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Encyclopedia > Growth hormone deficiency
Growth hormone deficiency
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E23.0
ICD-9 253.3

Growth Hormone Deficiency is the medical condition of inadequate production of growth hormone (GH) and its effects on children and adults. Growth hormone, also called somatotropin, is a polypeptide hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. See separate articles on GH physiology and GH treatment. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Growth hormone is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other vertebrate animals. ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Growth can mean increase in spatial number or complexity for concrete entities in time or increase in some other dimension for abstract or hard-to-measure entities. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ...


Deficiency of GH produces significantly different problems at various ages. In newborn infants the primary manifestations may be hypoglycemia or micropenis. In later infancy and childhood, growth failure may be major effect. Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Micropenis is a medical term that describes an unusually small penis. ... Growth failure is a medical term for a pattern of a childs growth which is poorer than normal for age, sex, stage of maturation, and genetic height expectation. ...


Adults with growth hormone deficiency may have diminished lean body mass and poor bone density and a number of physical and psychological symptoms, including poor memory, social withdrawal, and even depression. Abnormally low growth hormone levels in adults typically result in diminished quality of life and can even be disabling. Physical symptoms include loss of strength, stamina, and musculature. Adults suffering from these symptoms should seek laboratory testing by an endocrinologist. Other hormonal or glandular disorders frequently coincide with diminished growth hormone production. In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone and muscle in human bodies. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...


GH deficiency can be congenital or acquired in childhood or adult life. It can be partial or complete. It is usually permanent, but sometimes transient. It may be an isolated deficiency or occur in association with deficiencies of other pituitary hormones. Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ...


GH deficiency is treated by growth hormone replacement. Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ...

Contents

Terminology

The term hypopituitarism is often used interchangeably with GH deficiency by endocrinologists but more often denotes GH deficiency plus deficiency of at least one other anterior pituitary hormone. When GH deficiency (usually with other anterior pituitary deficiencies) is associated with posterior pituitary hormone deficiency (usually diabetes insipidus) the condition is termed panhypopituitarism. Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ...


HGH also refers to human growth hormone but this older abbreviation has begun to develop paradoxical connotations (see fuller discussion of HGH in GH treatment and HGH quackery). Human growth hormone can refer to: For physiology of human growth hormone, see growth hormone. ... Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... HGH quackery refers to the fraudulent, unfounded, or exaggerated aspects of the claims, products, and businesses related to the use of growth hormone as an anti-aging therapy. ...


Causes of GH deficiency

There are many causes of GH deficiency. Some examples include:

Many cases of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) recognized in childhood are idiopathic. IGHD has been reported to affect about 1 in 4000 children, but IGHD is difficult to distinguish from other causes of shortness such as constitutional delay, and the true incidence is unsettled. For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition that is present at birth. ... Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a congenital malformation syndrome manifested by hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the optic nerve, hypopituitarism, and absence of the septum pellucidum (a midline part of the brain). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... The Sella turcica (literally Turkish saddle) is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone at the base of the human skull. ... Craniopharyngioma is a type of tumor that comprises 9% of all pediatric brain tumors and usually occur in children between 5 and 10 years of age. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... A brain tumor is any intracranial tumor created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division, normally either in the brain itself (neurons, glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells), lymphatic tissue, blood vessels), in the cranial nerves (myelin-producing Schwann cells), in the brain envelopes (meninges), skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Head injury is a trauma to the head, that may or may not include injury to the brain (see also brain injury). ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as Simmonds disease, postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... Apoplexy () derives from the Greek word for seizure, in the sense of being struck down. ...


Severe prenatal deficiency of GH, as occurs in congenital hypopituitarism, has little effect on fetal growth. However, prenatal and congenital deficiency can reduce the size of a male's penis, especially when gonadotropins are also deficient. Besides micropenis, additional consequences of severe deficiency in the first days of life can include hypoglycemia and exaggerated jaundice (both direct and indirect hyperbilirubinemia). Female infants will lack the microphallus of course but may suffer from hypoglycemia and jaundice. The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Micropenis is a medical term that describes an unusually small penis. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Micropenis is a medical term that describes an unusually small penis. ...


Even congenital GH deficiency does not usually impair length growth until after the first few months of life. From late in the first year until mid teens, poor growth and/or shortness is the hallmark of childhood GH deficiency. Growth is not as severely affected in GH deficiency as in untreated hypothyroidism, but growth at about half the usual velocity for age is typical. It tends to be accompanied by delayed physical maturation so that bone maturation and puberty may be several years delayed. When severe GH deficiency is present from birth and never treated, adult heights can be as short as 48-58 inches (122-147 cm). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bone age is a way of describing the degree of maturation of a childs bones. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ...


Severe GH deficiency in early childhood also results in slower muscular development, so that gross motor milestones such as standing, walking, and jumping may be delayed. Body composition (i.e., the relative amounts of bone, muscle, and fat) is affected in many children with severe deficiency, so that mild to moderate chubbiness is common (though GH deficiency alone rarely causes severe obesity). Some severely GH-deficient children have recognizable, cherubic facial features characterized by maxillary hypoplasia and forehead prominence (said to resemble a kewpie doll). For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone and muscle in human bodies. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... Rose ONeill and her patented dolls, mid 1910s. ...


Adult GH deficiency

Though growth ends with sexual maturity, GH continues to be secreted throughout life. In adults, GH contributes to maintenance of muscle and bone mass and strength as well as quality and productivity in life. Understanding of the effects and benefits of GH in adults increased in the 1980's and the features of adult GH deficiency have not only been published, but can be said to have gained some notoriety. For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ...


Reported effects of severe GH deficiency in adults have included:

  • reduced muscle mass and strength
  • reduced bone mass and strength
  • reduced physical, mental, and social energy and resilience
  • impaired concentration and loss of memory
  • mild depression
  • neuralgic arthralgias
  • increased body fat, particularly around the waistline
  • increased cholesterol
  • increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease

As an adult ages, diminishing amounts of GH are produced by the pituitary. This is characteristic of other hormones (especially the sex steroids) as well, and most physicians distinguish between the "naturally" reduced (age-related slowing) secretion of aging and the lower levels of real deficiency. Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones which interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ...


Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency

Pediatric endocrinologists are the physicians who specialize in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency and growth problems in children. Internist endocrinologists are the physicians with the most expertise in assessment and treatment of adult GH deficiency. Pediatric endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing with variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, as well as diabetes and other disorders of the endocrine glands. ... Doctors of internal medicine (internists) are medical specialists who focus on adult medicine and have had special study and training focusing on the prevention and treatment of adult diseases. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ...


Although GH can be readily measured in a blood sample, testing for GH deficiency is constrained by the fact that levels are nearly undetectable for most of the day. This makes simple measurement of GH in a single blood sample useless for detecting deficiency. Physicians therefore use a combination of indirect and direct criteria.


Several types of evidence are used to ascertain GH sufficiency or deficiency.

  • Auxologic criteria (defined by body measurements)
  • Indirect hormonal criteria (IGF levels from a single blood sample)
  • Direct hormonal criteria (measurement of GH in multiple blood samples to determine secretory patterns or responses to provocative testing)
  • Response to GH treatment
  • Corroborative evidence of pituitary dysfunction

"Provocative tests" involve giving a dose of an agent that will normally provoke a pituitary to release a burst of growth hormone. An intravenous line is established, the agent is given, and small amounts of blood are drawn at 15 minute intervals over the next hour to determine if a rise of GH was provoked. Agents which have been used clinically to stimulate and assess GH secretion are arginine, levodopa, clonidine, epinephrine and propranolol, glucagon and insulin. Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Levodopa (INN) or L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) is an intermediate in dopamine biosynthesis. ... Clonidine is a direct-acting adrenergic agonist prescribed historically as an anti-hypertensive agent. ... Adrenaline redirects here. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ...


Severe GH deficiency in childhood has the following measurable characteristics:

  • Proportional stature well below that expected for family heights
  • Below-normal velocity of growth
  • Delayed physical maturation
  • Delayed bone age
  • Low levels of IGF1, IGF2, IGF binding protein 3
  • Subnormal frequency and amplitude of GH secretory peaks when sampled over several hours
  • Subnormal GH secretion in response to at least two provocative stimuli
  • Increased IGF1 levels after a few days of GH treatment
  • Increased growth velocity after a few months of GH treatment

Severe GH deficiency in adults has the following measurable characteristics: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a protein hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. ...

  • Body composition has higher amount of body fat
  • Subnormal bone density
  • Diminished muscle strength
  • Higher cholesterol levels
  • Low IGF1 level
  • Subnormal frequency and amplitude of GH secretory peaks when tracked over several hours
  • Subnormal GH secretion in response to at least two provocative stimuli
  • Increased IGF1 levels after a few days of GH treatment

When these features are accompanied by corroboratory evidence of hypopituitarism such as deficiency of other pituitary hormones, a structurally abnormal pituitary, or a history of damage to the pituitary, the diagnosis is confirmed and presumed to be lifelong. When these corroborative features are not present, further testing is needed to establish the diagnosis. Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


For GH deficiency, as for many other diseases, the practical purpose and effect of these diagnostic criteria is to determine who is to be treated with it. GH deficiency accounts for only a minority of short stature among children. GH deficiency accounts for an even smaller proportion of fatigability, excessive fat, osteopenic bones, and underdeveloped muscles in adults. An ideal diagnostic test cleanly separates people who would benefit from a treatment from those who would not. Unfortunately, none of the criteria listed above do so, not even in various combinations. People who are shorter have short stature. ... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ... A medical test is any kind of diagnostic medical procedure performed for health reasons. ...


The common clinical problem is that many children and adults being evaluated meet some, but not all, of the above criteria. Since many children and adults who do not meet all of the diagnostic criteria may receive some of the benefits of treatment, small differences in the diagnostic criteria make large differences in the number of short or tired people diagnosed with deficiency.


Because of uncertainties and complexities of diagnosis and the high costs of treatment, diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency has been a more persistent subject of debate and controversy in clinical endocrinology than any other aspect of endocrine diagnosis.


Treatment of GH deficiency

GH deficiency is treated by replacing GH. Until 1985, growth hormone for treatment was obtained by extraction from human pituitary glands collected at autopsy. Since 1985, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is a recombinant form of human GH produced by genetically engineered bacteria, manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Elements of genetic engineering cells, and the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse (cancer mouse) for research. ... Recombinant DNA technology adds/replaces DNA in an organism resulting in the recipient organism containing exogenous DNA. Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ...


Treatment of GH deficiency in childhood

When treated with GH, a severely deficient child will begin to grow faster within months. In the first year of treatment, the rate of growth may increase from half as fast as other children are growing to twice as fast (e.g., from 1 inch a year to 4 inches, or 2.5 cm to 10). Growth typically slows in subsequent years, but usually remains above normal so that over several years a child who had fallen far behind in his height may grow into the normal height range. Parents often notice increased strength, appetite, and energy. Increased muscle strength may allow young children to overcome delays of motor development. Excess adipose tissue may be reduced. Mental retardation (abbreviated as MR), is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal intellectual capacity as an adult. ...


There are almost no significant side effects of this type of physiologic replacement. Rare risks and unsettled issues are discussed in the article on GH treatment, but GH deficient children receiving replacement doses are at the lowest risk for problems and receive the greatest benefit. Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ...


Nevertheless, costs of treatment in terms of money, effort, and perhaps quality of life, are substantial. Treatment usually involves daily injections of growth hormone for children. Most pediatric endocrinologists monitor growth and adjust dose every 3-4 months and many of these visits involve blood tests. Treatment is usually extended as long as the child is growing, and lifelong continuation may be recommended for those most severely deficient. Nearly painless insulin syringes and pen injectors reduce the discomfort. Most children and families are enthusiastic once the benefits begin to be seen. Treatment is expensive - as much as $US 10,000 to 30,000 a year is common. A syringe nowadays nearly always means a medical syringe, but it can mean any of these: A simple hand-powered piston pump consisting of a plunger that can be pulled and pushed along inside a cylindrical tube (the barrel), which has a small hole on one end, so it can...


Little except the cost of treating severely deficient children is controversial, and it is likely that the majority of children with severe growth hormone deficiency in North America, Japan, and much of Europe and the rest of the developed world are offered treatment, and most accept. The story is very different for adult deficiency.


It has been shown repeatedly in research studies that GH treatment can confer a number of measurable benefits to severely GH-deficient adults, such as enhanced energy and strength, and improved bone density. Muscle mass may increase at the expense of adipose tissue. Blood lipid levels improve, but long term mortality benefit has not yet been demonstrated.


GH for severe adult deficiency is usually prescribed as three injections per week at a weekly dose about 25% of children's doses and comparably lower cost. Despite the demonstrated benefits, most adults with GH deficiency are not being treated due to a combination of factors such as unwillingness of young adults to seek medical care, unacceptability of injections, inadequate insurance coverage, and significantly lower rates of diagnosis and treatment offer by internist endocrinologists.

For more details on treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency, see Growth hormone treatment.

Growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. ...

History

Perhaps the most famous person who exemplified the appearance of untreated congenital growth hormone deficiency was Charles Sherwood Stratton (1838-1883), who was exhibited by P.T. Barnum as General Tom Thumb, and married Lavinia Warren. Pictures of the couple appear to show the typical adult features of untreated severe growth hormone deficiency. Despite the severe shortness, limbs and trunk are proportional. Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891), American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus that eventually became Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus. ... The wedding party comprised, from left to right: George Washington Morrison Nutt (1844–1881), Charles Sherwood Stratton (1838–1883), Lavinia Warren Stratton (1841–1919), Minnie Warren (1841–1878). ...


Like many other 19th century medical terms which lost precise meaning as they gained wider currency, “midget” as a term for someone with severe proportional shortness acquired pejorative connotations and is no longer used in a medical context.


GH resistance

There are a variety of rare diseases which resemble GH deficiency, including the childhood growth failure, facial appearance, delayed bone age, and low IGF levels. However, GH testing elicits normal or high levels of GH in the blood, demonstrating that the problem is not due to a deficiency of GH but rather to a reduced sensitivity to its action. GH treatment does not increase IGF levels or improve growth very much.


The traditional term for this condition is Laron dwarfism, but over the last 15 years many different types of GH resistance have been identified, primarily involving mutations of the GH binding protein or receptors. Trials of treatment with IGF1 were not successful enough to warrant adoption as standard use. Laron syndrome is a disorder characterized by an insensitivity to growth hormone, caused by a variant of the growth hormone receptor. ...


==External links==lk Links written for general public:


The two major United States support organizations for childhood and adult GH deficiency (as well as other growth problems).

Many good links related to GH deficency.

Links written for physicians:


Practice guidelines and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency, reflecting standard practice among U.S. endocrinologists.

Online journal primarily written for pediatric endocrinologists that has been publishing brief reviews and research synopses related to growth hormone and growth issues for many years.

Online textbook of endocrinology with chapters on growth and pituitary disorders.

Non-profit advocacy group for adults of short stature.

Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among the hundreds of endocrine diseases (or endocrinological diseases) are: Adrenal disorders: Adrenal insufficiency Addisons disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Glucose homeostasis disorders: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Metabolic bone disease: Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Pagets... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Myxedema (English: myxoedema) is a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism. ... Toxic multinodular goitre (also known as toxic nodular goitre, toxic nodular struma) is a form of hyperthyroidism - where there is excess production of thyroid hormones. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A teratoma is a type of tumor that derives from pluripotent germ cells. ... de Quervains thyroiditis, is also known as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis or subacute thyroiditis; usually occurs in women between 30 and 50 years of age. ... Hashimotos thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease where the bodys own antibodies attack the cells of the thyroid. ... Riedels thyroiditis, also called Riedels struma is a chronic form of thyroiditis. ... Euthyroid sick syndrome is a thyroid hormone disorder where the levels of T3 and/or T4 are at unusual levels, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, Type I diabetes, T1D, IDDM) is a form of diabetes mellitus. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes mellitus is comatose (unconscious) because of one of three acute complications of diabetes: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Advanced diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic... Angiopathy is a disease of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that occurs when someone has diabetes for a long time. ... Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is a life-threatening complication in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus (chronic high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). ... Diabetic nephropathy (nephropatia diabetica), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. ... Diabetic neuropathies are neuropathic disorders that are associated with diabetes mellitus. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Hyperinsulism or hyperinsulinemia is a condition in which the bodys cells do not respond properly to insulin, the hormone that functions to control blood sugar levels. ... Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a disorder where increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. ... The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a condition that mimics hypoparathyroidism, but is due to a resistance to parathyroid hormone, rather than a lack of the hormone (akin to the distinction between Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. ... Hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Primary hyperparathyroidism causes hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) through the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), usually by an adenoma (benign tumors) of the parathyroid glands. ... Secondary hyperparathyroidism refers to the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in response to hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and associated hypertrophy of the glands. ... Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a state of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) after a long period of secondary hyperparathyroidism and resulting in hypercalcemia. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... Hyperpituitarism is the result of an overactive pituitary gland producing too much of the bodies natural growth hormones. ... Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megas large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... Prolactin is a hormone secreted by lactotropes in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland) which is made up of 199 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 23,000 daltons. ... The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ... Simmonds disease (also Simmonds syndrome) refers to panhypopituitarism caused by the destruction of the pituitary gland due to infiltrative processes (e. ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis, is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... Kallmann syndrome is an example of hypogonadism (decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands) caused by a deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is created by the hypothalamus. ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ... Adiposogenital dystrophy is a medical condition. ... Empty sella syndrome (abbreviated ESS) is a disorder that involves the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the brain that surrounds and protects the pituitary gland. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pseudo-Cushings syndrome is a medical condition in which patients display the signs, symptoms, and abnormal hormone levels seen in Cushings syndrome. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in all its forms, accounts for about 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and CAH in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. ... Conns syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. ... Bartter syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by low potassium levels (hypokalemia), decreased acidity of blood (alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure. ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or hypocortisolism) is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... Addisons disease(also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoaldosteronism refers to decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome), is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately one in ten women. ... Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is the cessation of menstrual periods and ovulation in women under the age of 40. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Guevedoche. ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare disorder of sexual development which can produce impaired virilization (traditionally termed male pseudohermaphroditism) of genetically male infants and children and excessive virilization of female adults. ... Hypogonadism is a medical term for a defect of the reproductive system which results in lack of function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). ... Puberty is described as delayed when a boy or girl has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning. ... Precocious puberty means early puberty. ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, or Androgen resistance syndrome) is a set of disorders of sexual differentiation that results from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. ... In medicine, autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes are a heterogenous group of rare diseases characterised by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. ... Carcinoid syndrome refers to the array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. ... Anna Haining Bates with her parents Greek gigas, gigantus (giant) is a condition characterized by excessive height growth and bigness. ... People who are shorter have short stature. ... Laron syndrome is a disorder characterized by an insensitivity to growth hormone, caused by a variant of the growth hormone receptor. ... Psychogenic dwarfism, Psychosocial dwarfism or Stress dwarfism is a growth disorder that is observed between the ages of 2 and 15, caused by extreme emotional deprivation or stress. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or multiple endocrine adenomas, or multiple endocrine adenomatosis -- MEA) consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. ... The term Progeria narrowly refers to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome, but the term is also used more generally to describe any of the so-called accelerated aging diseases. The word progeria is derived from the Greek for prematurely old. Because the accelerated aging diseases display different aspects of aging, but...

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Growth Hormone Deficiency (699 words)
Growth hormone deficiency entails inadequate levels of, or response to, growth hormone and its clinical manifestations.
Growth hormone deficiency, whether alone or in association with other abnormalities, is hereditary in about 10 percent of all cases.
Growth deficiency in adulthood tends to cause mild to moderate obesity, weakness (asthenia), and reduced cardiac output.
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