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Encyclopedia > Groin vault
Gårdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden
Gårdslösa Church, Öland, Sweden

A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or cross vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round, as in the diagram to the right. Groin vaults also allow a great saving in material and labour over the barrel vault. The thrust is concentrated along the groins (the four diagonal edges formed along the points where the barrel vaults intersect), so the vault need only be abutted at its four corners. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 1597 KB) photographer:C.Michael Hogan date:summer, 2006 subject:interior of Gardlosa medieval church, oland sweden File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x2112, 1597 KB) photographer:C.Michael Hogan date:summer, 2006 subject:interior of Gardlosa medieval church, oland sweden File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ... Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... Isometric view of a typical arch An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight (e. ... Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newtons Second and Third Law. ... An Abutment is the end supports of a bridge superstructure. ...


This form of construction was known to the Romans, but propagated widely throughout Europe in the Middle Ages to many castles, cathedrals and other grand structures. The construction method was particularly common on the basement level, such as at Myres Castle in Scotland, or at the ground floor level for the storerooms as at Muchalls Castle in Scotland.[1] The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... European redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Caernarfon Castle, Wales. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ... this is total shite. ... Myres Castle is a Scottish castle situated in Fife near the village of Auchtermuchty (grid reference NO241109). ... Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... Muchalls Castle, Kincardineshire Muchalls Castle stands overlooking the North Sea in the countryside of historic Kincardineshire, Scotland. ...

Contents

History

Groin vault ambulatory at the Palladio Palazzo della Ragione
Enlarge
Groin vault ambulatory at the Palladio Palazzo della Ragione

While the barrel vault was more common than the groin vault in very early architecture, including Roman and even earlier civilisations, the Romans developed the groin vault widely for applications in a variety of structures, some with significant span widths. However, it was not until the Middle Ages, when the aspirations of church building reached its zenith, that the groin vault was pursued aggressively for its ability to create strength, without massive buttress formations; in addition, it provided the church architects a remedy for the dim illumination inherent in the barrel vault design, since the barrel vault had to minimise fenestration to retain adequate strength. 20th-century structural engineers have studied the static stress forces of the groin vault design and validated the Romans' foresight in an efficient design to accomplish the multiple goals of: minimum materials use, wide span of construction, ability to achieve lateral illumination and avoidance of lateral stresses. The Palazzo della Ragione is a town hall building in Vicenza, Italy. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... The Romans adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for their own purposes, which were so different from Greek buildings as to create a new architectural style. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... A buttress (and mostly concealed, a flying buttress) supporting walls at the Palace of Westminster Four different types of buttress: diagonal, on the statues plinth; an ordinary buttress supporting a flying buttress, to the right of the statue; a small ordinary buttress to the right side of the picture... Lighting refers to either artificial light sources such as lamps or to natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ... A window is an opening in an otherwise solid and opaque surface through which light and, sometimes, air can pass. ... It has been suggested that Structural engineer be merged into this article or section. ...


A seminal modern design is the largest European train station, Hauptbahnhof in Berlin, which features an entrance building with a glass spanned groin vault design.[2] European redirects here. ... Berlin Hauptbahnhof Berlin Ostbahnhof was named Berlin Hauptbahnhof from 1987 to 1998. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Comparison with other vault designs

A quadripartite gothic vault, like a simple groin vault, can be thought of as the intersection of two barrel vaults.
A quadripartite gothic vault, like a simple groin vault, can be thought of as the intersection of two barrel vaults.

The construction of a groin vault can be understood most simply by visualising two barrel vault sections at right angles merging to form a squarish unit. The resulting four ribs convey the stress loading to the four corners, or piers.[3] The more complex groin vault is intrinsically a stronger design compared to the barrel vault, since the barrel vault structure must rest on long walls creating less stable lateral stress, whereas the groin vault design can direct stresses almost purely vertically on the piers.[4] A common association of vaulting in cathedrals of the Middle Ages involves a nave of barrel vault design with transepts of groined vaulting.[5] The fan vault is similar to the groin vault in theory, but has a much more elaborate splaying of multiple ribs emanating from each springer, either decoratively or structurally. from w:sv:Bild:Fyrdelat_kryssribbvalv. ... from w:sv:Bild:Fyrdelat_kryssribbvalv. ... Barrel vault In architecture, a barrel vault is an extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Fan vaulting over the nave at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ...


Examples

The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between 212 and 216 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. ... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Charlemagnes chapel in Aachen. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46 N, 6°6 E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ... Facade of Santa Maria Maggiore di Firenze Santa Maria Maggiore di Firenze is a church in Florence, Italy. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ... The Old Cathedral of Coimbra (Portuguese: Sé Velha de Coimbra) is the most important Romanesque building in Portugal. ... Coimbras Municipality University of Coimbra Categories: Cities and towns of Portugal | Cities in Portugal | Portugal ... Muchalls Castle, Kincardineshire Muchalls Castle stands overlooking the North Sea in the countryside of historic Kincardineshire, Scotland. ... Motto: (Eng: No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by... The Palace of the Facets (Грановитая Палата) is part of what is now known as the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 - October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Kremlin (Russian: Кремль IPA: ) is the Russian word for fortress, citadel, or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... A postcard dated 12 July 1907 showing the New Orleans Mint during its last few years of operation as a branch mint facility. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA (acronym for New Orleans, LA) Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City 350. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

References

  1. ^ C.Michael Hogan, History of Muchalls Castle, Lumina Press, Aberdeen (2005)
  2. ^ Hans Schober, Berlin's recently completed Hauptbahnhof, Civil Engineering Magazine, August, 2006
  3. ^ Architectural comparison of various types of arch design
  4. ^ Robert A. Scott, The Gothic Enterprise: A Guide to Understanding the Medieval Cathedral University of california Press (2003)
  5. ^ Discussion of the Romanesque Conques, St. Faith Cathedral
  6. ^ Leland M. Roth, Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning, Westview Press, Boulder, CO ISBN 0-06-430158-3 (1993)
  7. ^ Guido Zucconi, Florence: An Architectural Guide, published by Arsenale Editrice, San Giovanni Lupatoto, Verona, Italy, November, 2001

The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ...

See also

A tower house stands on a hillock near Quin along the back road from Limerick to Ennis. ... In architecture, a vault is an arched structure of masonry, forming a ceiling or canopy. ...

External links

  • Classical beauty and vaults
  • Roman Architecture: Discussion of arches and vaults

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vault - LoveToKnow 1911 (3339 words)
In the case of vaults built under the level of the ground, the latter gave all that was required, but, when raised aloft, various expedients had to be employed, such as great thickness of walls in the case of barrel or continuous vaults, and cross walls or buttresses when intersecting vaults were employed.
The widest hall vaulted by the Romans was that of the throne room in the palace of Diocletian on the Palatine Hill, and this had the enormous span of zoo ft., its thrust being counteracted by other halls on either side with buttresses outside.
This vault, not built until 164.0, is an exceptional example of the long continuance of traditional workmanship, probably in Oxford transmitted in consequence of the late vaulting of the entrance gateways to the colleges.
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