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Encyclopedia > Group of Eight
G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001.

The Group of Eight (G-8) is the grouping of eight of the world's leading industrialized nations: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, (the G-6, 1975), Canada (the G-7, 1976), and Russia (not participating in all events), as well as the European Union. The hallmark of the G-8 is an annual economic and political summit (G-8 Summit) of the heads of government with international officials, though there are numerous subsidiary meetings and policy research. G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ... Economics (in Greek Οικονομικά) derives from the Greek word Eco(οίκω=house) and nemo(νέμω=distribute) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources through measurable variables. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... A summit is: A point higher than all the ground immediately surrounding it; see topographical summit. ...

Contents

Background and history

The current G-8 leaders are:

The G-8 has its roots in the 1973 oil crisis and subsequent global recession. These troubles led the United States of America to form the Library Group, a gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, Europe, and Japan, to discuss the economic issues. In 1975 French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing invited the heads of state of six major industralized democracies to a summit in Rambouillet and proposed regular meetings. The participants agreed to an annual meeting organized under a rotating presidency, forming what was dubbed the Group of Six (G-6) consisting of France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. At the following year's summit on Puerto Rico, it became the Group of Seven (G-7), when Canada joined at the behest of U.S. President Gerald Ford. The Right Honourable Paul Edgar Philippe Martin, PC, MP, BA, LL.B, (born August 28, 1938 in Windsor, Ontario) is the Prime Minister of Canada. ... Jacques René Chirac (born November 29, 1932) is a French politician. ... Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder [] (born April 7, 1944), a German politician, has been serving as Chancellor of Germany since 1998. ... Silvio Berlusconi  listen? (born September 29, 1936 in Milan) is the current Prime Minister of Italy and is the leader of the Forza Italia political movement, a party which was established for his entry into politics. ... Junichiro Koizumi Junichiro Koizumi (小泉 純一郎 Koizumi Junichirō, born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician and the 87th, and current, Prime Minister of Japan. ... Term of office: December 31, 1999 – Preceded by: Boris Yeltsin Succeeded by: Date of birth: October 7, 1952 Place of birth: Leningrad, U.S.S.R. First Lady: Liudmila Putina Political party: None Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Владимир Владимирович Путин  pronunciation; born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician and... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and the 43rd and current president of the United States. ... The European Council, sometimes informally called the European Summit, is a meeting of the heads of state or government of the European Union, and the President of the European Commission (not to be confused with the Council of the European Union, or the Council of Europe). ... The President of the European Commission is notionally the highest ranking unelected official within the European Union. ... The President of the European Parliament oversees all the activities of the European Parliament and its constituent bodies. ... At the height of the crisis in the United States, drivers of vehicles with odd numbered license plates were allowed to purchase gasoline only on odd-numbered days of the month, while drivers with even-numbers were limited to even-numbered days. ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in three successive quarters. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ... Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard dEstaing (born February 2, 1926 in Koblenz, Germany) is a French politician who was President of the Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Though a term originally coined for Republican presidents, a head of state or chief of state is now universally known as the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions... Rambouillet is a town and commune in the Yvelines département, lying about 50 km south-west of Paris. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Order: 38th President Vice President: Nelson A. Rockefeller Term of office: August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977 Preceded by: Richard Nixon Succeeded by: Jimmy Carter Date of birth: July 14, 1913 Place of birth: Omaha, Nebraska First Lady: Betty Ford Political party: Republican Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...


Participation of Russia and formation of the G-8

Following the end of the Cold War, in 1991 Russia (then the USSR) began to meet with the G7 after the main summit. This group became known as the P8 (Political 8) starting with the 1994 Naples summit. Russia was allowed to participate more fully beginning in the 1998 Birmingham summit, marking the creation of the Group of Eight. However, Russia was excluded from the meeting for financial ministers as it was not a major economic power; "G7" now refers specifically to this ministerial level meeting. The Cold War was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and its allies (roughly speaking, NATO members) and the Soviet Union and its allied (roughly speaking, Warsaw Pact members), until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... P8 can refer to many things position 8 in a race P8 pistol, a 9mm German automatic pistol with a 19 clip magazine Xerox DocuPrint P8, a multifunction printer from Xerox P8 Urban Catchment Model, Program for Predicting Polluting Particle Passage thru Pits, Puddles, & Ponds Period 8 of the periodic...


At the instigation of then-U.S. President Bill Clinton, "Group of Seven" became the "Group of Eight," with the Russians attending most sessions rather than being invited along after dinner. It was a thank you to then-Russian President Boris Yeltsin for pursuing economic reforms and for being neutral with respect to the eastward expansion of NATO. Because the original G7 are effectively the leading industrial democracies and the Russian economy (as well as democracy) is still struggling, there are still some G7 sessions on economic affairs in which the Russians do not participate. On February 18th, 2005, United States Senators Joe Lieberman and John McCain called for Russia to be suspended from the G8 until democratic and political freedoms are ensured by Russian President Vladimir Putin. Order: 42nd President Vice President: Al Gore Term of office: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic William Jefferson Clinton (born... Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin  listen (Борис Николаевич Ельцин, b. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Seal of the Senate The Senate is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ... Office: Senior Senator, Arizona Political party: Republican Term of office: January, 1987 – Present Preceded by: Barry Goldwater Succeeded by: Incumbent (2011) Date of birth: August 29, 1936 Place of birth: U.S. Panama Canal Zone Marriage: Cindy McCain John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician. ... Term of office: December 31, 1999 – Preceded by: Boris Yeltsin Succeeded by: Date of birth: October 7, 1952 Place of birth: Leningrad, U.S.S.R. First Lady: Liudmila Putina Political party: None Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Владимир Владимирович Путин  pronunciation; born October 7, 1952) is a Russian politician and...


Structure and activities of the Group

The G-8 is not supported by a transnational administration, unlike institutions such as the United Nations or World Bank. The presidency of the Group rotates among the member states annually, with the new president assuming responsibility on 1 January. The country holding the presidency hosts a series of ministerial-level meetings leading up to a mid-year three-day summit with the heads of state, as well as ensures the safety of the participants. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means of financing states. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...


The ministerial meetings bring together ministers in topics such as health, law enforcement, and labor, to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. The best known of these is the G-7, which now refers specifically to the annual meeting of the financial ministers of the G-8 minus Russia, as well as officials from the European Community. However, there also is a briefer "G8+4" meeting for the finance ministers of the full G-8, as well as China, India, Brazil, and South Africa. The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Under the auspices of G-7 a special programme for the implementation of the Information Society was established in 1994.


In June 2005 the G8 agreed to launch an international database on paedophiles, expected to be set up by the end of the year. Other countries may join later.[1] (http://society.guardian.co.uk/children/story/0,,1509107,00.html) The G8 also agreed to pool data on terrorism, subject to the restrictions of the various countries' privacy and security laws. [2] (http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,1509218,00.html) Pedophilia (American English) or paedophilia / pædophilia (British English), from the Greek παιδοφιλια (paidophilia) < παις (pais) boy, child and φιλια (philia) friendship, (ICD-10 F65. ...


In June 2005 the national science academies of the G8 nations (including the US' National Academy of Sciences) - and Brazil, China and India, three of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the developing world, signed a statement on the global response to climate change. The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action [3] (http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/document.asp?latest=1&id=3222), and explicitly endorsed the IPCC consensus. G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2001. ... The term climate change is used to refer to changes in the Earths climate. ... The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP. Its...


Criticism of the Group

The annual summits often are the focus of anti-globalization movement protests, notably at the 27th G8 summit in Genoa in 2001. Critics often refer to the G-8 as an unofficial "world government". Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ... Protestors on the Streets The 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa, Italy, in July 2001. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova (jeno-vah), Genoese Zena (zaynah), French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of Liguria. ...


Past G-7/G-8 Summits

The location of the summit meetings rotate annually among member countries in the following order: France, United States of America, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, Russia (the order in which each nation joined the Group).

number date country place official website
1st 1975 November 15November 17 France Rambouillet
2nd 1976 June 27June 28 United States San Juan, Puerto Rico
3rd 1977 May 7May 8 United Kingdom London
4th 1978 July 16July 17 Germany Bonn
5th 1979 June 28June 29 Japan Tokyo
6th 1980 June 22June 23 Italy Venice
7th 1981 July 20July 21 Canada Montebello, Ottawa, Ontario
8th 1982 June 4June 6 France Versailles
9th 1983 May 28May 30 United States Williamsburg, Virginia
10th 1984 June 7June 9 United Kingdom London
11th 1985 May 2May 4 Germany Bonn
12th 1986 May 4May 6 Japan Tokyo
13th 1987 June 8June 10 Italy Venice
14th 1988 June 19June 21 Canada Toronto, Ontario
15th 1989 July 14July 16 France Paris
16th 1990 July 9July 11 United States Houston, Texas
17th 1991 July 15July 17 United Kingdom London
18th 1992 July 6July 8 Germany Munich, Bayern
19th 1993 July 7July 9 Japan Tokyo
20th 1994 July 8July 10 Italy Naples
21st 1995 June 15June 17 Canada Halifax, Nova Scotia
- 1996 April 19April 20 Russia Moscow
(Special summit on nuclear security)
22nd 1996 June 27June 29 France Lyon
23rd 1997 June 20June 22 United States Denver, Colorado
24th 1998 May 15May 17 United Kingdom Birmingham
(First G8 official Summit)
25th 1999 June 18June 20 Germany Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia
26th 2000 July 21July 23 Japan Okinawa
27th 2001 July 20July 22 Italy Genoa
28th 2002 June 26June 27 Canada Kananaskis, Alberta http://www.g8.gc.ca/
29th 2003 June 2June 3 France Évian-les-Bains http://www.g8.fr/
30th 2004 June 8June 10 United States Sea Island, Georgia http://g8usa.gov/
31st 2005 July 6July 8 United Kingdom Gleneagles Hotel, Perthshire, Scotland http://www.g-8.org.uk

1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... Rambouillet is a town and commune in the Yvelines département, lying about 50 km south-west of Paris. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... San Juan is the capital city of Puerto Rico. ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2004 est): 313,605 ; the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... Montebello is a village located in the La Petite Nation area of the Ottawa River region of Quebec, Canada. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Location. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Versailles, formerly the capital city of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... The Governors Palace in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Bonn is a city in Germany (Population (2004 est): 313,605 ; the 19th largest city in Germany), in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, located about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... }|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Official Flag]]|Coat Image=[[Image:{{{Coat Image}}}|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Coat of Arms]]}} {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Diversity Our Strength {{Canadian City/Location Image is:{{{Location Image Type}}}|[[Image:{{{Location Image}}}|thumbnail|250px|City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada Location. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Houston redirects here. ... State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) City Symbol: Kingfisher Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia, Canada Location. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (One defends and the other conquers) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Lieutenant Governor Myra A. Freeman Premier John Hamm (PC) Area 55,283 km² (12th)  - Land 53,338 km²  - Water 1,946 km² (3. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskvá) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... City motto: Avant, avant, Lion le melhor. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... This is the article on the state. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Cologne skyline at night. ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states, and contains about 22% of Germanys GDP. The capital is Düsseldorf. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Protestors on the Streets The 27th G8 summit took place in Genoa, Italy, in July 2001. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova (jeno-vah), Genoese Zena (zaynah), French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of Liguria. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... Kananaskis is situated about 80 km west of Calgary, Alberta in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th)  - Land 642,317 km²  - Water 19,531 km² (2. ... The 29th G8 summit took place in Évian-les-Bains, France, in June 2003. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2 June is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Évian-les-Bains or Évian is a commune of France, in the Haute-Savoie département. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Sea Island is an isolated resort island in Glynn County, Georgia. ... The 31st G8 summit is scheduled to be held from 6 to 8 July 2005 at the Gleneagles Hotel in Perthshire, Scotland, United Kingdom and hosted by Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... The Gleneagles Hotel is a luxury hotel in Perthshire, Scotland. ... Perthshire is an traditional county in central Scotland, which extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ...

Future G8 summits

number date country place official website
32nd 2006 Russia
33rd 2007 Germany
34th 2008 Japan
35th 2009 Italy
36th 2010 Canada
37th 2011 France
38th 2012 United States

2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 is a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar There will be a United States Presidential Election this year; it will be the election of the fourty-fourth president of the United States. ... 2009 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Noam Chomsky at World Social Forum 2003. ... The G20 (Group of 20, also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of developing nations established on 20 August 2003. ...

External links

  • University of Toronto - G8 Information Centre (http://www.g7.utoronto.ca)
  • Guardian Unlimited - Special Report: G8 (http://www.guardian.co.uk/g8/0,13365,967228,00.html)
  • BBC News - Profile: G8 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_profiles/3777557.stm)
  • 2005 Presidencies, Africa and Climate Change (http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page7442.asp) - United Kingdom government page

Earlier summit activism

Future summit activism


G8
Canada | France | Germany | Italy | Japan | Russia | UK | USA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Russell Group - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1080 words)
The Russell Group of universities is a self-selected group of large research-led British universities; 18 of its 19 members are in the top 20 in terms of research funding.
Unlike the Russell Group of universities, most of America's best universities are privately funded; as a result, these institutions do not have the same interest in forming a lobby group as UK universities, which are all state-funded, with the exception of the University of Buckingham.
The group is chaired by Professor Michael Sterling, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Birmingham.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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