grozny: Fallen City Time
  • Putin: 'Grozny liberated' BBC
  • Chechnya Wants Grozny Name Change BBC


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Cities and towns in the Chechen Republic
Administrative center: Grozny

Argun | Gudermes | Shali | Urus-Martan Image File history File links Coat_of_Chechnya. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chechnya. ... Argun (Russian: ) is a town in Shalinsky District of the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Argun River. ... Gudermes (Russian: ) is a town in the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Sunzha River 36 km east of Grozny. ... Shali (Russian: ) is a town in the Chechen Republic, Russia. ... Urus-Martan(Chechen: Halha-Marta) is the third town of Chechen Republic, located on the river Martan (Chechen: Marta). ...


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Scotsman.com News - International - Money and murder are key to Grozny regeneration (913 words)
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Russia's military defeat of the heart of the rebellion in Chechnya appears to flow, in the simplest sense, from a two-stage formula: extraordinary violence, followed by extraordinary investment.
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With a snout to vent length (SVL) of 4.25 inches (for males) to 4.40 inches (for females), a Grozny lacerta is a moderately large lacertid.
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