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Encyclopedia > Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

In office
March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897
Vice President Adlai E. Stevenson (1893-1897)
Preceded by Benjamin Harrison
Succeeded by William McKinley

In office
March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889
Vice President Thomas A. Hendricks (1885, died in office),
None (1885–1889)
Preceded by Chester A. Arthur
Succeeded by Benjamin Harrison

In office
January 1, 1883 – January 6, 1885
Lieutenant David B. Hill
Preceded by Alonzo B. Cornell
Succeeded by David B. Hill

Born March 18, 1837(1837-03-18)
Caldwell, New Jersey
Died June 24, 1908 (aged 71)
Princeton, New Jersey
Political party Democratic
Spouse Frances Folsom Cleveland
Occupation Lawyer
Religion Presbyterian
Signature Grover Cleveland's signature

Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Cleveland is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). He was the winner of the popular vote for President three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the Presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1860 to 1912. Cleveland's admirers praise him for his honesty, independence, integrity, and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism.[1] As a leader of the Bourbon Democrats, he opposed imperialism, taxes, subsidies and inflationary policies, but as a reformer he also worked against corruption, patronage, and bossism. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1732x2572, 411 KB) U.S. President Grover Cleveland. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... // Presidents of France Félix Faure Marie François Sadi Carnot Paul Doumer Georges Pompidou Presidents of the United States William Henry Harrison Zachary Taylor Abraham Lincoln James Garfield William McKinley Warren G. Harding Franklin Delano Roosevelt John F. Kennedy Vice Presidents of the United States George Clinton Elbridge Gerry... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lieutenant Governor of New York is the second highest ranking official in the government of New York. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... Alonzo Barton Cornell (22 January 1832–15 October 1904) was Governor of New York from 1880 to 1883. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Caldwell in Essex County Caldwell is a borough located in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey, about sixteen miles outside of New York City. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Frances Folsom Cleveland (July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947), wife of Grover Cleveland, was First Lady of the United States from 1886 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 149 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 179 pixel, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/png) Grover Cleveland Signature This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Bourbon Democrats was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to conservative or reactionary members of the Democratic Party, especially those who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884-1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... ... Bossism, in the history of the United States, is a system of political control centering about a single powerful figure (the boss) and a complex organization of lesser figures (the machine) bound together by reciprocity in promoting financial and social self-interest. ...


Some of Cleveland's actions caused controversy even within his own party. His intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 in order to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions, and his support of the gold standard and opposition to free silver alienated the agrarian wing of the Democrats.[2] Furthermore, critics complained that he had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term.[2] Even so, his reputation for honesty and good character survived the troubles of his second term. In the words of his biographer, Allan Nevins, "in Grover Cleveland the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have. He possessed honesty, courage, firmness, independence, and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not."[3] Pullman Strike began on May 11, 1894. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Agrarianism is a social and political philosophy. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ...

Contents

Family and early life

Childhood and family history

Cleveland's birthplace, in Caldwell, New Jersey
Cleveland's birthplace, in Caldwell, New Jersey

Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey to Richard Falley Cleveland and his wife, Ann Neal.[4] Cleveland's father was a Presbyterian minister, originally from Connecticut.[5] His mother was from Baltimore, the daughter of a bookseller.[6] On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first Cleveland having emigrated to Massachusetts from northeastern England in 1635.[7] On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.[8] He was distantly related to the General Moses Cleaveland after whom the city of Cleveland, Ohio, was named.[9] is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Map of Caldwell in Essex County Caldwell is a borough located in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey, about sixteen miles outside of New York City. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The City of Cleveland, Ohio was named after Moses Cleaveland, a surveyor of the Connecticut Land Company. ... Cleveland redirects here. ...


Cleveland was the fifth of nine children born to Richard and Ann Cleveland, five sons and four daughters.[6] He was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, but never used the name Stephen in his adult life.[10] In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Cleveland spent much of his childhood.[11] Neighbors would later describe Cleveland as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks",[12] and fond of outdoor sports.[13] In 1850, Cleveland's father took a job in Clinton, New York, and the family relocated there.[14] They moved again in 1853 to Holland Patent, New York, near Utica.[15] Not long after the family arrived in Holland Patent, Cleveland's father died.[15] Fayetteville is a village located in Onondaga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 U.S. Census, the village had a population of 4,190. ... This article is about the state. ... Ginko tree near the center of the village of Clinton, New York A plaque outlining the history of the Ginko tree near the center of the village of Clinton, New York Clinton is a village in Oneida County, New York, United States. ... Holland Patent is a village located in Oneida County, New York. ... Utica, New York is a city in the state of New York, and the county seat of Oneida County. ...


Education and moving west

Cleveland's education began in grammar school at the Fayetteville Academy.[16] When the family moved to Clinton, Cleveland was enrolled at the Clinton Liberal Academy.[17] After his father died in 1853, Cleveland left school and helped to support his family.[18] Later that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, and William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher.[18] After teaching for a year, Cleveland returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854.[19] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Back in Holland Patent, the seventeen-year-old Cleveland looked for work unsuccessfully.[19] An elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister, but Cleveland declined.[19] Instead, the following spring Cleveland decided to make his way west to the city of Cleveland, Ohio.[19] He stopped first in Buffalo, where his uncle, Lewis W. Allen, lived. Allen dissuaded Cleveland from continuing west, and offered him a job arranging his herdbooks.[20] Allen was an important man in Buffalo, and he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers, Bowen, and Rogers.[21] Cleveland later took a clerkship with the firm, and was admitted to the bar in 1859.[22] An elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]; see Presbyter) in Christianity is a person valued for his wisdom who accordingly holds a particular position of responsibility in a Christian group. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early career and the Civil War

An early, undated photograph of Grover Cleveland[23]

After becoming a lawyer, Cleveland worked for the Rogers firm for three years, leaving in 1862 to start his own practice.[24] In January 1863, he accepted an appointment as an assistant district attorney of Erie County.[25] With the American Civil War raging, Congress passed the Conscription Act of 1863, requiring able-bodied men to serve in the army if called upon, or else to hire a substitute.[22] Cleveland chose the latter course, paying George Benninsky, a thirty-two year-old Polish immigrant, $150 to serve in his place.[26] As a lawyer, Cleveland became known for his single-minded concentration and dedication to hard work.[27] In 1866, he defended some of the participants in the Fenian raid of that year, doing so successfully and free of charge.[28] In 1868, Cleveland attracted some attention within his profession for his successful defense of a libel suit against the editor of the Commercial Advertiser, a Buffalo newspaper.[29] During this time, Cleveland lived simply in a boarding house; although his income grew sufficient to support a more lavish lifestyle, Cleveland continued to support his mother and younger sisters.[30] While his personal quarters were austere, Cleveland did enjoy an active social life and enjoyed "the easy-going sociability of hotel-lobbies and saloons."[31] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... Erie County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Illustration of the draft riots, reproducd in a 1921 history of the United States The New York Draft Riots in (New York City, July 13 - July 16, 1863) began as protests against President Abraham Lincolns Enrollment Act of Conscription drafting men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. ... You may also be looking for the plural of the word pole. ... Fenian Monument - Queens Park, Toronto Canada ca. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Boarding House is a privately owned house,in which individuals or families on vaccation, holidays, deputition,transfered on temporary duties, on some particular training,short&mediun tenure visitors,working professionals & lodgers,rent one or more rooms sets for one or more nights,sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months and... Look up saloon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Political career in New York

Sheriff of Erie County

From his earliest involvement in politics, Cleveland had aligned himself with the Democratic Party.[32] In 1865, he ran for District Attorney, losing narrowly to his friend and roommate, Lyman K. Bass, the Republican nominee.[27] Cleveland then stayed out of politics for a few years, but in 1870, with the help of his friend, Oscar Folsom, he secured the Democratic nomination for sheriff of Erie County.[33] At the age of thirty-three, Cleveland found himself elected sheriff by a 303-vote margin, taking office on January 1, 1871.[34] While this new career took him away from the practice of law, it was rewarding in other ways: the fees were said to yield up to $40,000 over the two-year term.[33] The most well-known incident of his term involved the execution of a murderer, Patrick Morrisey, on September 6, 1872.[35] Cleveland, as sheriff, was responsible for either personally carrying out the execution, or paying a deputy $10 to perform the task.[35] Cleveland had qualms about the hanging, but opted to carry out the duty himself.[35] He hanged another murderer, John Gaffney, on 14 February 1873.[36] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ... // Sheriffs in the United States generally fall into three broad categories: Restricted service — provide basic services such as keeping the county jail, transporting prisoners, providing courthouse security and other duties with regard to service of process and summonses that are issued by county and state courts. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Albert Fish - executed on January 16, 1936 in the electric chair at Sing Sing prison. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about death by hanging. ... Albert Fish - executed on January 16, 1936 in the electric chair at Sing Sing prison. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


After his term as sheriff ended, Cleveland returned to private practice, opening a law firm with his friends Lyman K. Bass and Wilson S. Bissell.[37] Bass did not spend much time at the firm, being elected to Congress in 1873, but Cleveland and Bissell soon found themselves at the top of Buffalo's legal community.[38] Up to that point, Cleveland's political career had been honorable but unremarkable. As his biographer Allan Nevins wrote "probably no man in the country, on March 4, 1881, had less thought than this limited, simple, sturdy attorney of Buffalo that four years later he would be standing in Washington and taking the oath as President of the United States."[39] Wilson Shannon Bissell (born December 31, 1847, New London, died October 6, 1903, in Buffalo) was an American politician from Buffalo, New York. ... Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Mayor of Buffalo

In the 1870s, the government of Buffalo had grown increasingly corrupt, with Democratic and Republican political machines cooperating to share the spoils.[40] When, in 1881, the Republicans nominated a slate of particularly disreputable machine politicians, the Democrats saw the opportunity to gain the votes of disaffected Republicans by nominating a more honest candidate.[41] The party leaders approached Cleveland and he agreed to run for mayor, provided that the rest of the ticket was to his liking.[42] When the more notorious politicians were left off of the Democratic ticket, Cleveland accepted the nomination.[42] Cleveland was elected mayor with 15,120 votes, as against 11,528 for Milton C. Beebe, his opponent.[43] He took office January 2, 1882. In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This is a list of mayors of Buffalo, New York. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Cleveland's term as mayor was spent fighting the entrenched interests of the party machines.[44] Among the acts that established his reputation was a veto of the street-cleaning bill passed by the Common Council.[45] The street-cleaning contract was open for bids, and the Council selected the highest bidder, rather than the lowest, because of the political connections of the bidder.[45] While this sort of bi-partisan graft had previously been tolerated in Buffalo, Mayor Cleveland would have none of it, and replied with a stinging veto message: "I regard it as the culmination of a most bare-faced, impudent, and shameless scheme to betray the interests of the people, and to worse than squander the public money".[46] The Council reversed themselves and awarded the contract to the lowest bidder.[47] For this, and several other acts to safeguard the public funds, Cleveland's reputation as an honest politician began to spread beyond Erie County.[48] The Buffalo Common Council is the legislative branch of the Buffalo, NY City Government. ...


Governor of New York

Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in Buffalo, New York
Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in Buffalo, New York

As his reputation grew, state Democratic party officials began to consider Cleveland a possible nominee for governor.[49] Daniel Manning, a party insider who admired Cleveland's record, promoted his candidacy.[50] With a split in the state Republican party, 1882 looked to be a Democratic year and there were several contenders for that party's nomination.[49] The two leading Democratic candidates were Roswell P. Flower and Henry W. Slocum, but their factions deadlocked and the convention could not agree on a nominee.[51] Cleveland, in third place on the first ballot, picked up support in subsequent votes and emerged as the compromise choice.[52] The Republican party remained divided against itself, and in the general election Cleveland emerged the victor, with 535,318 votes to Republican nominee Charles J. Folger's 342,464.[53] Cleveland's margin of victory was, at the time, the largest in a contested New York election, and the Democrats also picked up seats in both houses of the legislature.[54] Download high resolution version (400x746, 87 KB)Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in downtown Buffalo, New York (taken Sept. ... Download high resolution version (400x746, 87 KB)Statue of Grover Cleveland outside City Hall in downtown Buffalo, New York (taken Sept. ... Daniel Manning (May 16, 1831–December 24, 1887) was an American businessman and politician. ... Roswell Pettibone Flower (August 7, 1835 - May 12, 1899) was the Governor of New York between 1892 and 1895. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Charles James Folger (April 16, 1818–September 4, American politician, jurist and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. ... The New York Legislature is the legislative branch of the U.S. state of New York, seated at the states capital, Albany. ...


Continuing his opposition to unnecessary spending, Cleveland sent the legislature eight vetos in his first two months in office.[55] The first to attract attention was his veto of a bill to reduce the fares on New York City elevated trains to five cents.[56] The bill had broad support because the el trains' owner, Jay Gould, was unpopular and his fare increases were widely denounced.[57] Cleveland saw the bill as unjust—Gould had taken over the railroads when they were failing and had made the system solvent again.[58] Moreover, Cleveland believed that altering Gould's franchise would violate the Contract Clause of the federal Constitution.[58] Despite the initial popularity of the measure, the newspapers praised Cleveland's veto.[58] Theodore Roosevelt, then a member of the Assembly, said that he had initially voted for the bill believing it was wrong, but wishing to punish the unscrupulous railroad barons.[59] After the veto, Roosevelt reversed himself, as did many legislators, and the veto was sustained.[59] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The New York City Subway has had a long history, beginning as many disjointed systems and eventually merging under City control. ... Jay Gould (1836-1892) Jason Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was an American financier. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York. ...


Cleveland's blunt, honest ways won him popular acclaim, but they also gained him the enmity of certain factions of his own party, especially the Tammany Hall organization in New York City.[60] Tammany, under its boss, John Kelly, had not supported Cleveland's nomination as governor, and disliked him all the more when Cleveland openly opposed the re-election of one of their State Senators.[61] Losing Tammany's support was balanced, however, by gaining the support of Theodore Roosevelt and other reform-minded Republicans who helped Cleveland to pass several laws reforming municipal governments.[62] Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... John Kelly (1822-1886) of New York City was U.S. Representative from New York from 1855 to 1858. ...


Election of 1884

Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Nomination for President

James G. Blaine, Cleveland's opponent in 1884
James G. Blaine, Cleveland's opponent in 1884

The Republicans convened in Chicago and nominated former Speaker of the House James G. Blaine of Maine for President on the fourth ballot. Blaine's nomination alienated many Republicans who viewed Blaine as ambitious and immoral.[63] Democratic party leaders saw the Republicans' choice as an opportunity to take back the White House for the first time since 1856 if the right candidate could be found.[63] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3232x4136, 1154 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James G. Blaine United States Secretary of State ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3232x4136, 1154 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): James G. Blaine United States Secretary of State ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Among the Democrats, Samuel J. Tilden was the initial front-runner, having been the party's nominee in the contested election of 1876.[64] Tilden, however, was in poor health, and after he declined to be nominated, his supporters shifted to several other contenders.[64] Cleveland was among the leaders in early support, but Thomas F. Bayard of Delaware, Allen G. Thurman of Ohio, and Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts also had considerable followings, along with various favorite sons.[64] Each of the other candidates had hindrances to his nomination: Bayard had spoken in favor of secession in 1861, making him unacceptable to Northerners; Butler, conversely, was reviled throughout the South for his actions during the Civil War; Thurman was generally well-liked, but was growing old and infirm and his views on the silver question were uncertain.[65] Cleveland, too, had detractors—Tammany remained opposed to him—but the nature of his enemies made him more friends still.[66] Cleveland led on the first ballot, with 392 votes out of 820.[67] On the second ballot, Tammany threw its support behind Butler, but the rest of the delegates shifted to Cleveland, and he was nominated.[68] Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana was selected as his running mate.[68] Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and intense presidential elections in American history. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Favorite Son. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ...


Campaign against Blaine

An anti-Blaine cartoon presents him as the "tattooed man," with many indelible scandals.
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.
An anti-Cleveland cartoon highlights the Halpin scandal.

After Cleveland's nomination, reform-minded Republicans called "Mugwumps" denounced Blaine as corrupt and flocked to Cleveland.[69] The Mugwumps, including such men as Carl Schurz and Henry Ward Beecher, were more concerned with ideals than with party, and hoped that Cleveland would endorse their crusade for civil service reform and efficiency in government.[69] At the same time that the Democrats gained support from the Mugwumps, they lost some to the Greenback-Labor party, led by ex-Democrat Benjamin Butler.[70] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1884 Electoral Map The Mugwumps were a political movement comprising Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. ... Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Greenback Party (Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ...


Each candidate's supporters cast aspersions on their opponents. Cleveland's supporters rehashed the old allegations that Blaine had corruptly influenced legislation in favor of the Little Rock & Fort Smith Railroad and the Northern Pacific Railway, later profiting on the sale of bonds he owned in both companies.[71] Although the stories of Blaine's favors to the railroads had made the rounds eight years earlier, this time Blaine's correspondence was discovered, making his earlier denials less plausible.[71] On some of the most damaging correspondence, Blaine had written "Burn this letter," giving Democrats the last line to their rallying cry: "Blaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine, 'Burn this letter!'"[72] The Northern Pacific Railway (AAR reporting marks NP) was a railway that operated in the north-central region of the United States. ...


To counter Cleveland's image of purity, his opponents reported that Cleveland had fathered an illegitimate child while he was a lawyer in Buffalo.[73] The derisive phrase "Ma, Ma, where's my Pa?" rose as an unofficial campaign slogan for those who opposed him.[73] When confronted with the emerging scandal, Cleveland's instructions to his campaign staff were: "Tell the truth."[74] Cleveland admitted to paying child support in 1874 to Maria Crofts Halpin, the woman who claimed he fathered her child named Oscar Folsom Cleveland.[73] Halpin was involved with several men at the time, including Cleveland's friend and law partner, Oscar Folsom, for whom the child was named.[73] Cleveland did not know which man was the father, and is believed to have assumed responsibility because he was the only bachelor among them.[73]

Results of the 1884 election
Results of the 1884 election

Both candidates believed that the states of New York, New Jersey, Indiana, and Connecticut would determine the election.[75] In New York, the Tammany machine, after vacillating, decided that they would gain more from supporting a Democrat they disliked than a Republican who would do nothing for them.[76] Blaine hoped that he would have more support from Irish Americans than Republicans typically did; while the Irish were mainly a Democratic constituency in the nineteenth century, Blaine's mother was Irish Catholic, and he had been supportive of the Irish National Land League while he was Secretary of State.[77] The Irish, a significant group in three of the swing states, did appear inclined to support Blaine until one of his supporters, Samuel D. Burchard, gave a speech denouncing the Democrats as the party of "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion".[78] The Democrats spread the word of this insult in the days before the election, and Cleveland narrowly won all four of the swings states, including New York by just over one thousand votes.[79] While the popular vote total was close, with Cleveland winning by just one-quarter of a percent, the electoral votes gave Cleveland a majority of 219–182.[79] Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... The Irish painter Henry Jones Thaddeus enlisted the conscience of the propertied classes with the sentimental realism of La retour du bracconier (The Wounded Poacher), exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1881, at the height of the Irish Land War The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of...


First term as President (1885–1889)

Reform

Cleveland, portrayed as a tariff reformer
Cleveland, portrayed as a tariff reformer

Soon after taking office, Cleveland was faced with the task of filling all of the government jobs for which the President had the power of appointment. These jobs were typically filled under the spoils system, but Cleveland announced that he would not fire any Republican who was doing his job well, and would not appoint anyone based solely on party service.[80] He also used his appointment powers to reduce the number of federal employees, as many departments had become bloated with political time-servers.[81] Later in his term, as his fellow Democrats chafed at being excluded from the spoils, Cleveland began to replace more of the partisan Republican officeholders with Democrats.[82] While some of his decisions were influenced by party concerns, more of Cleveland's appointments were decided by merit alone than was the case in his predecessors' administrations.[83] In the politics of the United States, a spoils system refers to an informal practice by which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party. ...


Cleveland reformed other parts of the government, as well. In 1887, he signed the act creating the Interstate Commerce Commission.[84] He and his Secretary of the Navy, William C. Whitney, undertook to modernize the navy and canceled construction contracts that had resulted in inferior ships.[85] Cleveland angered railroad investors by ordering an investigation of western lands they held by government grant.[86] Secretary of the Interior Lucius Q.C. Lamar charged that the rights of way for this land must be returned to the public because the railroads failed to extend their lines according to agreements.[86] The lands were forfeited, resulting in the return of approximately 81,000,000 acres (330,000 km²).[86] The Interstate Commerce Commission (or ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... William Collins Whitney (July 5, 1841 - February 2, 1904) was an American political leader and financier and founder of the prominent Whitney family. ... USN redirects here. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; for Justice Lamars father of the same name who was a Georgia lawyer and state court judge, see Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (I). ...


Vetoes

Cleveland faced a Republican Senate and often resorted to using his veto powers.[87] He vetoed hundreds of private pension bills for American Civil War veterans, believing that if their pensions requests had already been rejected by the Pensions Bureau, Congress should not attempt to override that decision.[88] When Congress, pressured by the Grand Army of the Republic, passed a bill granting pensions for disabilities not caused by military service, Cleveland vetoed that, too.[89] Cleveland used the veto far more often than any President up to that time.[90] In 1887, Cleveland issued his most well-known veto, that of the Texas Seed Bill.[91] After a drought had ruined crops in several Texas counties, the Congress appropriated $10,000 to purchase seed grain for farmers there.[91] Cleveland vetoed the expenditure. In his veto message, he espoused a theory of limited government: "I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people."[92] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Stephenson GAR Memorial, Washington, D.C. The Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War. ...


Silver

Cleveland disagreed with silverite Democrats, such as Richard P. Bland.
Cleveland disagreed with silverite Democrats, such as Richard P. Bland.

One of the most volatile issues of the 1880s was whether the currency should be backed by gold and silver, or by gold alone.[93] The issue cut across party lines, with western Republicans and southern Democrats joining together in the call for the free coinage of silver, and both parties' representatives in the northeast holding firm for the gold standard.[94] Because silver was worth less than its legal equivalent in gold, taxpayers paid their government bills in silver, while international creditors demanded payment in gold, resulting in a depletion of the nation's gold supply.[94] Richard Parks Bland (August 19, 1835 – June 15, 1899), American school teacher, lawyer, and Democratic Congressman from 1873 until 1899. ... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ...


Cleveland and his Treasury Secretary, Daniel Manning, stood firmly on the side of the gold standard, and tried to reduce the amount of silver that the government was required to coin under the Bland-Allison Act of 1878.[95] This angered Westerners and Southerners, who advocated for cheap money to help their poorer constituents.[96] In reply, one of the foremost silverites, Richard P. Bland, introduced a bill in 1886 that would require the government to coin unlimited amounts of silver, inflating the then-deflating currency.[97] While Bland's bill was defeated, so was a bill the administration favored that would repeal any silver coinage requirement.[97] The result was a retention of the status quo, and a postponement of the resolution of the free silver issue.[98] The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Daniel Manning (May 16, 1831–December 24, 1887) was an American businessman and politician. ... The Bland-Allison Act of 1878 was a response to the Fourth Coinage Act, or the Crime of 73! demonetizing silver. ... Richard Parks Bland (August 19, 1835 – June 15, 1899), American school teacher, lawyer, and Democratic Congressman from 1873 until 1899. ...


Tariffs

Protectionist Democrats, led by Samuel J. Randall, joined with Republicans to keep tariffs high.
Protectionist Democrats, led by Samuel J. Randall, joined with Republicans to keep tariffs high.
"When we consider that the theory of our institutions guarantees to every citizen the full enjoyment of all the fruits of his industry and enterprise, with only such deduction as may be his share toward the careful and economical maintenance of the Government which protects him, it is plain that the exaction of more than this is indefensible extortion and a culpable betrayal of American fairness and justice... The public Treasury, which should only exist as a conduit conveying the people's tribute to its legitimate objects of expenditure, becomes a hoarding place for money needlessly withdrawn from trade and the people's use, thus crippling our national energies, suspending our country's development, preventing investment in productive enterprise, threatening financial disturbance, and inviting schemes of public plunder."
Cleveland's third annual message to Congress, December 6, 1887.[99]

Another contentious financial issue at the time was the protective tariff. While it had not been a central point in his campaign, Cleveland's opinion on the tariff was that of most Democrats: that the tariff ought to be reduced.[100] Republicans generally favored a high tariff to protect American industries.[100] American tariffs had been high since the Civil War, and by the 1880s the tariff brought in so much revenue that the government was running a surplus.[101] Samuel Jackson Randall (October 10, 1828–April 13, 1890) was a prominent U.S. politician during the late 19th century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A protective tariff is a tariff or tax imposed on goods imported from other countries in an effort to protect goods made within the country. ...


In 1886, a bill to reduce the tariff was narrowly defeated in the House.[102] The tariff issue was emphasized in the Congressional elections that year, and the forces of protectionism increased their numbers in the Congress.[103] Nevertheless, Cleveland continued to advocate tariff reform. As the surplus grew, Cleveland and the reformers called for a tariff for revenue only.[104] His message to Congress in 1887 (quoted at left) pointed out the injustice of taking more money from the people than the government needed to pay for its operating expenses.[105] Republicans, as well as protectionist northern Democrats like Samuel J. Randall, believed that without high tariffs American industries would fail, and continued to fight reformers' efforts.[106] Roger Q. Mills, the chairman of the House Committee on Ways and Means, proposed a bill that would reduce the tariff burden from about 47% to about 40%.[107] After significant exertions by Cleveland and his allies, the bill passed the House.[107] The Republican Senate, however, failed to come to agreement with the Democratic House, and the bill died in the conference committee. Dispute over the tariff would carry over into the 1888 Presidential election. The U.S. House election, 1886 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1886 which occurred in the middle of President Grover Clevelands first term. ... Samuel Jackson Randall (October 10, 1828–April 13, 1890) was a prominent U.S. politician during the late 19th century. ... Roger Quarles Mills (March 30, 1832–September 2, 1911) was an American politician. ... A conference committee in the United States Congress is a committee appointed by the members of the upper and lower houses to resolve disagreements on a bill passed in different versions of each House. ...


Foreign policy

Cleveland was a committed non-interventionist who had campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism. He refused to promote the previous administration's Nicaragua canal treaty, and generally struck a less expansionist note in foreign relations.[108] Cleveland's Secretary of State, Thomas F. Bayard, negotiated with Joseph Chamberlain of the United Kingdom over fishing rights in the waters off Canada, and struck a conciliatory note, despite the opposition of New England's Republican Senators.[109] Cleveland also withdrew from Senate consideration the Berlin Conference treaty which guaranteed an open door for U.S. interests in the Congo.[110] The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... The Rt. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ...

Grover Cleveland and Frances Folsom were married in the Blue Room of the White House.
Grover Cleveland and Frances Folsom were married in the Blue Room of the White House.

Drawing of President Grover Clevelands and Frances Folsoms wedding. ... Drawing of President Grover Clevelands and Frances Folsoms wedding. ...

Marriage

Cleveland entered the White house as a bachelor, but did not long remain one. In 1885, the widow and daughter of Cleveland's friend, Oscar Folsom, visited him in Washington.[111] Folsom's daughter, Frances, was a student at Wells College, and when she returned to school Cleveland received her mother's permission to correspond with her.[111] They were soon engaged to be married.[111] On June 2, 1886, Cleveland married Frances in the Blue Room in the White House.[112] He was the second President to marry while in office, and the only President to have a wedding in the White House.[113] This marriage was unusual because Cleveland was the executor of Oscar Folsom's estate and had supervised Frances' upbringing, but the public did not, in general, take exception to the match.[114] At twenty-two years old, Frances was the youngest First Lady in American history, but the public soon warmed to her beauty and warm personality.[115] The Clevelands had five children: Ruth (1891–1904); Esther (1893–1980); Marion (1895–1977); Richard Folsom (1897–1974); and Francis Grover (1903–1995). Frances Folsom Cleveland (July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947), wife of Grover Cleveland, was First Lady of the United States from 1886 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897. ... Wells College is a nationally recognized private coeducational liberal arts college located in Aurora, Cayuga County, New York, on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Blue Room, looking toward the southeast. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Ruth Cleveland (October 3, 1891 - January 7, 1904) was the first child of United States President Grover Cleveland and the First Lady Frances Cleveland. ... Esther Cleveland (9 September 1893 - June 25, 1980), American daughter of Grover Cleveland. ...

Administration and Cabinet

Cleveland's first cabinet. Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland
Cleveland's first cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Thomas F. Bayard, Cleveland, Daniel Manning, Lucius Q. C. Lamar
Back row, left to right: William F. Vilas, William C. Whitney, William C. Endicott, Augustus H. Garland

Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... Daniel Manning (May 16, 1831–December 24, 1887) was an American businessman and politician. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; for Justice Lamars father of the same name who was a Georgia lawyer and state court judge, see Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (I). ... William Freeman Vilas (July 9, 1840–August 27, 1908) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1891 to 1897. ... William Collins Whitney (July 5, 1841 - February 2, 1904) was an American political leader and financier and founder of the prominent Whitney family. ... William Crowninshield Endicott (November 19, 1826 - May 6, 1900) was an American politician. ... Augustus Hill Garland (June 11, 1832 - January 26, 1899) was an Attorney General of the United States, Democratic United States Senator, Confederate States Senator, Confederate States Representative, and Governor of the State of Arkansas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Daniel Manning (May 16, 1831–December 24, 1887) was an American businessman and politician. ... Charles Stebbins Fairchild (April 30, 1842–November 24, American businessman and politician. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Crowninshield Endicott (November 19, 1826 - May 6, 1900) was an American politician. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Augustus Hill Garland (June 11, 1832 - January 26, 1899) was an Attorney General of the United States, Democratic United States Senator, Confederate States Senator, Confederate States Representative, and Governor of the State of Arkansas. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... William Freeman Vilas (July 9, 1840–August 27, 1908) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1891 to 1897. ... Donald McDonald Dickinson, also known as Donald M. Dickinson, (January 17, 1846–October 15, 1917) was a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... William Collins Whitney (July 5, 1841–February 2, 1904) was an American political leader and financier and founder of the prominent Whitney family. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (September 17, 1825–January 23, 1893) was born near Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia. ... William Freeman Vilas (July 9, 1840–August 27, 1908) was a member of the Democratic Party who served in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin from 1891 to 1897. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... See Norm Coleman for the US Senator from Minnesota. ...

Supreme Court appointments

Chief Justice Melville Fuller
Chief Justice Melville Fuller

Cleveland successfully appointed two Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States. The first, Lucius Q.C. Lamar, was a former Mississippi Senator then serving in Cleveland's Cabinet as Interior Secretary. When William Burnham Woods died, Cleveland nominated Lamar to his seat in late 1887.[116] While Lamar had been well-liked as a Senator, his service under the Confederacy two decades earlier caused many Republicans to vote against him.[116] Lamar's nomination was confirmed by the narrow margin of 32 to 28.[116] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x1473, 85 KB) Copyright 1908, thus public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (936x1473, 85 KB) Copyright 1908, thus public domain. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar (September 17, 1825–January 23, 1893) was born near Eatonton, Putnam County, Georgia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 1888 engraving of Justice Woods William Burnham Woods (1824–1887) was an American jurist, politician, and soldier. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


Chief Justice Morrison Waite died a few months later, and Cleveland nominated Melville Fuller to his seat on April 30, 1888.[117] Cleveland had previously offered to nominate Fuller to the Civil Service Commission, but Fuller declined to leave his Chicago law practice.[118] Fuller accepted the Supreme Court nomination, and the Senate Judiciary Committee spent several months examining the little-known nominee.[117] Finding him acceptable, the Senate confirmed the nomination 41 to 20.[117] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Morrison Remick Waite (November 29, 1816 – March 23, 1888) was the Chief Justice of the United States from 1874 to 1888. ... Melville Weston Fuller (February 11, 1833 – July 4, 1910) was the Chief Justice of the United States between 1888 and 1910. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chairmen John Houghton MHK, 2004-date George Waft MLC, 1996-2004 Claire Christian MLC, 1981-1982 Noel Cringle MLC, 1992-1996 This article about the Isle of Man is a stub. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary (informally Senate Judiciary Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate, the upper house of the United States Congress. ...

Election of 1888 and return to private life

Defeated by Harrison

Cleveland-Thurman campaign poster
Harrison-Morton campaign poster
Harrison-Morton campaign poster

The debate over tariff reduction continued into the 1888 presidential campaign.[119] The Republicans nominated Benjamin Harrison of Indiana for President and Levi P. Morton of New York for Vice President. Cleveland was easily renominated at the Democratic convention in St. Louis.[120] Vice President Hendricks having died in 1885, the Democrats chose Allen G. Thurman of Ohio to be Cleveland's running mate.[120] The Republicans campaigned heavily on the tariff issue, turning out protectionist voters in the important industrial states of the North.[119] Further, the Democrats in New York were divided over the gubernatorial candidacy of David B. Hill, weakening Cleveland's support in that swing state.[121] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (955 × 742 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (955 × 742 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... The United States Presidential Election of 1888 was held on November 6, 1888. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885)[1] was a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Indiana, a Governor of Indiana, and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States (serving with Grover Cleveland). ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ...


As in 1884, the election focused on the swing states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Indiana. Unlike that year, when Cleveland triumphed in all four, in 1888 he won only two, losing his home state of New York by 14,373 votes.[122] More notoriously, the Republicans were victorious in Indiana, largely as the result of fraud.[123] Republican victory in that state, where Cleveland lost by just 2,348 votes, was sufficient to propel Harrison to victory, despite his loss of the nationwide popular vote.[122] Cleveland continued his duties diligently until the end of the term and began to look forward to return to private life.[124]


Private citizen for four years

As Frances Cleveland left the White House, she told a staff member, "Now, Jerry, I want you to take good care of all the furniture and ornaments in the house, for I want to find everything just as it is now, when we come back again." When asked when she would return, she responded, "We are coming back four years from today."[125] In the meantime, the Clevelands moved to New York City where Cleveland took a position with the law firm of Bangs, Stetson, Tracy, and MacVeigh.[126] Cleveland's income with the firm was not high, but neither were his duties especially onerous.[127] While they lived in New York, the Clevelands' first child, Ruth, was born in 1891.[128] Francis Lynde Stetson (April 23, 1846–December 5, 1920) was an American lawyer. ...


The Harrison administration worked with Congress to pass the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, two policies Cleveland deplored as dangerous to the nation's financial health.[129] At first he refrained from criticizing his successor, but by 1891 Cleveland felt compelled to speak out, addressing his concerns in an open letter to a meeting of reformers in New York.[130] The "silver letter" thrust Cleveland's name back into the spotlight just as the 1892 election was approaching.[131] The McKinley Tariff of 1890 was what set the average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at 48. ... The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was an 1890 United States federal law. ...


Election of 1892

The United States presidential election of 1892 was held on November 8, 1892. ...

Democratic nomination

Cleveland's stature as an ex-President and recent pronouncements on the monetary issues made him a leading contender for the Democratic nomination.[132] His leading opponent was David B. Hill, who was by that time a Senator for New York.[133] Hill united the anti-Cleveland elements of the Democratic party—silverites, protectionists, and Tammany Hall—but was unable to create a coalition large enough to deny Cleveland the nomination.[133] Despite some desperate maneuvering by Hill, Cleveland was nominated on the first ballot at the convention in Chicago.[134] For Vice President, the Democrats chose to balance the ticket with Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois, a silverite.[135] David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ...


Campaign against Harrison

Results of the 1892 election
Results of the 1892 election

The Republicans renominated President Harrison, making the 1892 election a rematch of the one four years earlier. Unlike the elections of 1884 and 1888, the 1892 election was "the cleanest, quietest, and most creditable in the memory of the post-war generation."[136] The issue of the tariff had worked to the Republicans' advantage in 1888, but the revisions of the past four years had made imported goods so expensive that now many voters shifted to the reform position.[137] Many westerners, traditionally Republican voters, defected to the new Populist Party candidate, James Weaver, who promised free silver, generous veterans' pensions, and an eight-hour work day.[138] Finally, the Tammany Hall Democrats adhered to the national ticket, allowing a united Democratic party to carry New York.[139] The result was a victory for Cleveland by wide margins in both the popular and electoral votes.[140] Download high resolution version (1182x635, 113 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 113 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a relatively short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... James Baird Weaver James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 – February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ...

Second term as President (1893–1897)

Economic panic and the silver issue

Cleveland's humiliation by Gorman and the sugar trust

Shortly after Cleveland's second term began, the Panic of 1893 struck the stock market, and he soon faced an acute economic depression.[141] The panic was worsened by the acute shortage of gold that resulted from the free coinage of silver, and Cleveland called Congress into session early to deal with the problem.[142] The debate over the coinage was as heated as ever, but the effects of the panic had driven more moderates to support repealing the free coinage provisions of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.[142] Even so, the silverites rallied their following at a convention in Chicago, and the House of Representatives took fifteen weeks of debate before passing the repeal by a considerable margin.[143] In the Senate, the repeal of free coinage was equally contentious, but Cleveland convinced enough Democrats to stand by him that they, along with eastern Republicans, formed a 48-37 majority.[144] With the passage of the repeal, the Treasury's gold reserves were restored to safe levels.[145] At the time the repeal seemed a minor setback to silverites, but it marked the beginning of the end of silver as a basis for American currency.[146] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (772x1112, 204 KB) Summary cover Harpers Weekly Sept 8 1894 USA Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (772x1112, 204 KB) Summary cover Harpers Weekly Sept 8 1894 USA Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The Panic of 1893 was a serious decline in the economy of the United States that began in 1893 and was precipitated in part by a run on the gold supply. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was an 1890 United States federal law. ...


Tariff reform

Having succeeded in reversing the Harrison administration's silver policy, Cleveland sought next to reverse the effects of the McKinley tariff. What would become the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act was introduced by West Virginian Representative William L. Wilson in December 1893.[147] After lengthy debate, the bill passed the House by a considerable margin.[148] The bill proposed moderate downward revisions in the tariff, especially on raw materials.[149] The shortfall in revenue was to be made up by an income tax of two percent on incomes in excess of $4,000.[149] The McKinley Tariff of 1890 was what set the average ad valorem tariff rate for imports to the United States at 48. ... The Revenue Act or Wilson-Gorman tariff of 1894 slightly reduced the U.S. tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff. ... There have been two William L. Wilsons. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income...


The bill was next considered in the Senate, where opposition was stronger.[150] Many Senators, led by Arthur Pue Gorman of Maryland, wanted more protection for their states' industries than the Wilson bill allowed.[150] Others, such as Morgan and Hill, opposed partly out of a personal enmity to Cleveland.[150] By the time the bill left the Senate, it had more than 600 amendments attached that nullified most of the reforms.[151] The Sugar Trust in particular lobbied for changes that favored it at the expense of the consumer.[152] Cleveland was unhappy with the result, and denounced the revised measure as a disgraceful product of the control of the Senate by trusts and business interests.[153] Even so, he believed it was an improvement over the McKinley tariff and allowed it to become law without his signature.[154] Arthur P. Gorman Arthur Pue Gorman (March 11, 1839 – June 4, 1906) was a United States Senator from Maryland, serving from 1881-1899 and from 1903-1906. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... American Sugar Refining Company was the largest American business unit in the sugar refining industry in the early 1900s. ...

John T. Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on free silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."
John T. Morgan, Senator from Alabama, opposed Cleveland on free silver, the tariff, and the Hawaii treaty, saying of Cleveland that "I hate the ground that man walks on."[155]

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x928, 476 KB)John Morgan by Carl Gutherz Oil on canvas, 1893 Sight measurement Height: 57. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (610x928, 476 KB)John Morgan by Carl Gutherz Oil on canvas, 1893 Sight measurement Height: 57. ... John Tyler Morgan John Tyler Morgan (June 20, 1824–June 11, 1907) was a U.S. senator from the state of Alabama. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Labor unrest

The Panic of 1893 had damaged labor conditions across the United States, and the victory of anti-silver legislation worsened the mood of western laborers.[156] A group of workingmen led by Jacob S. Coxey began to march east toward Washington, D.C. to protest Cleveland's policies.[156] This group, known as Coxey's Army, agitated in favor of a national roads program to give jobs to workingmen, and a weakened currency to help farmers pay their debts.[156] By the time they reached Washington, only a few hundred remained and when they were arrested the next day for walking on the grass of the United States Capitol, the group scattered.[156] Coxey's Army was never a threat to the government, but it showed a growing dissatisfaction in the West with Eastern monetary policies.[157] Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. ... Marchers leaving their camp Coxeys Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ...


The Pullman Strike had a significantly greater impact than Coxey's Army. A strike began against the Pullman Company, and sympathy strikes, encouraged by American Railway Union leader Eugene V. Debs, soon followed.[158] By June 1894, 125,000 railroad workers were on strike, paralyzing the nation's commerce.[159] Because the railroads carried the mail, and because several of the affected lines were in federal receivership, Cleveland believed a federal solution was appropriate.[160] Cleveland obtained an injunction in federal court and when the strikers refused to obey it, he sent in federal troops to Chicago, Illinois and other rail centers.[161] Leading newspapers of both parties applauded Cleveland's actions, but the use of troops hardened the attitude of organized labor toward his administration.[162] Pullman Strike began on May 11, 1894. ... The streamlined Pullman observation-lounge car Coconino, coupled to a heavyweight sleeper painted in two-tone Pullman grey, brings up the rear of the Santa Fe Railways Chief at La Junta, Colorado on February 27, 1938. ... On June 20, 1893, railway workers gathered in Chicago, Illinois, and founded the American Railway Union (ARU), the largest union of its time, and the first industrial union in the United States. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ... The United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4), authorizes Congress to enact uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. ... Look up Injunction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Foreign policy

"I suppose that right and justice should determine the path to be followed in treating this subject. If national honesty is to be disregarded and a desire for territorial expansion or dissatisfaction with a form of government not our own ought to regulate our conduct, I have entirely misapprehended the mission and character of our government and the behavior which the conscience of the people demands of their public servants."
Cleveland's message to Congress on the Hawaiian question, December 18, 1893.[163]

In January 1893, a group of Americans living in Hawai'i overthrew Queen Liliuokalani and established a provisional government under Sanford Dole.[164] By February, the Harrison administration had agreed with representatives of the new government on a treaty of annexation and submitted it to the Senate for approval.[164] Five days after taking office, Cleveland withdrew the treaty from the Senate and sent former Congressman James Henderson Blount to Hawaii to investigate the conditions there.[165] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Motto Ua mau ke ea o ka āina i ka pono Anthem Hawaii Ponoi Kingdom of Hawaii Capital Lahaina (until 1845) Honolulu (from 1845) Language(s) Hawaiian, English Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1795–1819 Kamehameha I  - 1891–1893 Liliuokalani Provisional Government  - 1893-1894 Committee of Safety History  - Inception 1795  - Unification... LiliÊ»uokalani, Queen of HawaiÊ»i (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917), originally named Lydia KamakaÊ»eha, also known as Lydia KamakaÊ»eha Paki, with the chosen royal name of LiliÊ»uokalani, and later named Lydia K. Dominis, was the last monarch of the Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i. ... Former advisor to Queen Lili‘uokalani and justice of the Hawai‘i judiciary, Sanford B. Dole assumed the role of President of the Republic of Hawai‘i. ... James Henderson Blount led an investigation into the alleged American involvement in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. ...


In his first term, Cleveland had supported free trade with Hawai'i and accepted an amendment that gave the United States a coaling and naval station in Pearl Harbor.[110] Now, however, Cleveland agreed with Blount's report, which found the populace to be opposed to annexation.[165] Liliuokalani refused to grant amnesty as a condition of her reinstatement and said she would execute the current government in Honolulu, and Dole's government refused to yield their position.[166] By December 1893, the matter was still unresolved, and Cleveland referred the issue to Congress.[166] In his message to Congress, Cleveland rejected the idea of annexation and encouraged the Congress to continue the American tradition of non-intervention (see excerpt at right).[163] Many in Congress, led by Senator John Tyler Morgan favored annexation, and the report Congress eventually issued favored neither annexation of Hawaii nor the use of American force to restore the Hawaiian monarch.[167] This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... John Tyler Morgan John Tyler Morgan (June 20, 1824–June 11, 1907) was a U.S. senator from the state of Alabama. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Oil painting of Grover Cleveland, painted in 1899 by Anders Zorn.
Oil painting of Grover Cleveland, painted in 1899 by Anders Zorn.

Closer to home, Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the Monroe Doctrine that did not just simply forbid new European colonies but declared an American interest in any matter within the hemisphere.[168] When Britain and Venezuela disagreed over the boundary between the latter nation and British Guiana, Cleveland and Secretary of State Richard Olney pressured Britain into agreeing to arbitration.[169] A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and issued its award in 1899.[170] The tribunal awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.[171] By standing with a Latin American nation against the encroachment of a colonial power, Cleveland improved relations with the United States' southern neighbors, but the cordial manner in which the negotiations were conducted also made for good relations with Britain.[172] Painting of Grover Cleveland by Anders Zorn. ... Painting of Grover Cleveland by Anders Zorn. ... Anders Zorn: Self-portrait in red 1915 Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter who painted a portrait of, among others, the former American President Grover Cleveland in 1899. ... U.S. President James Monroe The Monroe Doctrine is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers were to no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896 Flag of British Guiana British Guiana was the name of the British colony on the northern coast of South America, now the independent nation of Guyana. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Cancer

In the midst of the fight for repeal of free silver coinage in 1893, Cleveland's doctor found a small ulcerated sore on the left surface of Cleveland's hard palate. Initial biopsies were inconclusive; later the samples were proven to be a malignant cancer. Because of the financial depression of the country, Cleveland decided to have surgery performed in secrecy to avoid further market panic.[173] The surgery occurred on July 1, to give Cleveland time to make a full recovery in time for the upcoming Congressional session.[174] The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, otherwise known as the palatine process of the maxilla, located in the roof of the mouth. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Under the guise of a vacation cruise, Cleveland and his surgeon, Dr. Joseph Bryant, left for New York. The surgeons operated aboard the yacht Oneida as it sailed off Long Island.[175] The surgery was conducted through the President's mouth, to avoid any scars or other signs of surgery.[176] The team, sedating Cleveland with nitrous oxide and ether, successfully removed parts of his upper left jaw and hard palate.[176] The size of the tumor and the extent of the operation left Cleveland's mouth disfigured.[177] During another surgery, an orthodontist fitted Cleveland with a hard rubber prosthesis that corrected his speech and restored his appearance.[177] This article is about the state. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. ...


A cover story about the removal of two bad teeth kept the suspicious press placated.[178] Even when a newspaper story appeared giving details of the actual operation, the participating surgeons discounted the severity of what transpired during Cleveland's vacation.[177] In 1917, one of the surgeons present on the Oneida, Dr. William W. Keen, wrote an article detailing the operation.[179]


Administration and Cabinet

Cleveland's last cabinet. Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William L. Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton
Cleveland's last cabinet.
Front row, left to right: Daniel S. Lamont, Richard Olney, Cleveland, John G. Carlisle, Judson Harmon
Back row, left to right: David R. Francis, William L. Wilson, Hilary A. Herbert, Julius S. Morton

Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905) was the United States Secretary of War during Grover Clevelands second term. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... John G. Carlisle (September 5, 1834 - July 31, 1910) was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. ... Judson Harmon (February 3, 1846 - February 22, 1927) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... David Rowland Francis (October 1, 1850 - January 15, 1927) was an American Politician. ... There have been two William L. Wilsons. ... Hilary Abner Herbert was Secretary of the Navy under President Grover Cleveland. ... Julius Sterling Morton (NSHC statue) Julius Sterling Morton (April 22, 1832 – April 27, 1902) was born in Adams, New York. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Adlai E. Stevenson I Adlai Ewing Stevenson I (October 23, 1835 – June 14, 1914) was a Representative from Illinois and the twenty-third Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832–May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... John G. Carlisle (September 5, 1834 - July 31, 1910) was a prominent American politician in the Democratic Party during the last quarter of the 19th century. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905) was the United States Secretary of War during Grover Clevelands second term. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Richard Olney (September 15, 1835–April 8, 1917) was an American statesman. ... Judson Harmon (February 3, 1846 - February 22, 1927) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... The Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... Wilson Shannon Bissell (born December 31, 1847, New London, died October 6, 1903, in Buffalo) was an American politician from Buffalo, New York. ... William Lyne Wilson (1843 - 1900) was a U.S. political figure. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Hilary Abner Herbert was Secretary of the Navy under President Grover Cleveland. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Michael Hoke Smith (September 2, 1855 – November 27, 1931) was a newspaper owner, United States Secretary of the Interior (1893-1896), Democratic Governor of Georgia (1907-1909,1911), and a United States Senator (1911-1920) from Georgia. ... David Rowland Francis (October 1, 1850 - January 15, 1927) was an American Politician. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Supreme Court appointments

The objections of Senator David B. Hill defeated two of Cleveland's Supreme Court nominees.
The objections of Senator David B. Hill defeated two of Cleveland's Supreme Court nominees.

Cleveland's trouble with the Senate hindered the success of his nominations to the Supreme Court in his second term. In 1893, after the death of Samuel Blatchford, Cleveland nominated William B. Hornblower to the Court.[180] Hornblower, the head of a New York City law firm, was thought to be a qualified appointee, but his campaign against a New York machine politician had made Senator David B. Hill his enemy.[180] Further, Cleveland had not consulted the Senators before naming his appointee, leaving many who were already opposed to Cleveland on other grounds even more aggrieved.[180] The Senate rejected Hornblower's nomination on January 15, 1894, by a vote of 24 to 30.[180] David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... Samuel Blatchford (March 9, 1820–July 7, 1893) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from April 3, 1882 until his death. ... David Bennett Hill (August 29, 1843 - October 20, 1910) was a Governor of New York. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Cleveland continued to defy the Senate by next appointing Wheeler Hazard Peckham another New York attorney who had opposed Hill's machine in that state.[181] Hill used all of his influence to block Peckham's confirmation, and on February 16, 1894, the Senate rejected the nomination by a vote of 32 to 41.[181] Reformers urged Cleveland to continue the fight against Hill and to nominate Frederic R. Coudert, but Cleveland acquiesced in an inoffensive choice, that of Senator Edward Douglass White of Louisiana, whose nomination was accepted unanimously.[181] Later, in 1896, another vacancy on the Court led Cleveland to consider Hornblower again, but he declined to be nominated.[182] Instead, Cleveland nominated Rufus Wheeler Peckham, the brother of Wheeler Hazard Peckham, and the Senate confirmed the second Peckham easily.[182] Wheeler Hazard Peckham (January 1, 1833 - ?) was a lawyer from New York and a failed nominee to the Supreme Court of the United States. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Edward Douglass White (November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States Senator, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; for Justice Peckhams father of the same name who served in the U.S. House of Representatives, see Rufus Wheeler Peckham (1809-1873). ...


States admitted to the Union

This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...

Later life and death

Official White House portrait of Grover Cleveland, painted in 1891 by Jonathan Eastman Johnson
Official White House portrait of Grover Cleveland, painted in 1891 by Jonathan Eastman Johnson

As the 1896 election approached, eastern pro-gold standard Democrats wished Cleveland to run for a third term, but he declined.[183] Instead, the Democratic party turned to a silverite, William Jennings Bryan, for its nominee.[184] Disappointed with the direction of their party, pro-gold Democrats even invited Cleveland to run as a third-party candidate, but he declined this offer, as well.[183] William McKinley, the Republican nominee, triumphed easily over Bryan.[185] Image File history File links Grover_Cleveland_portrait2. ... Image File history File links Grover_Cleveland_portrait2. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Eastman Johnson (1824 - 1906) was a U.S. painter. ... The United States presidential election of November 3, 1896 saw Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history. ... For other persons of the same name, see William Bryan. ... The National Democratic Party or Gold Democrats was a short-lived political party of Bourbon Democrats, who opposed William Jennings Bryan in 1896. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ...


After leaving the White House, Cleveland lived in retirement at his estate, Westland Mansion, in Princeton, New Jersey.[186] For a time he was a trustee of Princeton University, and was one of the majority of trustees who preferred Andrew Fleming West's plans for the Graduate School and undergraduate living over those of Woodrow Wilson, then president of the University.[187] Conservative Democrats hoped to nominate him for another presidential term in 1904, but his age and health forced them to turn to other candidates.[188] Cleveland still made his views known in political matters. In a 1905 article in The Ladies Home Journal, Cleveland weighed in on the women's suffrage movement, writing that "sensible and responsible women do not want to vote. The relative positions to be assumed by men and women in the working out of our civilization were assigned long ago by a higher intelligence."[189] Westland, Home of Grover Cleveland, 1976. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


Cleveland's health had been declining for several years, and in the autumn of 1907 he fell seriously ill.[190] In 1908, he suffered a heart attack and died.[190] His last words were "I have tried so hard to do right."[191] He is buried in the Princeton Cemetery of the Nassau Presbyterian Church. Heart attack redirects here. ... Princeton Cemetery is located in Borough of Princeton, New Jersey. ... The Nassau Presbyterian Church is located at 61 Nassau Street in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


Honors and memorials

Cleveland on the $1000 bill
Cleveland on the $1000 bill

Cleveland's portrait was on the U.S. $1000 bill from 1928 to 1946. He also appeared on a $1000 bill of 1907 and the first few issues of the $20 Federal Reserve Notes from 1914. Image File history File links 1000-2f. ... Today, the currency of the United States, the U.S. dollar, is printed in bills in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. ... FRN redirects here. ...


Since he was both the 22nd and 24th President, he will be featured on two separate dollar coins to be released in 2012 as part of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005. The Presidential $1 Coin Program is part of an Act of Congress, Pub. ...


In 2006, Free New York, a nonprofit and nonpartisan research group, began raising funds to purchase the former Fairfield Library in Buffalo, New York and transform it into the Grover Cleveland Presidential Library & Museum.[192] Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jeffers, 8–12; Nevins, 4–5
  2. ^ a b Tugwell, 220–249
  3. ^ Nevins, 4
  4. ^ Nevins, 8–10
  5. ^ Graff, 3–4; Nevins, 8–10
  6. ^ a b Graff, 3–4
  7. ^ Nevins, 6
  8. ^ Nevins, 9
  9. ^ Graff, 7
  10. ^ Nevins, 10; Graff, 3
  11. ^ Nevins, 11; Graff, 8–9
  12. ^ Nevins, 11
  13. ^ Jeffers, 17
  14. ^ Nevins, 17–19
  15. ^ a b Nevins, 21
  16. ^ Jeffers, 16–17
  17. ^ Nevins, 18–19; Jeffers, 19
  18. ^ a b Nevins, 23–24
  19. ^ a b c d Nevins, 27
  20. ^ Nevins, 28–33
  21. ^ Nevins, 31–36; Graff, 10–11
  22. ^ a b Graff, 14
  23. ^ From the Cleveland Family Papers at the New Jersey Archives.
  24. ^ Graff, 14–15
  25. ^ Graff, 15; Nevins, 46
  26. ^ Graff, 14; Nevins, 51–52. Benninsky survived the war.
  27. ^ a b Nevins, 52–53
  28. ^ Nevins, 54
  29. ^ Nevins, 54–55
  30. ^ Nevins, 55–56
  31. ^ Nevins, 56
  32. ^ Nevins, 44–45
  33. ^ a b Nevins, 58
  34. ^ Jeffers, 33
  35. ^ a b c Jeffers, 34; Nevins, 61–62
  36. ^ The Execution of John Gaffney. The Buffalonian. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  37. ^ Jeffers, 36; Nevins, 64
  38. ^ Nevins, 66–71
  39. ^ Nevins, 78
  40. ^ Nevins, 79; Graff, 18–19; Jeffers, 42–45; Welch, 24
  41. ^ Nevins, 79–80; Graff, 18–19; Welch, 24
  42. ^ a b Nevins, 80–81
  43. ^ Nevins, 83
  44. ^ Graff, 19; Jeffers, 46–50
  45. ^ a b Nevins, 84–86
  46. ^ Nevins, 85
  47. ^ Nevins, 86
  48. ^ Nevins, 94–95; Jeffers, 50–51
  49. ^ a b Nevins, 94–99; Graff, 26–27
  50. ^ Nevins, 95–101
  51. ^ Graff, 26; Nevins, 101–103
  52. ^ Nevins, 103–104
  53. ^ Nevins, 105
  54. ^ Graff, 28
  55. ^ Graff, 35
  56. ^ Graff, 35–36
  57. ^ Nevins, 114–116
  58. ^ a b c Nevins, 116–117
  59. ^ a b Nevins, 117–118
  60. ^ Nevins, 125–126; Graff, 49–51
  61. ^ Nevins, 133–138
  62. ^ Nevins, 138–140
  63. ^ a b Nevins, 185–186; Jeffers, 96–97
  64. ^ a b c Nevins, 146–147
  65. ^ Nevins, 147
  66. ^ Nevins, 152–153; Graff, 51–53
  67. ^ Nevins, 153
  68. ^ a b Nevins, 154; Graff, 53–54
  69. ^ a b Nevins, 156–159; Graff, 55
  70. ^ Nevins, 187–188
  71. ^ a b Nevins, 159–162; Graff, 59–60
  72. ^ Graff, 59; Jeffers, 111; Nevins, 177, Welch, 34
  73. ^ a b c d e Nevins, 162–169; Jeffers, 106–111; Graff, 60–65; Welch, 36–39
  74. ^ Nevins, 163, Graff, 62
  75. ^ Welch, 33
  76. ^ Nevins, 170–171
  77. ^ Nevins, 170
  78. ^ Nevins, 181–184
  79. ^ a b Leip, David. 1884 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (January 27, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (January 27, 2008).
  80. ^ Nevins, 208–211
  81. ^ Nevins, 214–217
  82. ^ Graff, 83
  83. ^ Nevins, 238–241; Welch, 59–60
  84. ^ Nevins, 354–357; Graff, 85
  85. ^ Nevins, 217–223; Graff, 77
  86. ^ a b c Nevins, 223–228
  87. ^ Graff, 85
  88. ^ Nevins, 326–328; Graff, 83–84
  89. ^ Nevins, 300–331; Graff, 83
  90. ^ See List of United States presidential vetoes
  91. ^ a b Nevins, 331–332; Graff, 85
  92. ^ (1892) The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co., 450. 
  93. ^ Jeffers, 157–158
  94. ^ a b Nevins, 201–205; Graff, 102–103
  95. ^ Nevins, 269
  96. ^ Nevins, 268
  97. ^ a b Nevins, 273
  98. ^ Nevins, 277–279
  99. ^ (1892) The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co., 72–73. 
  100. ^ a b Nevins, 280–282, Reitano, 46–62
  101. ^ Nevins, 286–287
  102. ^ Nevins, 287–288
  103. ^ Nevins, 290–296; Graff, 87–88
  104. ^ Nevins, 370–371
  105. ^ Nevins, 379–381
  106. ^ Nevins, 383–385
  107. ^ a b Graff, 88–89
  108. ^ Nevins, 205; 404–405
  109. ^ Nevins, 404–413
  110. ^ a b Zakaria, 80
  111. ^ a b c Graff, 78
  112. ^ Graff, 79
  113. ^ The previous President to marry during his term was John Tyler. Graff, 80
  114. ^ Jeffers, 170–176; Graff, 78–81; Nevins, 302–308; Welch, 51
  115. ^ Graff, 80–81
  116. ^ a b c Nevins, 339
  117. ^ a b c Nevins, 445–447
  118. ^ Nevins, 250
  119. ^ a b Nevins, 418–420
  120. ^ a b Graff, 90–91
  121. ^ Nevins, 423–427
  122. ^ a b Leip, David. 1888 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 18, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (February 18, 2008).
  123. ^ Nevins, 435–439; Jeffers, 220–222; Goldman, 143–144; see also Blocks of Five.
  124. ^ Nevins, 443–449
  125. ^ Nevins, 448
  126. ^ Nevins, 450. The successor to this law firm is Davis Polk & Wardwell.
  127. ^ Nevins, 450-452
  128. ^ Nevins, 450; Graff, 99–100
  129. ^ Graff, 102–105; Nevins, 465–467
  130. ^ Graff, 104–105; Nevins, 467–468
  131. ^ Nevins, 470–471
  132. ^ Nevins, 468–469
  133. ^ a b Nevins, 470–473
  134. ^ Nevins, 480–491
  135. ^ Graff, 105; Nevins, 492–493
  136. ^ Nevins, 498
  137. ^ Nevins, 499
  138. ^ Graff, 106–107; Nevins, 505–506
  139. ^ Graff, 108
  140. ^ Leip, David. 1892 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 22, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (February 22, 2008).
  141. ^ Graff, 114
  142. ^ a b Nevins, 526–528
  143. ^ Nevins, 524–528, 537–540. The vote was 239 to 108.
  144. ^ Nevins, 541–548
  145. ^ Graff, 115
  146. ^ Timberlake, Richard H. (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press, 179. ISBN 0226803848. 
  147. ^ Nevins, 565
  148. ^ Nevins, 567. The vote was 204 to 140
  149. ^ a b Nevins, 564–566; Jeffers, 285–287
  150. ^ a b c Nevins, 567–569
  151. ^ Nevins, 572–576. The income tax component of the Wilson-Gorman Act was partially ruled unconstitutional in 1895. See Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.
  152. ^ Nevins, 577–578
  153. ^ Nevins, 585–587; Jeffers, 288–289
  154. ^ Nevins, 587–588; Graff, 117
  155. ^ Nevins, 568
  156. ^ a b c d Graff, 117–118; Nevins, 603–605
  157. ^ Graff, 118; Jeffers, 280–281
  158. ^ Nevins, 611–613
  159. ^ Nevins, 614
  160. ^ Nevins, 614–618; Graff, 118–119; Jeffers, 296–297
  161. ^ Nevins, 619–623; Jeffers, 298–302. See also In re Debs.
  162. ^ Nevins, 624–628; Jeffers, 304–305; Graff, 120
  163. ^ a b Nevins, 560
  164. ^ a b Nevins, 549–552; Graff 121–122
  165. ^ a b Nevins, 552–554; Graff, 122
  166. ^ a b Nevins, 558–559
  167. ^ Graff, 123
  168. ^ Zakaria, 145–146
  169. ^ Graff, 123–125; Nevins, 633–642
  170. ^ Graff, 125
  171. ^ Nevins, 647
  172. ^ Nevins, 550, 647–648
  173. ^ Nevins, 528–529; Graff, 115–116
  174. ^ Nevins, 531–533
  175. ^ Nevins, 529
  176. ^ a b Nevins, 530–531
  177. ^ a b c Nevins, 532–533
  178. ^ Nevins, 533; Graff, 116
  179. ^ Keen, William W. (1917). The Surgical Operations on President Cleveland in 1893. G. W. Jacobs & Co..  The lump was preserved and is on display at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia.
  180. ^ a b c d Nevins, 569–570
  181. ^ a b c Nevins, 570–571
  182. ^ a b Nevins, 572
  183. ^ a b Graff, 128–129
  184. ^ Nevins, 684–693
  185. ^ Leip, David. 1896 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 23, 2008).
  186. ^ Graff, 131–133; Nevins, 730–735
  187. ^ Graff, p. 131; Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion, Princeton Univ Press, 1978, " Grover Cleveland"
  188. ^ Graff, 134
  189. ^ Ladies Home Journal 22, (October 1905), 7–8
  190. ^ a b Graff, 135–136; Nevins, 762–764
  191. ^ Jeffers, 340; Graff, 135. Nevins makes no mention of these last words.
  192. ^ Grover Cleveland Library. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The word veto does not appear in the United States Constitution, but Article I requires every bill, order, resolution or other act of legislation by the Congress of the United States to be presented to the President of the United States for his approval. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Blocks of Five were groups of electors whose selling of their votes to the United States Republican Party for voting in the United States presidential election, 1888 was exposed. ... Davis Polk & Wardwell is one of the most prestigious and profitable law firms in the world and is headquartered in New York. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- Pollock v. ... Court membership Case opinions In re Debs 158 U.S. 564 (1895) was a United States Supreme Court decision handed down concerning Eugene V. Debs and labor unions. ... Interior of the Mütter Museum The Mütter Museum is a museum of medical oddities, antique medical equipment and biological specimens located in the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ...

References

Sources

  • Graff, Henry F. Grover Cleveland (2002). ISBN 0805069232.
  • Jeffers, H. Paul, An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland, HarperCollins 2002, New York. ISBN 038097746X.
  • Nevins, Allan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (1932) Pulitzer Prize-winning biography. ASIN B000PUX6KQ.
  • Reitano, Joanne R. The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of 1888 (1994). ISBN 0271010355.
  • Tugwell, Rexford Guy, Grover Cleveland: A Biography of the President Whose Uncompromising Honesty and Integrity Failed America in a Time of Crisis. Macmillan Co., 1968. ISBN 0026203308.
  • Welch, Richard E. Jr. The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (1988) ISBN 0700603557
  • Zakaria, Fareed From Wealth to Power (1999) Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691010358.

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ... Rexford Guy Tugwell (July 10, 1891 - July 21, 1979) was an agricultural economist under Franklin D. Roosevelts administration and one of the contributors on his New Deal. ... Fareed Zakaria (born January 20, 1964, Mumbai, India) is a journalist, columnist, author, editor, commentator, and television host specializing in international relations and foreign affairs. ...

Further reading

  • Bard, Mitchell. "Ideology and Depression Politics I: Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)" Presidential Studies Quarterly 1985 15(1): 77–88. ISSN 0360-4918
  • Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster,"Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900,"Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555-75.
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "Ethno-cultural Realities in Presidential Patronage: Grover Cleveland's Choices" New York History 2000 81(2): 189–210. ISSN 0146–437X
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "The Emergence of Grover Cleveland: a Fresh Appraisal" New York History 1992 73(2): 132–168. ISSN 0146–437X
  • Cleveland, Grover. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland (1892) online edition
  • Cleveland, Grover. Presidential Problems. (1904) online edition
  • Dewey, Davis R. National Problems: 1880–1897 (1907), online edition
  • Doenecke, Justus. "Grover Cleveland and the Enforcement of the Civil Service Act" Hayes Historical Journal 1984 4(3): 44–58. ISSN 0364–5924
  • Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900 (1959), online edition
  • Ford, Henry Jones. The Cleveland Era: A Chronicle of the New Order in Politics (1921), short overview online
  • Goldman, Ralph Morris The National Party Chairmen and Committees: Factionalism at the Top (1990). ISBN 0873326369.
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. ISSN 1094–8392
  • McElroy, Robert. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography (1923) online edition
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896 (1969).
  • Nevins, Allan ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1934)
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, 1877–1901: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (2003) online edition
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884 (2000) campaign techniques and issues online edition
  • William L. Wilson; The Cabinet Diary of William L. Wilson, 1896–1897 1957
  • National Democratic Committee (1896). Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party. 
  • Wilson, Woodrow, Mr. Cleveland as President Atlantic Monthly (March 1897): pp. 289–301 online.

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ...

External links

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Political offices
Preceded by
Alexander Brush
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1882
Succeeded by
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Preceded by
Alonzo B. Cornell
Governor of New York
1883 – 1884
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President of the United States
March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889
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March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897
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Democratic Party presidential candidate
1884, 1888, 1892
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Honorary titles
Preceded by
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Oldest U.S. President still living
March 13, 1901 – June 24, 1908
Succeeded by
Theodore Roosevelt
Persondata
NAME Cleveland, Grover
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cleveland, Stephen Grover
SHORT DESCRIPTION 22nd and 24th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH March 18, 1837(1837-03-18)
PLACE OF BIRTH Caldwell, New Jersey, United States
DATE OF DEATH June 24, 1908
PLACE OF DEATH Princeton, New Jersey, United States
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Surf and turf is a main course particularly common in steakhouses which combines seafood and meat, usually American lobster tail and steak. ... The Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra is located in Buffalo, New York, near DYouville College. ... The Anchor Bar is a restaurant located at Main and North in downtown Buffalo, New York, USA where the Buffalo-style chicken wing was first served in 1964. ... The French Connection was a line of professional ice hockey forwards who played together for the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League from 1972 until 1979. ... Delaware Park is located in Buffalo, New York, USA. It was designed as part of a coordinated system of parks, parkways, and traffic circles in the city by Frederick Law Olmsted. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Grover Cleveland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2859 words)
Cleveland was born in Caldwell, New Jersey to the Rev. Richard Cleveland and Anne Neal.
Cleveland was defeated in the 1888 presidential election.
In 1893, Cleveland sent former Congressman James Henderson Blount to Hawaii to investigate the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani and the establishment of a republic.
Grover Cleveland - MSN Encarta (739 words)
Grover Cleveland (1837-1908), 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885-1889, 1893-1897), the only chief executive to be reelected after defeat.
Cleveland adopted the credo “a public office is a public trust,” and in his two nonconsecutive terms, he spent much of his energy resisting political influences and the party favoritism characteristic of that era.
Cleveland felt these bills were examples of political graft, a form of fraud in which a legislator passed laws that increased the value of his own private investments.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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