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Encyclopedia > Grosvenor Square
The north side of Grosvenor Square in the 18th or early 19th century. The three houses at the far left form a unified group, but the others on this side are individually designed. Most later London squares would be more uniform.

Grosvenor Square (pronounced "Grove-nuh Square") is a large garden square in the exclusive Mayfair district of London. It is the centrepiece of the Mayfair property of the Dukes of Westminster, and takes its name from their surname, "Grosvenor". Image File history File links Grosvenor_Square. ... Image File history File links Grosvenor_Square. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Arms of the Dukes of Westminster (since 1825) The title of Duke of Westminster was created by Queen Victoria in 1874 and bestowed upon Richard Grosvenor, the 3rd Marquess of Westminster. ...


Sir Richard Grosvenor obtained a licence to develop Grosvenor Square and the surrounding streets in 1710, and development is believed to have commenced in around 1721. Grosvenor Square was one of the three or four most fashionable residential addresses in London from its construction until the Second World War, with numerous leading members of the aristocracy in residence. The early houses were generally of five or seven bays, with basement, three main stories and an attic. Some attempt was made to produce impressive groupings of houses, and Colen Campbell produced a design for a palatial east side to the square featuring thirty Corinthian columns but this was not carried out and in the end most of the houses were built to individual designs. There were mews behind all four sides. // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Palladian revival: Stourhead House, South facade, designed by Colen Campbell and completed in 1720. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Dunworth Mews, a street of mews houses in Notting Hill, London Mews is chiefly a British term referring to a certain type of stabling with living quarters. ...


Many of the houses were rebuilt later in the 18th century or during the 19th century, generally acquiring an extra storey when this happened. Number 26 was rebuilt in 1773-74 for the 11th Earl of Derby by Robert Adam, and is regarded as one of the architect's finest works and as a seminal example of how grandeur of effect and sophisticated planning might be achieved on a confined site. It was demolished and rebuilt again in the 1860s. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby (27 September 1689-22 February 1776), known as Sir Edward Stanley, 5th Baronet, from 1714 to 1736, was a British peer and politician. ... Robert Adam Robert Adam (3 July 1728 - 3 March 1792) was a Scottish architect, interior designer and furniture designer, born in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland. ...


The central garden, which was originally reserved for the use of the occupants of the houses as was standard in a London square, is now a public park managed by The Royal Parks. Nearly all of the houses were demolished during the 20th century and replaced with blocks of flats in a neo-Georgian style, hotels and embassies. Access to the western side of the square is severely restricted by the very obvious security measures around the U.S. Embassy. The Royal Parks is an organisation within the UK Government that manages the eight Royal Parks and certain other areas of garden and parkland in London. ...

Contents

American presence

The western side of Grosvenor Square is now occupied by the American Embassy, a large and architecturally significant modern design by Eero Saarinen, completed in 1960. It is, however, a controversial insertion into a mainly Georgian and neo-Georgian district of London. The American Embassy in London The Embassy of the United States of America to the United Kingdom is situated at the American Embassy London Chancery Building in Grosvenor Square, Westminster, London. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grosvenor Square has been the traditional home of the official American presence in London since President John Adams established the first American mission to the Court of St. James's in 1785. During the Second World War, Dwight D. Eisenhower established a military headquarters at 20 Grosvenor Square, and during this time the square was nicknamed "Eisenhower Platz". The United States Navy continues to use this same building as its headquarters for Europe and West Africa. John Adams, Jr. ... The Court of St Jamess is the popular name of the royal court of the United Kingdom. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... USN redirects here. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ...


A statue of Franklin D. Roosevelt, sculpted by Sir William Reid Dick, stands in the square, as does a later statue of Eisenhower, sculpted by Robert Lee Dean and unveiled on 23 January 1989. [1] FDR redirects here. ... Sir William Reid Dick (1879 - 1961) was a Scottish sculptor. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Ambassador's official residence, Winfield House, is a couple of miles away in Regent's Park. Winfield House is a mansion set in 12 acres (49,000 m²) of grounds in Regents Park, London, the largest private garden in central London after that of Buckingham Palace. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ...


Cultural references

In the Oscar Wilde play, The Importance of Being Earnest, the character Lady Bracknell makes mention Grosvenor Square, "The whole theory of modern education is radically unsound. Fortunately in England, at any rate, education produces no effect whatsoever. If it did it would prove a serious threat to the upper classes, and probably lead to acts of violence in Grosvenor Square." Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by Oscar Wilde, a comedy of manners in either three or four acts (depending on edition) inspired by W. S. Gilberts Engaged. ... The Importance of Being Earnest The Importance of Being Earnest is a play by Oscar Wilde, a comedy of manners in either three or four acts (depending on edition) inspired by W. S. Gilberts Engaged. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II...


The band Grateful Dead referenced Grosvenor Square in the opening line of their 1974 song Scarlet Begonias. Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco, California. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Scarlet Begonias is a song originally performed by the Grateful Dead. ...


In March 1968, Grosvenor Square in London became, for a few hours, a battleground as 80,000 protestors against the Vietnam war besieged the American Embassy. The Rolling Stones' Mick Jagger wrote "Street Fighting Man" after seeing the riot that ensued from an anti-Vietnam War rally in the square near the US Emabassy in 1968. The Rolling Stones are an English band whose blues, rhythm and blues and rock and roll-infused music became popular during the British Invasion in the early 1960s. ... Sir Michael Phillip Mick Jagger CBE (born July 26, 1943) is an English rock musician, actor, songwriter, record and film producer and businessman. ... Street Fighting Man, written by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, is a song by The Rolling Stones recorded in 1968. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


In the movie Pride and Prejudice IMDB (2005), Caroline Bingley, speaking snidely to Mr. Darcy, who stand aside watching the commoners dance, says, "We are a long way from Grosvenor Square, are we not, Mr. Darcy?"


The Bentley Boys

Grosvenor Square was the de facto headquarters of a group of famous men of the late 1920s: the infamous Bentley Boys. This group of young, wealthy, socialites and adventurers took their name from their preference for Bentley motor cars, both for regular transport and on race tracks around Europe. Between them, members of the group won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race on no fewer than five straight occasions between 1927 and 1931. Four of the Bentley Boys - Woolf Barnato, Tim Birkin, Glen Kidston and Bernard Rubin - took adjacent flats in the fasionable south-east corner of the square, where their day-long parties became something of social legend. So common was the sight of their large, green sports cars parked ad hoc outside their flats, that for many years London cab drivers referred to the spot as "Bentley Corner". 1929 Blower Bentley from the Ralph Lauren collection The Bentley Boys were a group of gentlemen racers who drove Bentley sports cars to victory in the 1920s. ... Bentleys winged B badge and hood ornament 1929 Blower Bentley from the Ralph Lauren collection. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... The 1927 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 5th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on June 18 and 19, 1927. ... The 1931 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 9th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on June 13 and 14, 1931. ... 1929 Blower Bentley. ... Tim Birkin — one of the Bentley Boys. ... George Pearson Glen Kidston (b. ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in London (for the area within the M25 motorway) or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the...


References

Sir John Newenham Summerson (1904-1992) was one of the leading British architectural historians of the 20th century. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 51°30′41″N, 0°09′05″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Convenient Marriage - Grosvenor Square (831 words)
Only a few decades earlier the Grosvenor's, later the Duke's of Westminster, had begun developing the property that had been the legacy of a judicious marriage with the heiress, Mary Davies.
Grosvenor Square was built on the site of what had been a riotous fair held there each May, and not surprisingly, known as the May Fair, thus giving its name to what was to become one of London's most exclusive suburbs.
The Grosvenors changed the methods of property development and made their fortune by reducing the length of leases.
Guardian | A peaceful march - except in Grosvenor Square (305 words)
Though three thousand chanting demonstrators surged into Grosvenor Square, London, yesterday, making repeated attempts to break the massive police cordon surrounding the United States Embassy, the major part of the student march protesting against the Vietnam war passed off peacefully.
In Grosvenor Square however, the breakaway element maintained constant assaults against the police cordon for four hours.
Last night, as the marchers retreated in front of the advancing police line, Grosvenor Square was a litter of lost shoes, broken glass, torn banners, and discarded clothing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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