FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Growth factor

Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that regulate communication among immune system cells and between immune cells and those of other tissue types. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...


Growth factors and cytokines

The term growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientitsts with the term cytokine. Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins the hematopoietic and immune systems used were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. Cytokines are small protein molecules that regulate communication among immune system cells and between immune cells and those of other tissue types. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ... The spleen is a ductless, vertebrate gland that is not necessary for life but is closely associated with the circulatory system, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and removal of other debris from the bloodstream, and also in holding a reservoir of blood. ... In human anatomy, the thymus is a ductless gland located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity. ... Structure of the lymph node. ... A circulatory system (sometimes cardiovascular system) is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells; it can also help stabilize body temperature and pH (part of homeostasis). ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... In general, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its composition and chemical properties. ... The immune system is the system of specialized cells and organs that protect an organism from outside biological influences. ...


Growth factor signifies a positive effect on cell growth and cellular differentiation, but cytokine is a neutral term in regards to what it is being signaled. In this sense, some cytokines can be growth factors such as G-CSF and GM-CSF as listed below. However some cytokines are actually used as "death" signals, such as the FAS ligand, which causes target lymphocytes to commit a form of suicide known as programmed cell death or apoptosis. Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... The FAS ligand is a type II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is the deliberate suicide of an unwanted cell in a multicellular organism. ... Apoptosis In biology, apoptosis (from the Greek words apo = from and ptosis = falling, commonly pronounced ap-a-tow-sis[1]) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). ...


Types

Individual growth factor proteins tend to occur as members of larger families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. There are dozens and dozens of growth factor families such as TGF-beta (transforming growth factor), BMP (bone morphogenic protein), neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, and NT3), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and so on. A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ... Transforming growth factor (TGF) is one of many characterized growth factors that exist in nature. ... Neurotrophins are a family of molecules that encourage survival of nervous tissue. ... Fibroblast growth factor, or FGF, is a family growth factors involved in wound healing. ...


Several well known growth factors are:

Insert non-formatted text hereGranulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein, growth factor or cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes. ... Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a protein secreted by a neurons target. ... Neurotrophins are a family of molecules that encourage survival of nervous tissue. ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of the numerous proteins that regulate cell growth and division. ... Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (or EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that is a growth factor for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Thrombopoietin is the recently discovered (1994) glycoprotein hormone that regulates the production of platelets. ... Myostatin (fomerly known as Growth and Differentiation Factor 8) is a growth factor that limits muscle tissue growth, i. ... Growth Differentiation factor-9 is a member of TGFβ superfamily that extreamly expressed in oocyte. ... Member of the Fibroblast Growth Factor family. ...

Uses in medicine

For the last two decades, growth factors have been increasingly used in treatment of hematologic and oncologic diseases like: Hematology is the branch of medicine that is concerned with blood and its disorders. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ...

It has been suggested that Agranulocytosis be merged into this article or section. ... Leukemia (leukaemia in Commonwealth English) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough, or any, new cells to replenish the blood cells. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
ScienceDaily: Growth Factor Stimulates Rapid Extension Of Key Motor Neurons In Brain (746 words)
Science Daily — A growth factor known to be important for the survival of many types of cells stimulates rapid extension of corticospinal motor neurons -- critical brain cells that connect the cerebral cortex with the spinal cord and that die in motor neuron diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease).
In order to study growth factor controls over these cells, Macklis and Hande Ozdinler, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in his laboratory, developed a new way of isolating pure populations of CSMN in culture and found that IGF-1 was a prime candidate for control over CSMN development.
Studies suggest that psoriatic arthritis is caused by genetic, immunological and environmental factors.
Growth factor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (618 words)
Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells.
The term growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientitsts with the term cytokine.
Growth factor signifies a positive effect on cell growth and cellular differentiation, but cytokine is a neutral term in regards to what it is being signalled.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m